The Impact Of Demographic Trends In The European Economics Essay

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Migration is "the movement of people from one place to another. There are two main types of migration: first, internal migration, i.e. migration within one country, and secondly international migration, which means the movement from one country to another" [1] . However, this movement sometimes can be influenced by the society that forces people to move from one place to another without their consent. In the other hand, the movement of people is not necessarily forced, sometimes people migrate in order to get better living conditions.

A migrant is any person who decides to leave their country to settle in another; migrants can be listed like short term workers, professional migrants, illegal ones, refugees and asylum seekers by citizens. Some migrants just for being foreign people are usually "labor exploitation" and also can violate their fundamental rights.

Migrate is not only move from one place to another, it is also adopt a new culture, history, language and identity that each society should had implemented. Although some citizens tend to reject and discriminate migrants, but they are who drive the cities development. This reject happens for different reasons like religious segregation, where state's religion is more important than other ones.

Other rejections are visual where citizens sometimes notes migrants like a weirdo because of their way to dress or even their way to express. In labor terms, migrants are usually used for satin work that nobody wants to do; but without their work an important part of both economic and even social lifestyle of some nations would be interrupted.

According to inexmundi.com, Europe migration rate has changed from 1.23 in 2008 to 1.46 in 2009, which indicates that migration rates has been increased in an significant way; however, this increase represents crisis for the European Union, because it increase unemployment and a workforce clear decrease inside the country, because in one hand migrants are cheap labors and in the other hand they have the highest professionalism level which means that their will occupy the best charges in a company.

Based on the last source, the demographic growth rate in Europe grew 0.098%, a lower percentage that means migrants who get in and get out of the country and also deaths over birth.

Demographic growth is higher in developing countries lack in education, health, measures for birth control, employment, housing, dress and economy in general. According to rolandocordera.org.mx: "en los países industrializados la población crece a una tasa inferior del 1% anual mientras que en los países en desarrollo, la población crece al 1,9% en promedio".

Vegetative growth is an important issue for a country and in this case a continent, because shows the real growth. This date is the difference between death's number and birth's number of demography. This index helps global community and organizations in charge of the relevance information, make an analysis situation of hemispheres according to its natural growth.

For social resources that affect the society, previously mentioned, the population of the developed countries lack of economic resources, therefore, a few of the society have access to education, quality health services, a good steady job, good conditions of life predominated good home and a stable economic status, therefore this low-income population and few opportunities are more prone to illness that can be considered a weapon of mass destruction.

In the twentieth century observed a decrease in population in many countries. There was a "population explosion" that threatens the global community, because shot fertility rates and mortality rates fell sharply. This is not the only problem Held in developing countries to reduce the population, also the migration to the European Union. It is an important factor for reducing them. 

The European population decline, there has been for various reasons, including low fertility, limited migration and increased longevity, as a result, the population is reduced and aged faster. This creates a shortage in manpower. Some nations need immigrants to repopulate the industries that believe society and create jobs, to work with the replacement level and help a little to the economy. The birth did not stop, there was a decreased growth, by events such as the 2 world wars, Korea and Vietnam wars and countless conflicts in Africa, Indonesia, China and Russia. 

In some European countries, aging is a common agent of the population, because in today's society there is a prevalence of so-called baby boom generation, which occurred between in 1946 and 1964 and consisted of an increase in fertility after World War II, this generation was in charge of stocking and create jobs on the continent after this period. 

The European Union needs young people to meet places to stop people who belong to the generation of "Baby Boom" near retirement so the working population will decrease.

There was a steady economic growth and social development, making it possible to increase the birth rate, the opposite happened in the 80's to today. That has reduced the number of young people. 

The aging of the population of the European Union is the result of 4 demographic trends according to the commission of European communities. The first is that the number of children per woman decreased, the second is the decline in fertility in recent decades because of the exploitation of the post-war population, the third is the increase in life expectancy, by various factors such as an increase in job opportunities, health, education, welfare, food, therefore the government has more options to invest in society.And the latest trend is the opportunity to migrate to other places. 

This latest trend is of great importance to the demographic changes that the EU has been showing since migrants are needed in Europe while not (Macaroni, 2010), ie, are needed to promote employment and industry development country and yet not, because countries like Spain that have high unemployment rates can hardly cover jobs for citizens. In addition, migration is an important component in Europe and the United States has no barriers between the countries belonging. 

In speaking of this phase of territorial barriers, we must bear in mind that there Schengen visa, where only a single visa, which could be issued at any embassy, ​​an individual can access the Schengen states, which are almost all the continent Europe unless the United Kingdom, Ireland, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Romania and the former Yugoslavia. With this visa can cross borders within these states entered without passing checkpoints, giving the bearer of the visa, the possibility of free movement, and may also have the option of keeping a lot of time determined by the embassy where will file for my visa, that allows the user to access a number of countries, without the need for control by governments. 

But while even so controlled, since in many cases for people who are not required to provide a European travel itinerary, while the inland natives can travel without having to prove your travel itinerary, but that can be installed in any country without any inconvenience, which may allow the migration processes in Europe are more constant and permanent. 

This type of visa allows transculturalization of nations, allowing the mixture of customs and cultures, which in some circumstances tend to improve the way of thinking of the citizens of each country, towards people of other nations, and therefore both can improve the overall image of the country. 

The visas within the European Union and in general on the European continent, allow the steady migration of people that often go in search of better living conditions and end up working in jobs ceilings, which in many European societies are fundamental for the proper functioning of the economy and society in general, many of these jobs are not used by the indigenous people of the country, because they seem to work degrading, but these works are simple, well-paid. So in cities like London, the vast majority of service jobs are done by migrants because they are a good way to help financially to keep the pace of city life. These low-level jobs are in many countries economic base, as they are daily tasks that are important to the everyday life of society, such as cleaning, cooking, sharing information on the street, public transport bikes, which are jobs that locals do not want but need to make migrants. 

Therefore it is of great importance to migration within the European Union, as young people; prefer to migrate outside the continent, while foreign migrants seeking entry into Europe. You young people between 12 and 20 years are accustomed to a lifestyle they become lazy and conformist. 

These momentous changes in demographic trends in the EU should focus on reducing inequality of opportunities available to citizens with and without children, evidently having children in Europe is a privilege for the government, as these new generations are who will replace the active population will age and therefore soon be retiring and therefore decrease the employed population. 

On the other hand, those with children will provide support services for care and education and managing the working time of parents so they can grow with them, be aware and improve training. However, for those without children the social, economic and cultural rights should be improved to increase the chance of having children. 

What to do then the states of the EU is to prevent population decline and react to the falling birth through mainly social programs that enable the improvement of these conditions. 

BIBLIOGRAFÌA

(s.f.). Obtenido de http://www.ghs-mh.de/migration/projects/define/define.htm

d'Entremont, A. (s.f.). Fluvium. Obtenido de http://www.fluvium.org/textos/cultura/cul340.htm

European Union. (12 de 10 de 2006). Obtenido de http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2006:0571:FIN:ES:PDF

Index Mundi. (s.f.). Obtenido de http://www.indexmundi.com/european_union/net_migration_rate.html

Index Mundi. (s.f.). Obtenido de http://www.indexmundi.com/european_union/population_growth_rate.html

International Organization for Migration. (s.f.). Obtenido de www.iom.int

Macarron, A. (02 de 12 de 2010). La otra crisis: tendencias demograficas en Europa. (http://www.hazteoir.org, Entrevistador) www.youtube.com/watch?v=asqOOfCt98A. Madrid.

Rolandocordera. (s.f.). Obtenido de http://www.rolandocordera.org.mx/esta_inter/demogra.htm

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