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At first, we should all ask ourselves the question what really is poverty? In fact, the world's poverty problem has always existed. Existed since the dawn of the rich and the poor. Despite the fact that the Earth is only one, it's not hard to see that is divided into two worlds that have little in common, because almost completely different. Looking at the English-speaking countries of Europe and North America is hard to believe that Africa and the countries bordering the Pacific coast is still the same planet. Poor African countries, until recently described as third world countries. Now, however, considered that the term is demeaning, and today we have the developed countries and developing countries.
Poverty can be defi tuting in many ways, there is no single definition of the word, but rather a state. In basic terms, poverty is a situation in which material resources held by a person or household is lower than the minimum accepted in society, or if those measures are not sufficient to meet basic needs (Panek, 2004, p. 146).
There is tangible recognition of poverty, which measure its scope based on the amount of income people or households, and multi-dimensional approach, to which the alternative measures of poverty. Some of these measures are based on the subjective views of people and may lead to erroneous conclusions about reality.
Measures of material poverty based mostly on data about the amount of income (or expenditure) of persons or households. Based on this information is determined percentage of the poor (the extent of poverty), whose income or expenses are lower than a set limit, ie. Ubóstwa1 line. Others suggest the use of multidimensional defi nition of poverty, the poverty that they like "inability to perform any kind of elections which are essential for the development of individuals, enabling the exercise of a long, healthy and active life, the use of a decent standard of living, freedom, self-esteem, enjoy respect among other members of society "(Panek, 2004, s.147). The above defi nition attempts to capture the effects of material poverty. Her problem, however, is that it refers to the ambiguous, vague notions, and often unmeasured phenomena that can be understood in many ways. Consequently, there is no universally accepted measure of poverty, and those that are used in some studies are sometimes questionable cognitive and ultimately lead to making wrong conclusions.
To assess the extent of material poverty measure is used absolute and relative (relative). Absolute measures of poverty tell us about what part of the population lives on less than a certain amount of income, which reflects the cost of meeting basic human needs. Measure of the relative is in fact rather a measure of income diversification.
Absolute measurement is determined by the fixed, fixed value of the income or expenditure (the so-called poverty line), which are required to purchase a specific basket of goods and services satisfying basic needs. In international comparative studies of the value of the basket of goods and services is usually expressed in units of currency contract (shot PPS - purchasing power standard), which takes into account differences in purchasing power between countries, or in real currency (usually dollars or euros), also taking into account these differences (shot PPP - purchasing power parity). PPS reflects differences in national price levels that are not captured by the odds
exchange. Thanks to the value expressed in this artificial currency basket corresponds to the specific goods and services. Alternatively, instead of recognition of the PPS, you can use the currency of choice (such as the U.S. dollar or the euro), but in determining the poverty line need to take into account differences in purchasing power of the currencies in different countries. As a result, the recognition of PPP allows you to compare the level of income that allows you to purchase a specific basket of goods and services (reflecting the same opportunities to consumer).
In addition to absolute measures of poverty, quite often, especially in the case studies on the European Union, is used relative measures of poverty. They are most often measure reflecting the percentage of people whose income is 60 percent. (Possibly 50 percent. Or 40 percent.) Median income (see Glossary) in the country. In fact, these measures reflect the level dochodów4 disparities in society, and not the proportion of people not meeting their basic consumption needs. It should be a clear distinction between relative and absolute measures of poverty. Using relative measures of poverty to international comparative analysis can be confusing and lead to the formulation of erroneous conclusions. Relatively easy to identify because wysokorozwiniÄ™ty country where 60 per cent. average income will mark an objectively high level of consumption that goes far beyond the term "meeting basic needs."
The main factor determining the extent of poverty in individual countries is the level of GDP per capita. The greater the wealth, the smaller range of absolute poverty (Figure 3). The basic prerequisite for improving national prosperity is the high rate of economic growth. The faster the economy grows, the faster it grows as the level of income and thereby reduces the proportion of people living in poverty. The basic formula for the alleviation of poverty should therefore be to create conditions for rapid and sustainable growth. The higher economic growth, the faster it raises the level of income in the country, enjoyed by everyone, both rich and poor (cf. RzoÅ„ca, 2007).
conducive to poverty reduction, regardless of the region Å›wiata22 (Besley and Burgess, 2003, Dollar and Kraay, 2000; Ravallion, 2001). If all countries were able to keep up the pace of economic growth at 3.8 percent. Annually, it is within the next 25 years the range of absolute poverty in the world would decrease by half (Besley and Burgess, 2003).
Living in urban and economically developed continent, we often do not even realize that just around the Mediterranean, there is no ordinary life according to the scheme - wake up, breakfast, office, back, lunch, rest, dinner, sleep. There, for the life of the struggle. Same statistics are alarming:
- About 1.3 billion people worldwide live on less than $ 1 a day, half the world's population (about 3 billion) live on less than two dollars a day, 1.3 billion people lack access to clean water, 2 billion is not access to electricity.
- Gross Domestic Product 48 poorest countries in the world (almost ¼ of the world population) is less than the combined assets of three wealthiest men in the world.
- Less than one percent of what seems to be a year to buy enough weapons so that every child could go to school (whereas nearly one billion people worldwide can not read or write).
- Among industrialized countries, the richest country on Earth has the greatest differentiation between rich and poor.
- 20% of the population living in economically developed countries consume 86% of global wealth.
- Share in exports 20% of the population of the richest countries is 82% and their share in foreign direct investment is 68% (while 20% of the poorest countries is only 1% of the share of those investments).
- In 1960, the income of the richest 20% of the world was a 30-fold greater than 20% of the poorest countries in 1997, that difference had increased to 77 times. Counting from the beginning of the nineteenth century, the gap between the richest and poorest countries is widening, as was 3:1 in 1820, in 1913, 11:1, 35:1 in 1950, in 1973 44:1, 72:1 in 1992.
- Developing countries are currently paying $ 13 of debt for every dollar of aid they receive.
- Several hundred billionaires have the same wealth as the poorest 2.5 billion people worldwide. Total income of the 200 richest people in the world was equal to about 1 trillion dollars, while the total income of 582 million people living in 43 least-developed countries amounted to 146 billion.
- 48% of the poorest countries, has a 0.4% share of world exports.
- Approximately 790 million people in developing countries is constantly undernourished, almost two-thirds of them live in Asia and the Pacific.
To poverty in many parts of the world is affected by many factors. These are mainly adverse climatic conditions, where there is no chance for the cultivation of plants. Without the crop has no trade, no trade in money. Large population growth is also not the best solution. It is difficult to realize, however, Africans, among them the large family model is very popular. Lack of imagination causes of hunger innocent children are dying. The others are at least malnourished.
Because of poverty in the world there is a lot of other problems, such as the increase in crime. It is known that when everyone has their own, it does not need to steal. With poverty and the desire to possess, reflections arise from the gangs, mafias, and various other groups. State organizations can not cut it, because crime is increasing at an alarming rate. This means that in some circles from an early age are taught only how to cheat, steal and murder. And then the world's terrorism flourishes.
In the face of increasing poverty, their toll collect numerous diseases and epidemics. Relatively "light" (like influenza) diseases kill because there is no money for drugs, lack of competent physicians, medical access points is very limited, or non-existent.
The world's 40 million people suffer from AIDS. From this 26 million live in Africa. Is infected every fifth resident of Zambia. He lives there for over 650 000 orphans whose parents died of HIV. The main reason for the spread of the disease are polygamy, prostitution and the levirate, whereby a widow marries her deceased husband's brother or other close relative. Infection have nothing to do with homosexuality, because this problem does not exist among the African tribes, or on drugs, because it's hard to imagine buying drugs worth about $ 250 a month for the population of the country, where 80% of the population lives on less than one dollar a day . It is also extremely dangerous malaria, and paradoxically, interest in it very small. When humanity desperately seeks a cure for AIDS, which attacks everywhere, it is a local (compared to the global reach of HIV), malaria is a problem of unrecognized or ignored. Similarly, the problem is with regard to leprosy. This disease never occurs alone, so if we have to deal with it, in the form of entire villages. Isolated people, locked in a defined area are slowly dying. And coming from outside do not help, because everyone is worried about their own health and life.
The name of this part of the world, where death from hunger is on the agenda, where armed bandits guarding farmland landowners before the hungry, not having land of farmers, is extremely relevant. Third World - a world of slums, suffering, ignorance and poverty.
You can shrug their shoulders and say to yourself that the problems of Third World problems internally disunited distant countries in Africa, Asia, South America and Latin America, does not affect us personally. But this is not true. The third world is closer than it might seem. Lawful or more illegal immigrants, homeless and unemployed, low salaries and staff - is also well-known reality in Europe and America. In the United States - the most developed country in the world, about 9% of the population lives on the social level, known from the Third World.
The third world is everywhere, except that, to varying degrees in different countries is shown.
How to properly take issues like Third World hunger, poverty, high unemployment, lack of land for cultivation, illiteracy, overwork, high infant mortality, a semi-legitimate crime, illiteracy, lack of potable water, slums, etc.?
It would seem that these problems are so complex that finding a specific cause is not possible. But some can trace the mechanism of functioning of the economy and society in Third World countries, in such a way that will be highlighted inconvenient for the residents the better part of the world the truth. In fact, because the Third World is a side effect of progress of white civilization the world's population ...
Most of the countries belonging to the Third World, are former colonies of European countries. The vast majority of Africa, Asia, South and Central America was still the mid-twentieth century under the rule of the British, French, Dutch, Portuguese, etc. The colonies formed when the unknown or poorly known areas expeditions travelers arriving from Europe. In their wake appeared the army, which after the suppression of resistance, armed with bows and spears of the natives, undertook the annexation of the occupied territories, namely the inclusion of the estate land home country.
Most colonies in the nineteenth century, had Great Britain (among others. Such a huge country like India). The reason for taking new territories was the desire to exploit mineral wealth, which was cheaper than the old continent (because of cheap labor, easier access, greater quantities of raw materials), and international prestige. Indigenous people was determined by the new masters, as savages and became slaves without any rights. These actions were justified by the historical necessity, and the mission, which is to meet the white civilization to the wild men. Europeans went on the assumption that standing above the natives must civilize the wild areas of the world, of course, according to a schedule set by the scientific and technical progress. By the way can be too rich.
After some time as a result of bloody wars, or pokojowych processes wyzwalaÅ‚y colonial countries and the ads its independence. Back in the 70s Angola fought with France - former hegemon for independence.
New member uzyskiwaÅ‚y postcolonial independence, sovereignty, territory, national government, etc. However, the yoke of colonialism has survived and gave itself felt in unexpected ways.
Young countries have struggled with many problems. On the one hand there was a strong technological leap. Before the advent of the colonizers is not known to have been cars, airplanes, electricity, machinery, etc. All this was, however, societies of these countries were not prepared to accept a new, distinct from the traditional tribal way of life. First of all revolutions have led to the emergence of elites, which have concentrated in their hands most of the land and the means of production. Democratic processes like the European or American (such as division of the land, enfranchisement, etc.) were not known, or were unwanted by the oligarchic elite, drawing a huge advantage of the new status quo. All this paved the way to internal conflicts, totalitarian or authoritarian forms of government, and everything is now known in the so-called. Third World.
A characteristic feature of Third World countries is the economic and political oligarchy, even while maintaining some semblance of democracy. This means that in a country ruled by a small group of rich owners (landlords) who, through his influence the political succession to ensure that even if no formal exercise of power.
The major part of the agricultural population is deprived of land to cultivate, or has her very little. These disparities are very clear - in South America, only 17% of landowners have as many as 90% of arable land in Asia, 20% of landowners owns 80% of the arable land. The other in Latin America 33% of the farming population growing only 1% of fields in Africa, 75% of the population has access to 4% of land in 22 Third World countries more than 30% of the active agricultural population has no access to arable land, thereby increasing legions of poverty.
The situation is aggravated by the fact that landowners cultivate the land in a very modest, dictated by economics and the current food prices in the world, using the abstract criterion of profitability of agricultural production. For poor farmers, leasing small plots or agricultural laborers working for the landowners, the issue of cultivation and food production is not market the game, but a matter of life and death. Unequal access to resources, arable land is thus one of the reasons for the disastrous social situation in the Third World.
International politics and the related global capitalism often creates opportunities for the emergence of disparities. Third World countries generally produce a lot of food for export to Europe and America. The reason is simple - in the Third World pays to produce (cheap labor, large areas, etc.), but not profitable to sell because the sale had to be done at low domestic prices. So it is better to sell cheap food more expensive in the west, rather than feed her hungry. The international community has dealt with images of hunger and poverty, generously sent food aid to Africa. Often, the same ships sail products produced by the sweat of their brows are earmarked for the poor are "scraps" of Europe and America.
The problem is that this significantly enhances the production of only several percent elite. And there are other aspects of international relations.
In Ethiopia in the 80s as a result of the drought disaster swept through the country a huge hunger for collecting toll in the form of 300 000 lives. But just at that time Ethiopia bought arms from the Soviet Union for the amount of $ 2 million, not to mention 22% of the country's budget devoted to maintenance of the army. United States supplied the weapons while in neighboring Somalia, which Ethiopia led war.
All these facts show that the problems of Third World countries are mainly caused by the specific mentality of the ruling elites, inherent in the colonial-type approach: "You - a slave." We must also say that governments of developed countries is also able to draw for themselves the appropriate benefit from such a state, such as economics, economic and military dependence.
Despite these adverse facts, has tried to change the situation some Third World countries. One of these trials was the agrarian reform land deal involving the landowners or landless peasants maÅ‚orolnym. World Bank study showed the possibility of increasing food production with a more equitable land distribution.
In the 80's, the governments of many Third World countries have decided to enfranchisement of the peasants, which undoubtedly was a big step forward in restoring normalcy. Land reform in some countries has met with fierce resistance of the landlords. In Brazil, private landowners formed consisting of criminals armies to defend their fields, de facto, largely fallow. In El Salvador, civil war broke out between requesting a right to the land hungry peasants and landlords. However, Zimbabwe was able to divide the land between the 60% of the landless. In a short time achieved a surplus of maize, despite the ongoing drought in 10 years (!). Similarly, in Nicaragua, despite the fact that the U.S. government had done its efforts towards the restoration of post-colonial order, which led to the outbreak of violent unrest.
At the same time in many countries comes into a society that is organized in unions or associations and often harassed by landlords. In Mexico in 1976, a group of the poor have long afflicted the land promised to them by the government. While, at first I did not even have simple tools, in 10 years they reached the field more efficient than the neighboring fields of the landlords. In the early eighties, Senegal, farm workers organized demonstrations to demand higher prices for peanuts, the agricultural base article. Their solidarity action meant that the government raised prices by 50%.
In India there is a Working Women's Forum, an organization of 36 thousand. members, mostly poor and uneducated. Forum was able to run their own credit system, which has custody over. Women, mostly minor producer of food or cloth, to guarantee the loans from national banks. (Debt ratio exceeds 90%.) Achieved success allowed them to establish their own cooperative bank and meeting their basic needs such as learning a profession, the pension system and health care.
You also can not ignore the fact that since the fifties over 40% of the population of underdeveloped countries own efforts freed from famine.
Effective prevention of problems of the Third World, is associated with eliminating the path of reform and public education colonial practices, sustained not only by the oligarchic elites in Third World countries, but also the capitalist tycoons interested in cheap labor and cheap waste disposal sites in their own (in many countries, arable land were converted into disposal of toxic waste from the factories of western corporations).
Reducing unemployment and increasing employment reduces the extent of poverty.
On one hand, the governments of Third World countries must understand that to effectively fight poverty and hunger, must go down the road of peaceful social change and education. On the other hand, the international community must understand that the countries of Africa, Asia and South and Central America are not only cheap grazing land for cattle intended for human consumption in Europe and North America.
With many countries coming to Africa and Asia humanitarian aid. The International Red Cross and Red Crescent send convoys to the poorest countries of cleaning products, food, clothes. But it is still not enough. The Catholic Church in the Black Continent sends its missionaries, who not only converted to the faith, but also contribute to the local people in everyday life.
We happen to have no knowledge that somewhere in the world are the same people as we struggle with this life. Poverty is not notes, not paying attention to begging, or do not want to be her note. And really, what our eyes can not see, is a great tragedy for others. In fact, they do not realize just how rich and happy we are.