Economical Environment Of Philippine Economics Essay

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The Philippines is an island nation located in the Malay Archipelago in Southeast Asia. It has 7107 islands. And has a total area of 300000 square kilometers.

At the north side of Philippine the Taiwan is located. At the east side the Pacific Ocean, Indonesia and Malaysia at the south and South China Sea at the west.

The capital city of Philippines is manila which is located in the island of Luzon at the northern part. The total population of Philippines is 98 million. The climate of Philippines is tropical.

The culture of Philippines is influenced by Spanish and Chinese. Most of the people having also Spanish surnames. It has generally west European culture, people of Philippines are Christian. Islam is more popular in island of Mindanao.

The Philippines has developing economy with agricultural and service sector base. The poverty line is 40% it means 40% of the population remain be poor. The large trading partners' of the Philippines are the US and Japan.

Philippines is a presidential unitary republic with the president at the apex, as the head of state, the head of government and the commander in chief of the armed forces. He is elected by popular vote, every 6 years. Government policies are design to promote industrial development.


Economic environment of business has reference for economic systems to operate the business. The business sectors also continue economic relations with govt, capital market, worldwide and households sector. It would affect the trends and formation of the economy. The outer factors that influence with the following points.

Economic Conditions :-

The economic circumstances are safe in the country. Per capita income, national income, allocation of income and assets, Economic resources, economic growth etc are also affected to prepared the business strategies. Economic growth and business cycle are easily defined the economic environment.

System :-

The economic system also impact on business endeavor. Economic system of a Philippines also considered socialist, capitalists, mixed or communist.

Economic Policies :-

The government also decided budgets, economic planning, economic industrial regulation, law of business. Industrial guidelines to control on price and wages, trade and transportation polices the size of national income, demand and supply of different merchandise.

Economic Growth :-

The economic growth impacts the strategies of business. It helps in rising the economic growth and expenses in consumption. It provides opportunities to the industries for the expansion.

v. Currency Exchange :-

Current exchanges have direct impact on the environment of business. The rupee was devalued in1991. The Indian products cheaper in the world market and boost exports of India.


2.1 GDP of Philippines :

The GDP growth rate provides an aggregated measure of changes in value of goods and services produced by an economy.

The GDP growth rate of Country from 1998 to 2012 is average 1.08%. The domestic economy accelerated in the second quarter of 2012 to 5.9% from 3.6%. The earlier year boosting the first semester growth to 6.1% from 4.2%.  The resilient Services sector remained the main driver of growth supported by the sustained growth of manufacturing and the return of construction.

Philippines is a recently industrialized country in the Southeastern Asia. The most important industries of Philippines are food processing, textiles and garments, automobile parts and electronics. Philippines have also treasury of chromites, nickel, copper, coal and newly discovered oil.

Philippines GDP Growth Rate

This chart is all about the past data for Philippines growth rate.


2.2 Per Capital Growth in Philippines :

In 2011, it was at 1.98% in Country and it was published by World Bank report in 2012. The Growth rate of GDP per capital depends on continuous local currency. The GDP Divided by Mid Year Population.

The GDP of Purchasing Price is total of all resident products in economy (+) product taxes & (-) any subsidies which is not included in value of the product. This is calculated without making deduction for depreciation of fictional assets. It includes a chronological chart, news and estimate for GDP. In Southeastern area of Philippines is newly industrialized country. Philippines Predicting food processing Textiles and Garment, Electronic and automobile parts and also significant reserve of Chromate, Nickel, Copper, Coal and Recently Discovered Oil.


2.3 PPP Philippines :

Philippine has long familiarity with public-private partnership, initiatives and serves as future investment with aggressive PPP promotion. The Government is to attract private partners to invest only in traditional infrastructure Projects like Power, Transportation and Water Sectors and in Non-Traditional Infrastructure similar to information and communications technology, health and property development.

The Partnership addressed in 1990s and it help out to improve road network quality, transport linkages and social Services.


2.4 International Reserve :

County's beginning gross global reserve is significantly increased up to US $79.3 Billion in July.BSP Governor Amando Letangco said that foreign reserve were US $3.2 Billion higher than GIR of US $76.1 Billion,

The Level of GIR Increased in end of July, Due to Foreign exchange operations. The funds of the Country are deposited in foreign currency. The Philippines acquire income from investment in a foreign country of the BSP and gain revolution on BSP gold holdings arising from increase in price of Gold in global Market.

The Import of goods and payment of services and income adequately cover in 11.7 months and also corresponding 10.7 times. Philippine's short term outer debt based on original maturity.


2.5 Labor Force :

Unemployment at 7%. Labor force numbered at 61.9 million in 2011. Of this number, 2.8 million were unemployed registering an unemployment rate of 7.0%. furthermore, the service sector's share of total employment increased from 51.8% in 2010 to 52.1%. Agriculture accounted for 33.0% of the employed while industry's share 14.9%. The economy managed to make more than 1 million jobs in 2011. The value of employment is still a concern given the substantial boost in the underemployment rate as well in the number of unpaid family workers. Latest showed that the underemployed numbered at 7.2 million.

2.6 Inflation :

Inflation averaged 3.6 % in Sep 2012, well within the 3.0 to 5.0% inflation target for 2011 but higher than the 3.8% typical recorded in 2010. A rise in the prices of food had been record mainly due to the bad result of typhoons on agricultural food supplies. Core inflation, on the other hand, averaged 3.6%

The government is mainly optimistic on having higher investments in 2012. Investment pledges registered with Philippine Economic Zone Authority surge by 47% in the first two months. The PSEi's breaching of the 5,000 mark for the first in March.

Similarly, private construction, mainly in the property subsector, is anticipated to remain healthy given the upward force in office demand and investments in low-cost accommodation. Demand for commercial will continue to be buoyed by the BPO sector, the revenues of which are slated to grow even further this year by 20%. The housing sector is also expected to receive constant support by the hearty demand from families of Filipinos. Consumer spending will similarly be sustained by the favorable inflation outlook and the continuous inflow.

2.7 Unemployment Rate :

Unemployment means the number of people actively looking for a job divided by the labor force. Unemployment depends on the number of non-employed people who found the job and the people who lost their current job. Unemployment related to labor force, participation rate and employment rate.

The unemployment rate of Philippines is 7.2 % which we can show that in the graph.


Population : 95.9 Million

GDP (PPP) : $351.4Billion

: 6.1% growth in 2012

: 5.5% 5-year compound annual growth

: $4,700 per capita

Unemployment : 7.3%

Inflation : 3.60%

FDI Inflow : $1.7 billion for 1st Half Quarter

1 Peso : 1.3134 Rupee and 0.0243 Dollar

The Philippines rank is 19th out of 41 countries in the Asia Pacific region. And 44th the biggest economy on the earth. According to HSBC estimates. The stock market is one of the best performers in the region. The peso reached a 4 year high against the dollar about the same time.

Economy has been on a solid path of economic expansion. The govt. has pursued a series of governmental reforms to increase the industrial environment and build up private sector for reduce unemployment. But regulatory efficiency has been not improved. And over last 5 year the economy has been develop at average annual rate of 5%.

Rule of Law :

The rule of law is not on level and authorized structure is poor in independence and efficiency. The judiciary is independent but there is political interference. There is some progress due to government anti corruption efforts to eliminate corruption and fix efficiently.

Taxes :

Government spending Spurs on 6.4% growth in 1st Quarter.



Tax Rate

More Then

Less Then






P500 + 10%



P2,500 + 15%



P8,500 + 20%



P22,500 + 25%



P50,000 + 30%

Corporate tax rate is 30% and Regional are taxed at 10% on taxable income. The VAT an environmental tax with overall tax is 12.8% of total domestic income. If any taxpayer fail to pay VAT component in the sales invoice or official receipts shall be penalized as :

Fine of not less then P1,000 but not more than P50,000 and

Suffer custody of not less than 2 but not more than 10 years.

Regulatory Efficiency :

The business authoritarian environment has improved significantly. Although introducing a business still takes more than the world averages of seven events and 30 days, the overall procedure has become less costly. The time & cost concerned in dealing with licensing necessities have been particularly reduced. The labor market remains structurally inflexible, but existing regulations are not particularly burdensome.

Open Market :

The trade weighted average tax rate is 4.8% & layers of non-tariff barriers further reduce more dynamic gains in trade. Despite a strong desire to attract longer-term foreign investment, systemic inadequacy exacerbated by heavy bureaucracy discourages dynamic Growth in investment. The financial sector is gradually modernizing, remains relatively stable and sound.



4.1 Monetary Policy :

The international Monetary Fund will look into the country's progress on the monetary and fiscal policy and assess the 2 year old Aquino administration by short staff visit which is commence. The most accurate forecasters agree on that Monetary authorities are trying to curb foreign investment in the Peso arguing that Asia's best performing currency has strengthened too much.

The economic momentum has built up from easing of monetary policy may boost the country is growth in2012 is 5.8% and up to 7 % is 2013. And the govt.'s success in containing the budget deficit has been given monetary authorities considered latitude. In 2011 the govt. incurred a budget deficit of 197.8 billion which was less than two third of 2010.

The size of economy in overspending in 2011 comprised only 2% less than 3.5% recorded in2010.The debt stock of 2011 settled at P4.95% trillion or 50.9% of gross domestic.

[http://business inquirer-net/49369/bsp-monetary-policy-expected-to-push-up-ph-economy]

4.2 Fiscal Policy :

The Philippines' long term foreign currency credit rating raised from BB to BB+.It kept rating outlook at stable.

According to Presidential spokesman Ricky Carandang the Philippines can still afford to undertake public spending without put in to danger its overall financial position. And the govt. doesn't want a strong peso to hinder competitiveness of exports. The Philippines economy grew by 6.4% in 1st quarter, it is one of the highest in Asia and upgrade is a vote of confidence for the country.

According to finance secretary Cesar V Purisima, that this gives more confidence to continue with the work towards macroeconomic stability, fiscal sustainability and inclusive economic growth.

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4.3 Deficit Policy :

The Financial Secretary Cesar Purisima said that the govt. spent P19.90 billion and the deficit was manageable, expressing, confidence the full year fund shortfall would staying within 2.6% of GDP or P279 billion.

The govt. continued rise in revenue collections so that the fiscal position remains under control. So this wide fiscal space will gives the advantage to finance infrastructure projects and social programs that curb poverty and promote equality.

Jan-May deficit = P22.79 billion. The govt.'s self imposed 1st half ceiling of P109.34 billion and it spent P668.43 billion in 1st five month of year up 13.1% compared to last year. And revenues reached P645.64 billion.

For May revenue grew 9.4% to 131.4 billion while spending reached P151.3 billion. Purisima said that the govt. is committed to reach its 5.6% growth in 2012 and recorded 6.4% expansion in 1st three month.

The Philippines suffered a P 197.8 billion budget deficit last year which is equivalent to 2% of GDP.


4.4 Foreign Trade Policy :

According to the Global Enabling Trade Report 2012, the rank of Philippines is 72nd out of 132 countries. It measured the factors, policies, services, areas of market access, border administration transport and communication infrastructure and business environment.

In the area of market access the Philippines jumped 14 from 64 and in terms of efficiency of import-export procedure it look 48 spot from 55. And access to imported inputs at competitive prices identifying potential market and buyers corruption at the border and other concerns it places 62 out of 132 countries.

The trade chief attributed the country's improvement in ranking to the depth of Trade and Industry's effort to facilitate trade across borders like the Doing business in Free Trade Areas an awareness campaign has aimed to help stakeholders into understand new markets and instruments like free trade agreement.

It reforms to improve the ease of doing business in country through the Philippines. Business Registry (PBR) and Business permits and license streamlining (BPLS) programs for local govt.


4.5 Balance of Payment :

The inflow of foreign currency exceeded than the outflow in Feb and Philippines balance of payments hitting a surplus of $588 million.

BOP is recorded of the country's commercial transaction with the rest of world. It helps beef up the country's total reserves of foreign exchange or gross international reserves (GIR).It stands at a record high of $78 billion.

According to economist the unfavorable global economy that investors have tendency to pull out funds from emerging markets like Philippines. So it create depreciation pressures on local currencies. But with enough reserves of foreign exchange the Bangko Sentral ng philipines can buy pesos and reduce its depreciation and it will hit a surplus of at last $2.8 billion by end of 2011.

Due to increase in employment in US an economist said that it would lead to increase in demand for imported goods from Philippines.



5.1 Import :

Philippines import were worth 5101 million USD in June of 2002 until 2012,Philippines averaged imports 4155.20 million USD reaching an all time high of 5848.00 million USD in July of 2008 and low record of 2226.00 million USD in January of2002. Philippines imports mostly considered electronic products, mineral fuel, industrial machinery and equipment, transport equipment, lubricants, steel and iron. Mostly import partners are Japan, china, Singapore, South Korea, United States. Here we include the chart with historical data for Philippines import.

Philippines Imports


Export :

Philippines exports were worth 4314 million USD in June of 2012. From 2002 until 2012, average export of Philippines 3681.10 million USD reaching an all time high of 5325.00 million USD in September of 2010 and record low of 2506.00 million USD in February of 2009. Major exporter of electronic products like processors, chips, and hard drives (more than 50% of total exports revenue) and other major exports include apparel and clothing accessories, wood crafts, coconut oil and furniture. Philippines major export partners are United States, Singapore, Japan, Hong Kong, china.

Philippines Exports


5.2 Corporate Income Tax :

The domestic and foreign resident corporation's income tax rate in Philippines is 30%, based on net taxable income. Domestic company payable company tax on all income derived from sources outside and within the Philippines. Foreign corporations, whether resident or non-resident are taxable on income derived from sources within the Philippines.

Non resident foreign corporations are ,in certain circumstances, subject to a final withholding tax on passive (investment) incomes at rates higher than the applicable tax rates applying to domestic and foreign resident corporations. Resident companies are created or organized under the law of Philippines or foreign companies licensed to engage in business or trade in the Philippines.

The corporate income tax rate for domestic and foreign resident corporations is 30%, income tax excluded from are dividend received from domestic corporations, interest on Philippines currency bank deposits and other monetary benefit from deposits substitutes and trust funds and arrangements and final taxes, interest income derived from the foreign currency deposits is include final tax of 7.5% ,other interest earned by domestic and foreign resident corporations is included 20% final withholding tax.

Special economic tones enterprises registered with economic tone authority are taxed at the rate of 5% on gross income in lieu of national and local taxes and real property tax. Gross sales or gross revenue derived from the business activity within the Ecozens, sales returns, net of sales discount and allowances less the cost of sales or direct costs but before deduction made for expenses of administrative and losses during the taxable period.



2005-36.59 2006-33.66 2007-33.99 2008-33.99

2009-33.99 2010-33.99 2011-32.44 2012-32.44

The corporate tax rate is 32.445% .Domestic companies tax rate is 30%, profits from life insurance business in India are taxed at the rat of 12.5%.foreign companies are taxed at the rate of 40%. A minimum alternate tax (MAT) is levied at 18.5% of adjusted profit of companies. The tax payable is less than 18.5% of book profits. Dividend distributed from domestic company. Surcharge and education cess is above taxes is applicable.5% surcharge in case of foreign companies is applicable. The total income is in excess of INR 10 million. Education cess of 3% is applicable on income tax plus surcharge wealth tax is imposed at a rate of 1% on the value of specified assets held by the tax payer in excess of basic exemption of INR13million.transaction tax of securities transactions in equity shares and units of equity oriented funds.



The Philippines had a steady flow of positive economic news recently. The highest rating for the country since 2003 and equivalent to that of Indonesia.

The Philippines is the 44th biggest economy in the world, according to HSBC. But if current trends hold, it can leap to the No. 16 spot by 2050. The Philippine stock market, best performers in the area, closed at record high after the S.& P. rating, & the country's currency, peso, reached at four-year high against the dollar.

With $70 billion in reserves and lower interest payments on its debt after recent credit rating upgrades, the Philippines pledged $1 billion to the International Monetary Fund to help shore up the struggling economies of Europe.

The gross domestic product of the Philippines grew 6.4 percent in the first quarter, according to the country's central bank, outperforming all other growth rates in the region except China's. Economists expect similarly strong growth in the second quarter.

"We have made a very bold forecast for the Philippines, but I think justifiably so," said Frederic Neumann, a senior economist at HSBC in Hong Kong.

A high population increase rate, long measured a barrier to prosperity, is now often seen as a driving force for economic growth. 61% of the population in Philippines is of working age, between 15 to 64. That figure is expected to still rising, which is not case for many of its Asian neighbors, whose populations are high.

6.1 Trade & Economy :

The GDP per capita growth (annual %) in Philippines was last reported at 1.98 in 2011, according to a World Bank report published in 2012. Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. GDP per capita is gross domestic product divided by midyear population. GDP at purchaser's prices is the sum of gross value added by all resident producers in the economy plus any product taxes and minus any subsidies not included in the value of the products. It is calculated without making deductions for depreciation of fabricated assets or for depletion and degradation of natural resources. This page includes a historical data chart, news and forecast for GDP per capita growth (annual %) in Philippines. Philippines is a recently developed country in the South-eastern Asia. The nation's most important industries are food processing, textiles and garments, electronics and automobile parts. Philippines also have major reserves of chromite, nickel, copper, coal and recently exposed oil. In addition, the Philippians economy relies on remittances as a source of foreign currency.

philippines gdp per capita growth annual percent wb data

6.2 Domestic Price :

The Philippine domestic economy shrink to 3.7% in 2011, then after a stellar growth of 7.6% in 2010. Growth was undermined by the severe state under spending as well as the weak external environment. For 2012 is relatively confident with the government hinging its optimism on healthy consumer demand and a more energetic public spending. but, downside risks to growth persevere with the international revival balanced to remain slow and uncertain.

2011 economy moderate at 3.7%. The Philippine home economy grew by 3.7% in 2011, almost half of its 7.6% growth in 2010. The growth is latest forecasts of the National Economic and Development Authority (3.6% to 4.0%) and the International Monetary Fund (3.7%). The growth shape is good below that assumed by the Development Budget Coordination Committee (4.5% to 5.5%), For Asian Development Bank (4.7%), and for World Bank (4.2%), & is significantly off the growth target of the Philippine Development Plan at (7.0%). Notable is the country's poor economic show relative to its neighbors. Except for Thailand, most Asian economies registered higher gross domestic product growth rates than the Philippines in 2011.

Gross national income similarly slumped to 2.6% from 8.2% in 2010. This resulted from the significant contraction of net primary income which slowed to a negative 0.9%, a rotate from the 10.0% expansion in 2010

6.3 Private Sector Development :

The stimulus package presented by Gloria Macapagal Arroyo is known as the economic resiliency plan. The package included personal income-tax relief for low- and middle-income earners, reduction in corporate income tax, higher social spending on cash transfers and job-creation schemes, as well as a series of infrastructure projects. Although the reforms were not entirely new, the package led the Philippines to being acknowledged as Asia's more socially responsible stimulus plans thanks to its' focus on agriculture and social services that directly benefit the poor population. The fall in agricultural commodity prices helped support personal disposable income. As a result personal household budgets were minimally effected. The social component in their reforms may be credited with the largest impact due to the focus on poverty.

The Philippines must sustain the reform movement in order to spur investments, increase growth, generate higher employment, and alleviate poverty for the fast growing population. Their reforms have already generated 34 consecutive growth quarters, created 8 million jobs, and maintained the lowest inflation in a generation. Most importantly poverty has decreased while revenue increased and has allowed the nation to invest in human and physical infrastructure. With sustained reform and their economic resiliency the Philippines may soon be a prime investment opportunity in uncertain world economic and financial conditions.