Data and Information Management

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The collection of data's from many number of sources and distributing them to a certain level of people who are in need, in a secured and authenticate manner is generally known as the Information Management. In here we are going to discuss about the entity relationship inside an organisation, how the entity and attributes are related to one another, the queries that will arise during the creation of database and how to overcome it, and the comparisons of server based and PC based file sharing.

Entity Relationship Model:

Entity Relationship is the systematic or conceptual presentation of data, of how the database can be made in a chain relationship. The chain relationship of each and every data in a database is as entity-relationship diagram or ER diagram of certain data.

Here we are going to discuss about the entity relationship inside an organisation with their staffs, departments, projects running in the organisation. The below presented diagram is the entity relationship diagram of the organisation.

ER Diagram:

(Figure showing the Entity Relationship in an Organisation)

Description of each entity in terms of its attributes:

The organisation consists of the following entity:

  • Staff
  • Project
  • Department
  • Project Report
  • Head of Department
  • Senior Manager


  • A Staff is an entity in an organisation, which consists of the following attributes:
  • Staff ID used for the identification of a person since many persons have same or similar names, it is generally given in alphanumeric.
  • Staff Name is the name of the person listed on his certificates produced to the organisation.
  • Department ID is given to a staff in which department he is working in.
  • Sex generally describes the gender of the staff.
  • Salary describes the wages or the earnings of a person in monthly or annual term.
  • Date of birth given by a staff for the identification of age.
  • Address refers to the term time living house of the staff.
  • Postcode refers to the area in which the staff is living in.


Project refers to the work going in an organisation, there may be many projects running in an organisation. Here are the lists of attributes used in the project.

  • Project ID is given to a specific project in an organisation to identify it.
  • Project Name is the name assigned to the project by the administration
  • Department ID is given for the purpose of identifying the department in which the project is running
  • Project Manager is a staff in the organisation who leads the project
  • Start date is the date at which the project had been started
  • Due date is the date before which we have to complete and submit the project
  • Submission Date is the date on which we had to submit the project to the client.


The entity department refers to the fields in an organisation; here are the attributes of the department

  • Department ID used to identify a department in the organisation
  • Department Name refers the field name of the department, such as finance, IT, etc.,
  • Head of department is the managing head of the specific department and has the power to authorise the projects running in his department

Project Report:

The general report submitted by the project manager to his higher officers is the project report; here are attributes of the project report:

  • Project ID is given in a project report to identify the project
  • Staff ID is given to identify the staffs working in the project
  • Title refer to the project name of a project
  • Description refers to the explanation of the project of how, why, where, and many more about the project
  • Assigned to the member of the staff who can lead the project to successful ending with a group of staffs.
  • % Complete is given to identify the requirements needed to move fast in completion of the project by calculating the time length.
  • Status on which the project is completed or pending to complete.
  • Priority refers to the calculation of all projects in the organisation of which has to be completed soon

Head of the Department:

Here we had assigned the head of the department as an entity since the head of the department is a staff in an organisation but he has some roles in moving with the attributes; here is the list of attributes he is undergoing.

  • Staff ID where the group of staffs working in his department is under the control of the head of the department
  • Project ID gives the list of projects under the control of the head of the department
  • Department ID in which the staff is leading to organise
  • Project report arrives to the head of the department where he has to analyse the status of what is going on in the project

Senior Manager:

The senior manager will act as the overall organiser who is leading all the department in an organisation where we assume him to be an entity with the list of attributes below

  • Staff ID gives the details of the staff working in the organisation
  • Project ID gives the details of the project running in the organisation
  • Department ID gives the list of departments in the organisation
  • Head of department gives the details of the each department of what is going on
  • Project report gives the status of the projects running in the organisations.

Description of each relationship present in the diagram:

Each entity present in an organisation has relationship to each other. But the major relationship type used in an organisational database is one-many type, here we are going to discuss about the relationship held according to each attributes.

Staff ID: staff id is an one-many relationship type since single information is given to many, where the staff id is required by the following tables

  • Project Report table
  • Head of department table
  • Senior manager table

Project ID: Project id is a one-many relationship type since single information is given to many, where the project id is required by the following tables

  • Project Report table
  • Head of department table
  • Senior manager table

Department ID: Department id details also required by the following tables

  • Staff table
  • Project table
  • Head of department table
  • Senior manager table

Queries/Reports in an Organisation:

The group of questions that arise during the presentation of the database and its entity relationship are referred as the queries/report in an organisation. A query is the request for the retrieval, creation, modification, or deletion of data in a database {1}

When a database is asked for a basic question and getting unwanted information returned by the database management system is the database query in it. There are many types of queries arise during the use of a database, some of them are discussed below.

Types of Queries:

  2. Stored Procedures
  3. User Defined functions
  4. Parameter Queries
  5. Action Queries


Storage: the general type of presenting the database, for such reason using a subset of data helpful for the database users. Must restrict the database table to the users, and authenticate key for modification to the database administrators.

Sorting Results: Allowing the users to sort their views according to their needs.

Query Plan Generation: allow the user to create their own query for the modification of the database and their uses such as creating their own base table.

Result of Modification: as per the Query Plan Generation, the user can be able to delete, Renames, recreates, and modifies the base table, where the main table is protected and authentic.

Stored Procedures:

Stored procedures are the main management in a database; it is generally a collection of data's or statements, complied together with flow-control, it allows the user to declare variables, selected executions, and other needful program action. It contains all types of logic, set of query for the use of database, and program flow.

User Defined Functions:

Users can create and use their own functions, such as they can view the database, retrieving their used data's, saving specific data for future use. User defined functions are generally the combined procedures of the Views and Store procedure by the user. This is defined by three types

In-line: User is authorized to edit the values inside the table that the user can access, that is updateable data to his fields.

Table: access to create and modify a table by adding new rows or column.

Scalar: can be accessed to use integer, decimals, and variable characters inside the user modification area

Parameter Queries:

User can use multiple actions at a same time inside the process, where the user can specific details of the data of different fields, using such parameters in an organisation will help to find out the projects running between the following time length, such as giving the start date and end date. Generally parameter comes under two ways named and unnamed.

Named parameter: named parameter is used to identify specific details of a data by giving the appropriate key entry to the data.

Unnamed parameter: unnamed parameter is used to identify the full details of the data by giving symbols to identify in the key search field.

Action Queries:

User must have some specific type of action query that should be helpful for their views, such as

  • Append Value used to add values to selected columns or rows
  • Append is used to copy or move one row or column to another table
  • Update is used to make changes for the modification of the data's.
  • Delete is used to remove the unwanted data or past events in the table.
  • Make table is used to create a new table to a new list of data available.

Comparisons of Databases:

Generally there are two types of databases in the field of data management. Since some wanted their database for personal use and some wanted for a larger group. For which we have server based database and desktop based database.

Server Based Database:

Server based database is used by a large group, where they can share their data from any point in the network. It has the ability to manage a large number of data's which can be accessed and modified according to the level of data's and information's. There are many sever based databases in the field of database management system, but most of the common databases are Oracle, IBM DB2 and Microsoft SQL. There are many benefits using the sever based databases, some of them are listed below [2]

  • Flexibility. It can handle any type of data management problems, which is a application program interfaces (APIs) which provides a fast development of database.
  • High Performance. It has the ability to utilise the problems creating by the hardware platform, process under high speed processors, negative tolerant storage area.
  • Scalability. Any number of users from any location can use it in a faster way.


Standard Query Language in short called as SQL, which is use to access and manipulate the data's and information's in the form of a database. [3]

SQL has the ability to execute any type of queries in a database, it is used to create, modify and update any type of databases [4].  SQL is used as many forms inside the databases such as query controller, data manipulator, transaction controller, data splitter, data controller, string and variable controller. SQL has sub-divisions according to its language elements such as

  • clauses
  • expressions
  • predicates
  • queries
  • statement
  • Insignificant whitespace

PC based Database:

PC/Desktop based databases are inexpensive, which provides the solution for less storage data and used for a single user purpose or a small group. Some of the major desktop based databases are FoxPro, FileMaker Pro, Paradox, Lotus approach and Microsoft Access. This PC based databases have a fewer benefits which is listed below [5]

  • Inexpensive: These databases are generally cheaper in cost
  • User friendly: Easy to use and navigate through the graphical user interface
  • Web based solution: Enable to publish data in dynamic or static means on the web.

MS Access:

Microsoft Access is developed for the purpose of relational data's in the database management system. MS Access is the combination of jet database engine with GUI and the program development tools. MS Access consists of a large number of macros enabling the user to create and edit a database in a user friendly way. It slows down it speed of accessing when connected to a small network uses. [6]

MS Access has the following facilities to move up with the database [7]

  • Easy Navigation
  • Quick actions
  • Imports data's from other database
  • Filter and sort data
  • Works with multivolume fields
  • Interactive report design mode editing

Tables of Comparisons:

MS Access


Forms and reports can be produced

Forms and reports are not available

Query process is followed

View and stored procedure is followed

Macro and modules are present

Stored procedure are present

Unicode characters are not allowed

Unicode characters are allowed

Standard in structure of a table

Standard with Microsoft repository


Determination of Best Database for this Organisation:

According to the above vie w for the best database using for an organisation wisely is the SQL database since MS access cannot work faster in a network based system and here in the organisation we have many user had to go through the use of the database so as per the above I finally determine the SQL database as the best database for an Organisation.


Databases are playing a major role in the field of data and information management system, where it has the collection of data and information, and should be modified, updated and shown upon the call request given by the users. According to the levels and uses of data the databases are varying, since server based databases are widely used around the world. Since the information's has no end the database will grow upon the increase in the data's its obtaining to lead this modern world.