Use Of Discrimination In Workplaces Cultural Studies Essay

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Owing to these laws that equal rights of human are improved through many punishmentsfor individuals, groups or organizations that do not respect differences. Also thanks to them that people do not treat bad or harm each other, especially in the work environment. But nothing is absolute, discrimination still exist in social. A lot of organizations do not understand how to manage diversity. They have weak mismanagement of diversity. Thus they would be suffered from problems of conflict in the workplace or suffer the litigation that is not good for the company, causing damage to property and brand name of company.

Example: if you are child of president or among of top managers, you will have good location in the company and receive a lot of benefits without you have the ability of work or not. Or in some companies, salary of women often less than salary of man because the manager think man works effective than woman.

Stereotypes and preconceptions in workplace:

Stereotype is a natural function of the human mind, it is standards of person who was set to identify a outside nature of person or any a group through images. When applied to people, stereotypes refer to forming immediately or fixed image of a group of people, usually based on restriction or incomplete information. Stereotypes often lead to results is to form preconceptions, negative comments about others. Stereotypes and preconceptions are the reason of failure in communication, moreover lead to action or bad feeling. Preconceptions based on limited images, negative stereotypes can result in bad consequences such as discrimination or violence.

People usually have a habit of stereotypes in characteristics:

Age: all the teenagers should focus on their studying, not love rock or hip hop

Sex: woman has faithful to husband, must not have another relationship with another person but the man not.

Race: Chinese people are the same

Religion: All of Muslims are terrorists

Profession: all of lawyers are greedy or Doctor is good

Country: All Somali people are poor

Places: Everyone live in Africa that is poor.

Objects: white people are smart and beutiful, black people are furious and not amicable.

There are four main features in stereotypes: simpler than real, they are formed from the cultural intermediary rather than personal experience, they are usually wrong by its nature, they are often very difficult to change if it was ­formed from childhood, clinging to the perception and human behavior.

Because any society has different orientation, it is limited and it owns its benefits. Therefore nobody can not comment any personal according to their attitude and viewpoint that he or she is bad or good and vice versa. It is often suggested personal that individuals run follo­w by their own merits and isolated group, so people always censure that person who has promoted collectivism unconsciously. In my opinion, I think in cultures follow individualistic, organizations are tools. They are set and designed to serve individuals, groups, staffs, employees and customers. Members of the organization established in this relationship that is abstract, follow by the law and stipulated of contract. Organization is a means and foundation in order to each member of organization performs their desires. They cooperate together because their own interests that are threatened. Each member of organization represents a particular special function and received an award from the outside for that. The ability is proceeding from the capacity of personals on order to complete their tasks, and knowledge of personals are used to help their organization work effectively. Meanwhile, the culture in group or organization is not tool for sharing that was created by the founders. The organization is often compared with a family, community, it develop and bring up members who can exist long term. The development and prosperity of the organization are not considered good luck for the individual shareholders or the ­way to make money illegally for directors, which is the valuable purpose. However, this aspect is not entirely accurate, because sometimes there have cases will need to have acumen and harmony, it will not a rigid stereotype. And the example of Japan will show this aspect in the example part.

Discuss on examples

Case in America

One case occurred at a university in the U.S. in 2009, now it has not resolved because the discrimination problem

In New York, a professor has just been fired ­who claimed that he was discriminated because of his Hungarian origin. He is male and not gay, but his boss just like colleagues " gay", and he lost his job because he complained about it That professor is Marosan Csaba (53 years old), who graduated from Budapest medical university, currently lives in Williamsville, New York (USA), taught at Trocaire medicine college which ­is a small private school locate in Buffal, founded by o The Sisters of Mercy. His denunciation of the two dignitaries, Robert Mock and Thomas Mitchell has sought to discipline and forced him to resign. The human rights investigators found the evidence to support accusations from Marosan, that he was really fired because he submitted a complaint of discrimination. Documents of the investigation team wrote that the evidence shows unprecedented problems in behavior as well as the quality of the complainants, until after he brought the complaint. Even the evidence also shows that people can promote Marosan with current qualities. April 2009 Marosan has filed the first complaint to the New York State Department of Human Rights (Human Rights Division), argue that managers ­as critical Hungarian voice and his hungarian customary behavior. They proved to like other young workers, less capacity than, but also treated him with less favorable than female teachers. By December 2009 he was expelled, and last April he has complaints agian, this time adding "discrimination based on gender trends." He report, there are two male employees under groups of Robert Mock and Thomas Mitchell has been promoted to director of the scientific field, although they have less experienced, less qualified than anyone in department.

In fact, it would be very difficult to predict how the results ­would. But this isn't the first instance of reported discrimination against heterosexuals. Fox News reports a recent Google policy that allegedly pays homosexual employees with domestic partners more to make up for the taxes they are required to pay on their health insurance.

United States is a country with cultural multi-ethnic, multi-cultural. But hide after that multiculturalism curtain still exist discrimination, racism. It can be public or hidden subtly and discreetly that no fewer immigrants living in America understand it.

Whatever case of Marosan has been reflecting on the existence of discrimination in situation of American business about gender, race, age, etc which are­ factors that social and the law are condemning. In terms of Trocaire College is Trocaire dealing ­with damage of its brand name, if the problem went worse, the risk of this school to be closed by other teachers will quit because of working in an environment of discrimination. Morover, students will not register on this school. A good teaching group is a valuable asset of a school, providing quality, brand name for the school. Thus Trocaire School should have a change in behavior, especially in the management of diversity, respect for differences.


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Case in Europe

Recently in Europe, there are two suicides shock at Disneyland Paris. France opened an investigation after two­­ suicides of employees at this park that related to w­eak working conditions of Disney. In early April 2010 a chef of Disneyland hanged at his home near Paris, at the time he expected to return to work after a period of sick leave. This man is not only a unique chef of Disneyland suicide. At Febuary 21, there is a 30 years old chef also suicides at the park in which related to working conditions. Also in late 2009 Disneyland was sued with because of discrimination in the recruitment process. Accordingly, Disneyland only hired recruit who have white skin with the reason that talmost tourists come here also have white skin. Candidates applied for jobs might w­rite in recruitment form of Disneyland Paris which including detail part of nationality, skin color, place of birth. Even extremely recruiting section extremely 'allergy' with profiles came from the Indian Ocean and the Caribbean because of dark skin color. This scandal is completely true because the criteria of the Disney Paris mostly serve for the Europeans, white race, and only little tourists are other skin color from Asia, Africa. Thus Disney Paris had basis for explain their action that aimed to serve to visitors. But they violated completely racial discrimination laws in Europe while European has been vehemently eliminating stigma through Acts, especially in France. DisneyParis knew­­ that because it has business experience in Europe nearly 20 years. Mean while there was a big scandal of ­Adecco in 2005 about Discrimination. Increasingly Disney is less famous, it affect the business situation in France and instability in personnel management. Recalling the historical development of the Disney Paris we will partially understand the understanding of its ­weak diversity management. Founded in 1992 originally called Euro-Disneyland, located in Paris the capital of France because France is a potential market with high welfare policies and there­ was over 17 million people living around Paris with less than 20 minutes driving, which is added to the large volume of potential customers in EuropeBut the lack of understanding of European culture created barriers for Disney executives to succeed. Due to differences in habits between Americans and Europeans, most of the Disney executives are American and workers are mostly French, after that recruiting more staff across Europe. However there al­ways has disagreement and discomfort of staff due to different habits of European and American. Approximately 1,000 employees who come from countries in Europe (accounting for 10% of total) had gone away within the first nine weeks­. They said that training here as "brainwashing" and Americans did not know any thing about Europe. As the result more than $ 2 billion, data was reported in late 1994. Besides that the process of entering to European market was also fail completely because of lack of cultural understanding. The implementation of Euro Disney went completely the wrong direction with the actual needs of the Europeans. After two first years of failure, in 1995 Euro Disney might realize mistake and starting to change its organization, first of all renaming of Euro Disney to Disney Paris. Moreover, in the first time Disney Paris had the seeds of race discrimination, most black people were just doing a poor job and the team of actors ­as almost not there. How Disneyland in Anaheim, California, and Tokyo organized as well, Disney Paris did much less. The reason might be because of stereotypes in the application of business forms. Disney had applied what has been successful in the U.S., Japan to the European market, but not mentioned much about cultural differences. I think Disnyland is a type of entertaining bussiness that existed on cultural diversity. Its main asset is not the machinery or anything that is good will. To get good service for all the visitors, it needs to have a staff really good as actors, chefs, service staffs and both security guards. To achieve this, the first elements of Disney need to respect of differences. In order to limit the conflict and discord on staffs and litigations bring legal factors affect brand name.

Case in Japan

Another example comes from Asia, but no mention of discrimination anymore, issues around the harmony between individualism and collectivism, in other words, this example will illustrate the concept of stereotypes and preconceptions.

The story told about Jean Safari, an inspector is investigating a serious mistake by an employee working at the Japanese subsidiary of a multinational company in the U.S. A division was installed wrong and both series have to dismantle reinstall the system. Cost pay for this mistake is very high. But when Jean asked the plant manager here about information of people who caused the incident and the penalty for that person, but the manager confirmed that he did not know anything. He told Jean that all working groups will be responsible, they did not talk to him about women employee might be responsible and he did not also asked them about that. Even supervisor also does not know and if he knew he would not tell the director. Jean said that if all of workers had been responsible. In fact, noone wanted, they are simply protecting mistake of others blindly. After that the manager has negative comments what she said politely but firmly, "I understand that employee was very sad, she would have tried to resign. The group also knows she must take responsibility and she felt ashamed. That group also knew that she was a new staff, moreover she is Korean and they were not helping her or considered that she has been trained properly or not. That is the reason why the group might apologize. I have their letter here. They are willing to say appology you openly." Jean really did not want that, she did not need apology, what she really wanted ­that these mistakes would not happen anymore. Jean wondered if she should be investigated for the culprit or not? If that employee should be punished or not? And she's been founding out a way to change perspectives of the staff here, could be related to culture.

In this example, the group would never reveal who has caused mistakes. The perpetrator of mistake will escape punishment. That depends on the group support or oppose in high quality and high productivity. If the group support the objectives of directors and thus the community associated ­together, peple make mistakes will be ashamed. She would rather resign than face colleagues. But the crux of the problem is that members of the group should helpe her learn about what they know. And above all, directors should have the acumen to manage thier working groups, creating a tendency of working group correspond to the company's environment.

The case of this company has had integration of individualism and collectivism. But it ­went to bad tendency while the group did not share between individuals and did not give clear targets that need personal responsibility leaded to success. Untill mistakes occur, hold of the group was only responsible and apologized while individual make mistakes felt ashamed w­ith the group and tried to resign. Both director and supervisor even did not know anything about the internal situation othe offending team, exactly they did not also want to know. All of these things were based off wrongful stereotypes.


Barriers of Communication are inevitable in the workplace. These barriers­ alter the normal flow of information. The factors make distort the process of communication is called "Interference." Interference can occur at any time, any stage in the communication process. Managers should be aware of the importance of understanding the communication process at work, outlines the good direction, the strategy correspond to context of a company legally, avoid cases of discrimination, stereotype and preconceptions.