Urban Population In Thailand Cultural Studies Essay

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Population in Thailand augmented to 69.51 Million in December of 2011 from 69.12 Million in December of 2010. This figure is stated by the World Bank.

From 1960 until 2011, Thailand Population averaged 50.80 Million reaching an all time high of 69.51 Million in December of 2011.

Population was a record low of 27.64 Million in December of 1960. The population of Thailand represents 1.01 percent of the world´s total population which arguably means that one person in every 99 people on the planet is a resident of Thailand.

In Thailand there are 32,967,826 male out of the total population. And in India there are 617,039,156 male. So, India has very huge manpower as compare to Thailand.

Median age of Thailand people is 34.2 years and median age of Indian people is 26.2 years. These statistics suggest that Thailand is lack of young people as compare to India. And in Thailand median age of male and female are 33.3 years and 35.2 years respectively.

Urban population in Thailand is 34% and in India is 30%. These figures state that Thailand people prefer to stay in urban areas.

Sex ratio is one of the important part of any country. In Thailand sex ratio is 0.98 male/female. It means that there are 98 males for 100 females. And in India sex ratio is 1.08 male/female. It states that there are 108 males for 100 females.

Expected life of Thailand population is 73.83 years. Males live for probably 71.45 Years and female live for 76.33 years. Females expected life is more than the males. Expected life of Indian population is 67.14 years.

School life expectancy in Thailand is 12 years. School life expectancy for male is 11 years and for female is 13 years. Contrast to India female has higher school life expectancy than male in Thailand.

And school life expectancy in India is only 10 years. It is 2 years less than Thailand. This affects literacy rate also. So every country should try to increase school life expectancy rate for betterment of a country.

Literacy rate in Thailand is 92.6% which is very good for any country. And in India literacy rate is only 61% which is very poor for the country. It is a positive sign for Thailand that they have very good literacy rate. And they should try to increase it if possible.

There are major two types of ethnic groups, one is Thai and another is Chinese. In Thailand 75% and 14% people follow Thai and Chinese group respectively.

Thailand people follow several religions such as Buddhist, Muslim and Christian. Buddhist is a official religion of Thailand. 96.6% people follow this religion in Thailand. It states that most of people follow Buddhist religion in Thailand.

The Gross Domestic Product per capita in Thailand was last reported at 8702.99 US dollars in 2011, when adjusted by purchasing power parity (PPP), according to a report published by the World Bank.

The GDP per Capita, in Thailand, when adjusted by Purchasing Power Parity is equivalent to 40 percent of the world's average.

From 1980 until 2011, Thailand GDP per capita PPP averaged 4350.42 USD reaching an all time high of 8702.99 USD in December of 2011 and a record low of 1060.23 USD in December of 1980.

Overall looking at the demographic profile of Thailand country, it seems that Thailand people are more literate than Indian people. This is a positive sign. Also the PPP(purchasing power parity ) is 40% of the world's average.

(geographia, 1996-2005)

(hellosiam, 2000-2002)

Business Etiquettes of Thailand

A person should take appointments in advance because it is essential in Thailand. It is appreciated that take appointment one month in advance and must confirmed again on the day. Sometime people may come late in the meeting due to heavy traffic as the majority of the cities of Thailand are crowded. It is appreciated that person call and explain the reason o coming late for the meeting.

In Thailand Traditional form of greeting is "wai". And it is always given by the lower person to the higher level person. Thais don't use surnames rather they generally use first name, with the honorific title "Khun" before the name. Title "Khun" can be used for men and women. (Warnstam, 2009)

Business attire in Thailand is conservative. Dark coloured conservative business suit is appreciated in Thailand. Despite of hot climate in Thailand, business suits are the standard office attire. Most offices oblige a shirt and tie. Conservative business suits or dresses are best suited for women employees. Hosiery must not be worn by Women employee.

Thai people believe in giving inexpensive gifts and Thai people do not open gift in from of the giver. They open it afterwards to avoid the emotion thay may led to surprise and loss of face. Perfumes and handkerchiefs are given to girlfriends

Thai business cards are always in two languages: English on one side and Thai in the other side. A high quality business card is an important asset in Thailand.

Understanding the status of people and the vertical structure of a company is crucial for doing business with the Thais. Thai business reproduces a society in which hierarchy and respect for seniors are crucial.

In Thailand people generally work for 8-9 hours a day including 1 hour break in between. April and early May are the main holiday periods and business trips to Bangkok should be avoided during this time as many staff will be on leave.

Coming little late for meeting is acceptable, as it is frequently inescapable in Bangkok due to traffic squash. English is usually used in business, especially in large companies in Bangkok, and presentations, proposals and contracts are acceptable in English.

Impatient must be avoided as Thai people consult many people before making decision. Thais always take long time in decision making, this attribute of Thai people shows that they are not confident decision maker.

In business meetings, Thais generally welcome stories about people's own experiences and families, and rarely are 'all business.' So it is advisable not to add only topics of business but also add topics other than business. Most topics are open to conversation, but Thais do not welcome discussion on monarchy or issues such as national security. Age is also a common question. (Insititute, 2012)

Business Etiquettes of India

Indians appreciate punctuality and keeping one's commitments. However, many visitors to India find it very disturbing that often Indians themselves are relatively casual in keeping their time commitments. It is appreciated to take appointment couple of months in advance and must confirmed again on the day

As compared to a business organisation, it is normally not easy to get an appointment with officials in a government department. Also, in the government departments, there is higher possibility of rescheduling appointments of a person or it may happen that a person may be kept waiting for as many as several hours before actually meet the person.

In India, during meetings, standing with hands on hips is considered an aggressive posture. So a person should avoid such posture.

Suit and tie are normal business attire. However, since India has a warm climate, some companies appreciate just a full-sleeved shirt with a tie. It is also essential to select neutral colours, which are subdued and not very bright. However in most IT companies, the dress code is much more casual. It is not strange to find people wearing T-shirts and jeans with sneakers. A salwar-suit is acceptable as business dress for woman. For informal situations, Jeans with a T-shirt or short-sleeved shirt are acceptable for men as well as women.

In India, acceptable gifts are flowers, chocolate, perfume and small electronic goods. Many Indians do not drink alcohol and also do not eat beef. One must take cae of these points. Indians are superstitious. They consider black and white colour a bad sign so gift wrapping must not be in black or white colour. The colours that are thought to bring good luck are red, green and yellow. Like Thai people Indians also do not open gift in front of the giver. They open it afterwards.

In India, business cards are generally exchanged at the beginning of a meeting, after members have greeted one another. Using left hand while giving card is considered unclean thus one should take proper care and must give cars with right hand.

Like Thais Indians also work for 8-9 hours a day including 1 hour break in between. There is also a trend towards a longer working day, which can start as early as 7:30 a.m. and last till 8:00 p.m. In most Indian business organisations, banks and government departments, the Financial Year is calculated from April to March. Try to avoid meeting at the end of March as it is time for closing financial year.

Summer (April-June) is considered as the vacation time by most of the Indians. However, in Northern and Eastern India, a best time for taking vacations is around October, which happens together with Dussehra/ Pooja holidays.

Indian find many topics of conversation engaging but among them Politics, Cricket, Films and, in recent times, Indian Economic Reforms are the most frequently discussed. Advance preparation on these subjects can be very helpful in building rapport and establishing one's acceptance.

Political awareness among average Indian is surprising. And Indians are enthusiastic about discussing politics and political figures. It is essential, however, to know that politics in India is very diverse, and the political issues are often regional in nature.

Cricket in India is almost a national pastime. India has created some world-class cricketers and even those who do not play cricket are zealous about the game.

In addition to the above, it is important to appreciate that India is an ancient and rich civilization, and most Indians are proud of their heritage. Indians normally enjoy discussing Indian traditions and history, especially with a foreigner.(Shukla, 2012)

(Insititute, 2012)

(Shukla, 2012)

(Warnstam, 2009)



The chief executive-or president approves a government budget which is a legal document that is often passed by the legislature. The revenues and expenses are the two basic elements for any budget. Revenues are derived primarily from taxes, in the case of the government. Which economists call government consumption that is spent on current goods and services; government investment expenditures such as infrastructure investment or research expenditure; and transfer payments like unemployment or retirement benefits are included in government expenses. Economic, political and technical are the basis for the budget. Thailand Government Budget averaged -0.39 Percent of GDP reaching ultimate high of 2.50 Percent of GDP in December of 2005 and low of -4.80 Percent of GDP in December of 2009, from 2003 until 2011. India Government Budget averaged -3.74 Percent of GDP reaching high of -2.04 Percent of GDP in December of 1996 and low of -7.80 Percent of GDP in December of 2008 from 1990 until 2011.

The amount of national debt a country has in percentage of its Gross Domestic Product is Debt-to-GDP ratio, is also known as Government debt as a percent of GDP. The difference between the financial assets and gross debt that government holds is the net debt. The country is to default on its debt obligations when the debt-to-GDP ratio is higher. Thailand Government Debt to GDP averaged 45.45 Percent reaching high of 57.80 Percent in December of 2000 and low of 15.20 Percent in December of 1996, from 1996 until 2011. India Government Debt To GDP averaged 74.90 Percent reaching high of 84.30 Percent in December of 2003 and low of 67.62 Percent in December of 1997, from 1991 until 2011.

An outstanding liability owed to non-residents by residents of an economy, is Government External Debt. Registered or unregistered debt, international organizations or foreign governments, debt owed to commercial banks may be included in it. Thailand Government External Debt averaged 80982.17 USD Million reaching high of 119929.34 USD Million in June of 2012 and low of 58984.85 USD Million in June of 2005, from 2005 until 2012. India Government External Debt averaged 140319.65 USD Million reaching high of 345819 USD Million in December of 2012 and low of 75858 USD Million in December of 1990, from 1990 until 2012.

The amount of money that the federal, state, and the local governments spend on public services provided to its citizens is the Government spending. Government transfers like social security and unemployment benefits is excluded by it. Thailand Government Spending averaged 79794.88 THB Million reaching high of 121853 THB Million in May of 2012 and low of 46795 THB Million in February of 1993, from 1993 until 2012. India Government Spending averaged 1207.57 INR Billion reaching high of 1764.18 INR Billion in November of 2011 and low of 735.82 INR Billion in May of 2004, from 2004 until 2012.


(trading economics)


(trading economics)

Language, Religion and Family Values


The religions in Thailand's are Buddhism 95% and Muslim 3.8% and Christianity 0.5% and Hinduism 0.1% and other 0.6% (1991).The Thai language is comprised of 44 consonants, 32 vowels and five tones in Thai articulation, along with a script that has Indian origins. The Thai language, belong to the Tai relations, is the main language in Thailand though there are several regional dialects as well. 

The wai is the common form of greeting and adheres to strict system of protocol. If there is a great social distance between two people, the wai will not be return.

Thais respect hierarchical relationships. Status can be determined by clothing and general appearance, age, job, education, family name, in addition to social connections. The family is the cornerstone of Thai society. Family life is frequently more closely knit than in western cultures. The Thai family is a form of chain of authority with the parents at the top. Children are trained to honor their parents.

Etiquette & Customs in Thailand which are different while Meeting or gift giving etiquettes are only use red wrapping paper if giving a gift to a Chinese Thai. If you are invited to a Thai's house: Business Etiquette and Protocol Relationship & Communication Thais prefer doing business with people they respect to Business Meeting Etiquette. Dress Etiquette for Women should wear conservative business suits or dresses.

India - LANGUAGE, Religion and Family Values

The culture of India refers to the religions, thinking customs, civilization, languages, ceremonies, arts, values and the way of life in India and its people.

India's languages, religions, salsa, music, architecture, food, and background differ from place to place within the country. Its society often labeled as an amalgamation of these diverse sub-cultures is spread all over the Indian subcontinent and traditions that are several millennia old. All rudiments of India's diverse culture, for example Indian religion, yoga, and Indian cuisine, have had a profound impact transversely humanity. Pakistan and North Indian state follow the medieval Indo-Persian culture, exemplify by its musical, culinary and architectural designs like the Taj Mahal, while South India is mainly self-governing from foreign influences - three of the four languages classified as classical languages of India belong to the Dravidian verbal communication family, namely Kannada, Tamil and Telugu.

India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism in adding to Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions. Indian religions also recognized as Dharma religions are a major form of world religions along with Abraham ones. According to a 2002 census of India, the religion of 80% of the people is Hinduism. Perception of Indian Culture:

India's diversity has inspired many writers to pen their perceptions of the country's civilization. These writings paint a complex and often conflicting picture of the culture of India.

According to industry advisor Eugene M. Makar, for example, traditional Indian culture is defined by a relatively strict social hierarchy. Several differences such as religion divide the culture. The patriarch often resolves family issues.

Others have a different perception of Indian customs. According to an interview with C.K. Prahalad by Des Dear love, writer of many best selling business book, contemporary India is a country of very diverse cultures with many languages, religions and traditions. In another account, Nancy Lockwood of Society for Human Resource organization, the world's largest human resources association with members in 140 countries, writes so as to in the past two decades or so, communal change in India is in theatrical contrast to the expectations from traditional Indian ethnicity. These changes have led to Indian families giving education opportunities toward girls, accepting women working outside home, pursue a career, and opening the possibility for women to attain managerial roles in corporate India. The issues in India with women empowerment are similar to that elsewhere in the world.

According to Amartya Sen, the India born Nobel Laureate in finances, the culture of modern India is a complex blend of its historical traditions, influence from the effects of colonialism over centuries and current Western culture - both collaterally and dialectically. Sen observe that external images of India in the West often tend to emphasize the difference - real or imagined - between India and the West. Western writers and media usually miss, in significant ways, crucial aspects of Indian culture and mores The deep-seated heterogeneity of Indian traditions, in different parts of India, is deserted in this homogenized description of India. Exoticist approach: it concentrates on the wondrous aspects of the culture of India. Curatorial approach: it attempt to observe, classify and record the diversity of Indian culture in different parts of India. The curatorial approach, one inspired by systematic curiosity for the cultural diversity of India inside India, is mostly absent.

Susan Bayly, in her book, observes that there is considerable dispute in India and orientalist scholars on perceived Indian culture. She acknowledges that a lot of dispute claims of pervasiveness of caste and strict social hierarchy in modern India. Rosser notes that the discourse in much of the United States about the culture of India is rarely devoted to self-governing India. People quickly make sweeping and flawed metaphysical assumptions about its religion and culture, but are far more circumspect at what time evaluating civil society and political culture in modern India. The study reports a stark dissimilarity between Western perceptions of the culture of India, versus the direct experience of the interview people.

For generations, India has had a prevailing tradition of the joint family scheme. Usually, the oldest male member is the head in the joint Indian family system. In a 1966 study, Orenstein and Micklin analyzed India's population data and family structure. Thereafter, with urbanization and economic expansion, India has witness a break up of traditional joint family into more nuclear-like families.

Sinha, in his book, after summarizing the numerous sociological studies done on Indian family, notes that more than the previous 60 years, the educational trend in most parts of India has been an accelerated change from joint family to nuclear family, much like population trends in other parts of the world. The traditional great joint relations in India, in the 1990s, accounted for a small percent of Indian households, and on average had inferior per capita household income.

Arranged Marriages

Historically, in most families the inheritance of family estates passed down the male line. In India, the divorce rate is low - 1% compared with about 40% in the United States. Example surveys suggest the issues with marriages in India are similar to trends observed elsewhere in the world. The divorce rates are rising in India. Women initiate about 80 percent of divorces in India.

Recent studies suggest that Indian culture is trending away from traditional agreed marriages. Banerji et al. surveyed 41,554 households across 33 states and union territories in India in 2005. The study found that fewer marriages are purely arranged without consent and that the majority of surveyed Indian marriages are arranged with consent. The percentages of self-arranged marriages (called love marriages in India) were also rising, particularly in the town parts of India. A 2006 piece of script reported that between 10 and 20 percent of marriages in urban India were self-arranged.

The Rig-Vedic Sanskrit is one of the oldest attestations of any Indo-Aryan language, in addition to one of the earliest attested members of the Indo-European language relations. Intensive scientific study that followed have established that Sanskrit and many Indian derivative languages belong to the family which include English, German, and French, Spanish, Celtic, Greek, Baltic, Armenian, Tocharian and extra Indo-European languages.

The evolution of language within India may be distinguished over three periods: aged, middle and modern Indo-Aryan. Prakrta became middle Indo-Aryan leading to Pali (the language of early Buddhists and Ashoka era in 200-300 BC), Prakrit (the language of Jain philosophers) and Apabhramsa (the language blend at the final stage of middle Indo-Aryan). It is Apabhramsa, scholar claim, so as to flower into Hindi, Gujarati, Bengali, Marathi, Punjabi and extra languages now in use in India's north, east in addition to west. All these Indian languages have roots and structure like Sanskrit, to each other and other Indo-European languages. This enables scholars to follow language evolution and watch how, by changes hardly noticeable from generation to age group, a unique language alters into descendant languages that are now barely recognizable as the same.

Sanskrit has had a profound impact on the languages and writing of India. Hindi, India's most spoken language is a "Sanskrit zed register" of theKhariboli dialect. Additionally, all modern Indo-Aryan languages, Munda language and Dravidian languages, have borrowed many words also directly from Sanskrit (tatsama words), otherwise indirectly via middle Indo-Aryan languages (tadbhava words). Languages originating in Sanskrit are estimated to constitute roughly fifty percent of the vocabulary of modern Indo-Aryan languages, and the literary forms of Telugu, Malayalam and Kannada. Part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan languages, the Bengali language arises as of the eastern Middle Indic languages and its roots are traced to the 5th century BCArdhamagadhi language.

Tamil, one of India's major classical languages, descends from Proto-Dravidian languages which were spoken around the third millennium BC in peninsular India. In addition to Indo-European and Dravidian language, Austro-Asiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages are in use in India. Genomic studies of ethnic groups inside India suggest the Austro-Asiatic tribals were likely the earliest settlers in India. Languages spoken in this part of India include Austro-Asiatic (e.g. Khasi) and Tibeto-Burman (e.g. Nishi).

According to 2010 India census, Hindi is the most spoken language in India, go after by Bengali, Telugu, Marathi and Tamil Urdu.


Thailand Educational System

Thailand's educational history can be said to have begun in the middle of the Sukhothai period (13th Century) when King Ramkhamhaeng invented the Thai alphabet.

The alphabet was created so that the many princes of the land would be literate enough to administer their provinces and communicate with the palace in the capital.The bulk of the people was either in service or engaged in farming so they had little need for reading skills.

Buddhist monasteries were virtually the only source of semi-public education and only a very small portion of the population, male received any formal education. The reign of King Mongkut who was immortalized in the Western world as the "King" in the "King and I," is the one man in the country most responsible for the growth of education (Sukhabanij, 1970).

Under Mongkut, Thailand's first printing press was set up and the educational curricula of Thai children were restructured to suit the new needs. The knowledge of English became a necessary tool.

In the 1960's a larger number of teacher training institutions were established to meet an urgent highly more demands for teachers. This expansion was precipitated by three major factors: the extension of compulsory education and people growth, and the availability of secondary education to a larger population. Thailand's teacher-training programs caused almost an international incident during the last year, when an ill-conceived diagram was announced.

Thailand's economy have been suffering thanks to the devaluation of the baht in 1997 and the Asian Development Bank agreed to aid the country if educational reform was institute. The cash is contingent on Thailand moving ahead in several areas. The school drop-outs as a result of the economic crisis must be sufficiently contained. The government must quickly improve the quality of education in such crucial fields as science, language and mathematics. There must be a sufficient increase in the budget to support secondary school education.

The Thai education system comprise four levels, namely: pre-school education, primary education, secondary teaching, and higher education.  Particulars of the 4 levels of education can be summarized as follows:

Pre-school Education: is provided for 3-5year old children.  It aims to encourage the harmonious corporeal and intellectual and emotional and social development of the children prior to formal learning.

 The pre-school education can be provided in many ways such as child care centres, nursery schools and kindergarten.  The Ministry of Education has established a playgroup in every provincial capital to serve as a model for the private ones. 

As this level of education is optional, so that the private sector has played an active position most pre-schools are private and located in Bangkok.  These schools are below the supervision of the Office of the Private Education charge, office of Education.

Primary education: emphasize literacy, numeracy, communiqué skills, and abilities relevant to future professional roles.  At this level, education is compulsory and free of accuse, provided for children aged 6-11 including the disadvantaged ones. chief train curriculum is an integrated curriculum comprising five areas of learning experience, namely: basic skills growth life experience, character development, mechanism oriented education, and special experience  The last area is provided for children in pratom 5 and 6 which are the last two grades at the main level.  Since undergraduate backgrounds in the various parts of the country are dissimilar, a basic national core curriculum allows certain flexibility for regional diversified.  Primary education is under several government agency Most of the government primary schools are under the Office of the National Primary Education payment, Ministry of Education.  There are too demonstration schools attached to some teacher's colleges and university and municipal schools under the Ministry of Interior.

Secondary Education: is divided addicted to two levels, each covering a period of three years.  The lower level highlight on learner's intellect, principles morality and basic skills. It allows the learner to explore his person interests and aptitudes through a wide choice of both academic and vocational subjects.  The upper level aims in the direction of provide appropriate academic and vocational knowledge and skills correspondent with the learner's interests and aptitudes. These skills will beneficial for learners to continue study at a higher level or to enter the world of work.  Secondary curriculum cover five broad fields: tongue science and mathematics, social studies and character development and work education. There is too a wide range of exploratory pre-vocational subjects available.  The use of the recognition scheme at this level facilitates flexibility in the teaching-learning process.  Both public and confidential sectors are involved in the organization of secondary education.  .

Higher Education: aims at the full development of human intellectuality.  This height may be organized in the colleges or universities studies.

(thailand gateway)




Thai culture is Buddhist culture. In Thai culture individuals are taught to think for themselves and not be influenced by religious authorities.

Thailand is nearly 94%-95% Theravada Buddhist , Muslims (5-6%), Christians (1%), Mahayana Buddhists, and other religions. Thai Theravada Buddhism is very much supported and overseen by the government. Monks are receiving a number of benefits from government.

Thai society

The traditional Thai customs and the folklore of Thai people were gathered and described by Phya Anuman Rajadhon in the 20th century.


One distinctive Thai customs is the Wai. it Shows greeting and farewell or acknowledgement. There are several forms reflecting the relative status.

Public display of affection is not common in traditional Thai society, especially between lovers. Friends may be seen walking with holding hands, but couples rarely do so.



Thai marriages in Buddhists are generally has two parts: which includes the prayers and the offering to monks.

At the day of wedding couple get blessings from local temple.

Birth traditions:

Pregnancy and childbirth are largely influenced by folk beliefs in Traditional principles concerning, especially in rural areas of Central and North area. Modern area part follow the western medical treatment.


Traditionally funerals last for at least one week. In Thailand Crying is discouraged in funeral ceremony.


Important holidays in Thai culture include Thai New Year (Songkran), which is officially observed from April 13 to 15. Another holiday is Loi Krathong.



India is the birthplace of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism, collectively known as Indian religions. Hinduism and Buddhism are the third and fourth-largest religions, with over 2 billion follower together.

According to a 2002 census in India, Hindus (80%), Muslims (13%), Christians 23 million, Sikhs 19 million, 8 million Buddhists and 4 million Jains.

Caste System

Gradually the caste system became formalized into four major groups, each with its own rules and regulations and code of conduct. At the top rung of the caste ladder in India comes the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas ,Sudras .

Family structure and marriage

For generations, India has had a prevailing of the joint family system. the oldest male is the head in the Indian family . He makes all important decisions and rules, and other family members abide by them. 


For centuries, arranged marriages have been in Indian society though both men and women have always had the choice the partner.

In India, the divorce rate is low - 1% compared with about 40% in the United States. 


In India the people do "Namaskar" as a greeting, this differs from the religion wise. There are many words which is used for the greeting in different region in India.


The four national holidays in India, the Independence Day, the Republic Day, the Gandhi Jayanti, and May Day are celebrated with zeal and enthusiasm across India.

Popular religious festivals include the Hindu festivals of Navratri, Diwali, Ganesh Chaturthi, Durga puja, Holi, Ugadi,Rakshabandhan and Dussehra. Several harvest festivals such as Sankranthi, Pongal and Onam.


Traditional Clothing in India is has varieties across different parts of the country. It is influenced by local culture, local geography, climate and rural settings.


(juliardailey, dec 2012)