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Culture is the domain of human activity associated with self-expression (a cult, an imitation) of a person, a manifestation of his subjectivity (subjective, character, skills, abilities and knowledge). That's why every culture has additional features related to human creativity, and everyday practice, communication, reflection, generalization, and his daily life.Â Culture is a marker and the foundation of civilizations and explores the subject of cultural studies.Â Culture has no quantitative criteria in numerical terms.Â Dominants or signs are sufficient to reflect the characteristics of culture.Â Most often the culture is distinguished in the variability of dominant markers: the periods and epochs, modes of production, money-commodity and industrial relations, political systems of government, personalities and spheres of influence, etc.
Current understanding of culture.Â Anthropological culture - from work - there is a way of human activity to transform nature, society and man himself, expressed as a product of material and spiritual creativity. Culture axiological - value assessment - is a collection of outstanding works of human activities that make his life more comfortable and understandable. Culture Information and semiotic - is socially significant information, transmitted from generation to generation and expressed in terms of values, norms, meanings and signs (symbols). The current regional affairs are influencing those common culture characteristics as there are being accepted and approved new norms, new trends and new aspects of culture, as people's interests are being changed and the preferences become different.
Development, change and progress in culture almost identically equal to the dynamics, it appears as a more general concept.Â Dynamics is an ordered set of countervailing processes and transformations in culture, taken within a certain period.
Axioms: any change in the culture of cause-and-due to many factors, dependence of the development of any culture on innovation measures (the ratio of stable elements of culture and the scope of experiments); Factors: natural resources, communication, cultural diffusion (mutual penetration (borrowing) and complexes of cultural traits from one society to another when they are in contact (cultural contact), household technology, social institutions and organizations, value-semantic, rational-cognitive.
The history of the concept of "culture". The word "culture" in Latin means "cultivation", "nurturing."Â Culture - is what is related to the human activity. Cicero has introduced a new meaning to the concept of "culture".Â Culture is the cultivation of the soul of a person. From this form, there are certain qualities "humanitas", which is translated from Latin and means "humanity." New term has become scientific only in the XVIII century.Â But the precise definition was not given.Â First the term "culture" was explained by Ed Taylor (1871): "Culture or civilization is composed, in its full of knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs and some other capabilities and habits learned as a member of society."Â From the 20th centuryÂ began to appear thousands of definitions of culture (Kroeber, Klakhon, etc.) The reason for multiplicity - is that culture itself is not uniform, versatile. The concept of culture. Under culture can be understood techniques, methods and results of human life and activity, what distinguishes human existence from the natural life is the content and meaning of human. Since the mid 60's, culture has been seen as a collection of material and spiritual values created by a person.
Culture is a multifaceted, complex, historically evolving social phenomenon, the way of reality, the realization of human creativity in material and spiritual activities. The major characteristics that define a culture are culture as civilization, culture as the world outlook, culture as norms of behavior, culture and nature, culture and religion.
Culture as civilization. In many ways, the modern notion of "culture" as a civilization emerged in the XVIII - early XIX centuries in Western Europe.Â In the future, this concept on the one hand, was to include the differences between different groups of people within Europe and on the other side - the difference between the metropolises and their colonies around the world.Â Hence the fact that in this case, the notion of "culture" is the equivalent of "civilization", that is the antipode concept of "nature".Â Using this definition, we can easily classify individuals and even whole countries in terms of civility.Â Some authors even define culture simply as "the best in the world that has been created and said" (Matthew Arnold), and all that does not fall within this definition - the chaos and anarchy.Â From this perspective, culture is closely linked with social development and progress in society.Â Arnold consistently uses his own definition: "... culture is the result of continuous improvement, stemming from the acquisition of knowledge about everything that concerns us, it is best that was said and thoughts" (Arnold, 1882).
In practice, the concept of culture refers to all the best items and actions, including the field of art and classical music.Â From this perspective, the notion of "cultural" got people in any way associated with these areas.Â In this case, people involved in classical music, are by definition at a higher level than the fans of rap from the workers' districts, or the aborigines of Australia. People, who support this view, often reject the plural cultural understanding.Â They do not believe in the existence of different cultures, each with its own logic and its values.Â In fact, for them there is only one standard to be applied to all without exception.Â Thus, according to this worldview, people who do not fit into the framework, once added to the "uncultured", they have shown the existence of the right to "their" culture.
Culture as the world outlook. During the existence of civilization, all communities participate in the processes of proliferation, interpenetration and imposing their culture, so today, few anthropologists have considered each culture only within their own framework. Modern scholars believe that an element of culture cannot be considered only within its own framework, it can be done only in the broad context of relationships between different cultures. In addition to these processes, elements of the culture strongly influence the migration of people.Â This phenomenon, as colonial expansion, as well as mass migration, including in the form of the slave trade, became a significant factor influencing the different cultures.Â As a result, some communities have gained considerable heterogeneity.Â Some anthropologists argue that such groups are united by a common culture, an advantage which is the ability to explore diverse elements as subcultures.Â Others argue that a unified culture cannot exist as disparate elements form a multicultural community.Â Propagating the doctrine of multiculturalism has coincided with a surge in identity movements, which requires the recognition of cultural uniqueness of social subgroups. Sociobiology also argues that culture can be seen in terms of basic elements as the cultural exchange.Â These elements, or "meme", as they were called by Richard Dawkins in his book "The Selfish Gene", published in 1976, similar to the concept of genes in biology.Â Despite the fact that this view is gaining popularity, most academic scientists reject it completely.
Culture as norms of behavior. The following common understanding of the concept of culture is composed of the components: life values, standards of conduct and artifacts (tangible products). Life values represent the most important concepts in life.Â They are the basis of culture. Standards of conduct are reflected in the concepts of morality.Â They show how people should behave in different situations. The rules, formally enshrined in the country are called laws. Artifacts or works of material culture are usually derived from the first two components. It has become a rule that archaeologists are working with the elements of material culture and social anthropologists focus on symbolic culture, although ultimately both groups of scientists, of course, communicate with each other.Â Moreover, anthropologists understand "culture" not only as a set of objects or goods, but also the processes that create these products and makes them valuable, as well as social relations in which these objects are used.
Culture and Nature.Â Interaction between culture and nature - is one of the problems of cultural studies. Marcus Porcius Cato the Elder introduced the concept of culture, defining it as the cultivation, improvement, respect, relating it to cultivation.Â In this sense culture is presented as collaboration between a person and nature, aimed at mutual benefit.Â With this partnership a person takes on the nature of its material components, draws plans, studies, in response to enriching the creative nature of their work, inspiring it.Â Action is aimed at the destruction of nature, which cannot do much harm to mankind and living in it. Such action may not be the result of higher conscious activity, which is a manifestation of culture. Modern, not a rare opposition between nature and culture is possible under the assumption of thinking about individual human existence on the nature and identification of culture and urban life and civilization.Â It is not hard to find examples of manifestations related to urban life that cannot be attributed to culture and even become an example of the decline of culture and its absence.Â Similar views can be found in Herder, Berdyaev, Nicholas Roerich. It is also not hard to see that the removal of a person from the principles of reasonable co-operation with nature, it generates leads to a decline in the accumulated cultural heritage, and after, and the decline of civilized life itself.Â An example may serve as the decline of many developed nations of the ancient world and numerous manifestations of the crisis of culture in the life of modern cities. Finnish culture has absorbed the legacy of those pagan times, when the revered "nature spirits" and "Strength of Earth" and emerged later in Christian customs and holidays. Due to its geographical location and historical features, the culture was subjected to the influence of neighboring Finland, the Baltic, Germanic and Slavic peoples.Â Great influence on it has also had the fact, that Finland was part of the first Sweden and then Russia. Since the second half of the XX century in Finland there was a noticeable influence of American culture, and cultures of other countries and peoples.Â This is associated with development of communication and the development of tourism, and the fact that a significant number of young people learn or are trained in other countries and young people from other countries study in Finland. Finnish culture includes smaller national groups - the Sami, Finnish Swedish, Finnish, Tatars and others - who retain their own traditions and customs. Cultures of Finland has always had a significant impact in Sweden, while the long stay in a part of Russia, is now weakly reflected in its development.Â After gaining independence in 1917, Finns focused on the ethnic identity of their cultural heritage.Â Today's Finns enjoy great respect purely national values and traditions.
At the root of the Finnish culture, including literature, music and folklore, there is a national epic Kalevala.Â His influence can be traced in many works of well-known Finnish writer Aleksis Kivi, and F.E.Â Sillanpaa, and even in the music of Jean Sibelius.
Among the prominent figures of the world culture there are many Finns.Â But the most prominent figure of Finnish culture, of course, is Tove Jansson - known as a Finnish writer, artist and illustrator. He is known worldwide for children's books about the Moomin.Â Born into a creative family of Finnish Swedes, who lived in Helsinki, his works Tove wrote in Swedish.Â Jansson acquired artistic skills in schools in Stockholm and Paris. Children's book writer, tracing the similarities with tales of the Andersen and the works of Astrid Lindgren, they are now translated into more than three dozen foreign languages, among them is Russian.Â Her stories and novels for adults in Russia are known a little bit worse.Â At home Tove Jansson won numerous prizes and awards: Medals of Selma Lagerlöf, three times - the Finnish State Prize for Literature, the Gold Medal of Hans Christian Anderson - Award Suomi, the Swedish Academy of Sciences Award, the Polish Order of the Smile.Â Four times her name was entered in the list of honorary Hans Christian Andersen.Â
In the field of literature the distinguished master of the historical novel of Zakarias Topelius, is Nobel laureate Frans Emil Sillanpaa - author of novels about rural life, and Pentti Haanpyaya, writer.Â In the genre of historical novel by Mika Waltari was known as the author of the acclaimed novel "The Egyptian".Â Among the most popular Finnish playwrights Maria Jotun, Hella Wuolijoki and Ilmari Turja, and among the poets - Eino Leino,Â Koskenniemi, Katri Vala and Paavo Haavikko. Visual Arts in Finland since the XIX century developed with the support of the leading European schools of Paris, Dusseldorf, St. Petersburg.Â In 1846 was founded by the Finnish Art Society.Â In the field of fine arts in Finland left a significant mark B. Holmberg, laid the foundation of the national landscape painting, artists Ya Munsterhjelm, B. Lindholm and B. Vesterholm, A. von Becker, C. Janson, whose canvases are designed in the tradition of late modernism.Â Von Wright brothers created the romantic rural landscapes.Â The end of XIX century is considered the "golden age" of Finnish art and creativity is marked by such masters as Albert Edelfelt, Eero Jarnefelt and Pekka Halonen.Â The largest representative of national romanticism in painting was Akseli Gallen-Kallela, who wrote on subjects of the Finnish epic and folklore.Â Original talent Juho Rissanen described scenes of national life.Â The grand portrait was A. Faven.Â Known in the art world and also the names of women artists, is also Helena Maria. Sculpture as a genre of art in Finland began to develop only in the middle of the XIX century.Â The most talented were Johannes Takanen, Robert Stiegel, Emil Wikström, Alpaugh Saylor, Yrjö Liipola and Gunnar Finne.
The concept of Finnish music is identified in the global culture with the work of Jean Sibelius.Â However, other Finnish composers have been quite successful: Selim Palmgren, Yrjö Kilpin (composer and songwriter), Armas Jarnefelt (writer of romances, choral and symphonic music) and Uuno Clum.Â Oskar Merikanto is famous as the author of the opera "The Maid of the North".
To date, Finland takes a significant place in European culture.Â In Helsinki, Turku, Tampere and Lahti have symphony orchestras, in all localities have choirs and singing groups.Â The theatrical life of the country is dominated by Finnish Ballet, Finnish National Theatre, the Finnish National Opera and the Swedish Theatre.Â In the town of Savonlinna in July of each year undergo opera festivals.Â By the way, Finland is ranked first in the world by number of funds allocated by the state for the maintenance of theaters and museums.
Literature.Â Finland's first ideal was expressed in Swedish poet L. Runeberg in a cycle of poems, "Tales of ensign table." In 1849 was published composition of the national heritage of the Finnish people Elias Lönnrot "Kalevala". The first writers and poets, seek to assert the Finnish language in the literature, distinguished supporter of educational and patriotic ideals Jaakko Yuteyni; lyricist Samuli Kustaa Berg, as well as Paavo Korhonen, Olli Kyumyalyaynen and Antti Puhakka, who described people's lives in eastern Finland. The creativity is one of the founders of the Finnish literary language, Aleksis Kivi continued to create a national identity.Â He created the first Finnish play, wrote the novel "Seven Brothers" (1870), which, after a brief resistance has become a national symbol.Â This novel marked the beginning of the transition from idealistic descriptions of the people in the spirit of romanticism to realism.Â It was a work for the triumph of Finland started in the field of literature and culture. Zacharias also Topeliusom wrote written historical novels in the spirit of Sir Walter Scott.Â His work "The Tales paramedic" was quickly translated from Swedish into Finnish. At the end of the XIX century European literature moved to the side of realism and naturalism, which undoubtedly influenced the Finnish literature.Â In addition, due imprint imposed and Russian literature, which demanded full compliance with reality. The most famous Finnish children's writer certainly, is Tove Jansson.Â Her story about the Moomin family was translated into dozens of languages. Modern children's writers include Marcus Mayaluomu, Hannu Mäkelä, Timo Parvelu.
Drama. Finnish play differs clearly in a literary character: it affects the moral issues of modern life, such as violence and power, youth and old age, history and modernity.Â Jussi Parviainen in his plays in colors is described as a man, in pursuit of a superficial fashion trends.Â Jouko Turkka exposes Love and politics of their cruel, but ironic cynicism.
Folklore. Special influence on Finnish music has traditional Karelian melodies and lyrics, which draws its inspiration from the epic "Kalevala".Â Karelian culture is based on an understanding of Finnish myths and legends.Â Over the past few decades, a Finnish folk music has become part of popular music (so known outside of Finland has received a draft Loituma).
Opera. The first Finnish opera was written by German composer Friedrich Patsiusom in 1852. Patsius also wrote a hymn of Finland. In connection with the dissemination of ideas of nationalism in the 90th years of XIX century, became known the symphonic poem Sibelius' Kullervo "for male chorus, soloists and orchestra - one of the folk tales of the Finnish epic "Kalevala".Â In 1899, he wrote a symphonic poem for Drama Theater "Finland", which played an important role in the rise of Finnish independence.Â Until now, Jean Sibelius is one of the most famous people in Finland and is a symbol of the nation.
As in many other countries, in Finland, rock music has its origins in the Anglo-American music.Â Finland is one of the world's "capitals" of hard rock and metal, along with Sweden, Britain and Germany.Â As in other Scandinavian countries, rock, and, in particular, the metal in Finland is very popular here, annual festivals of heavy rock, such as the Tuska Open Air, Lumous, Jalometalli, Provinssirock, Ruisrock, Ilosaarirock, Sauna Open Air.Â Beginning in 1990, Finland took a central place in rock music.Â Group from Finland, in particular, Nightwish, Apocalyptica, HIM, achieved great fame in the world. In 2006, the Finnish band Lordi won the Eurovision Song Contest.
Finnish dance has always been an ethnic art form and gave the opportunity to liaise with the neighboring big cities, for example, St. Petersburg, Stockholm.Â Special influence on the Finnish dance has the northern capital of Russia, but Stockholm for the Finnish dance is almost a second home. Center of the Finnish dance was and still is the city of Helsinki, although a few decades of its borders have increased significantly.Â As a result, beginning in the 80th years of professional dance training culture was made far beyond the capital.Â In the 90th years, there has seen the artistic growth that is associated with the creation of troupes, organizing festivals, etc. Despite the fact that Finnish dancers are doing the dance, it reflects the influence of many currents of modern dance.Â The largest contribution to this culture has made the German theater and Japanese butoh, contact improvisation in dance and technology liberation.Â Still, the Finnish dance remains isolated.Â Aesthetics of the dance follow their culture, which dominates the functional severity.Â Perhaps that is why, in the Finnish dance there is emphasized the physical beginning so much.Â Maybe it was the reason that many Finnish choreographers are paying more attention than quality of motion, and his physical expressiveness.Â
Finnish ballet has always been a purely national; this is the fact that there are very few foreign ballet dancers.Â Finnish ballet, as well as many other kinds of performing arts in Finland, according to the Finnish critic Auli Räsänen, ballet tends to emotional expression and the creation of touching characters. In 1997, the Finnish Ballet celebrated its 75th anniversary.Â Dance in Finland has undergone a dual effect: the innovative ideas from Germany and the establishment of classical dance in Russia.Â And only in connection with the independence of Finland in 1917, the role of national cultural institutions increased.
The 1906 was the year of origin of the Finnish cinema.Â Already in 1907 appeared the first feature film "Secret Bootleggers."Â The first sound film was released in 1931.Â In connection with the development of television and later the onslaught of video, world cinema has undergone a serious crisis, as evidenced by the reduction of the audience. For Finnish cinema, especially in the initial period, characterized by its own artistic style and techniques, in addition to this trendy while genres - thriller, western, gangster film - did not develop in Finland.Â Currently in Finland there are annually produced about 4 full-length feature films, a lot of television, shorts, documentaries and animated films.
Ancient monuments of Finnish art are paintings of the medieval stone and wooden churches.Â The most prominent church painters of the time were Henricus Pictor and Mikael Topelius.Â In 1990th years, there was more diversity of Finnish art.Â Feminist ideas and philosophies physicality gave ground for the creation of contemporary Finnish artists. Many artists turned to the political and ideological significance of sex; they variability spectrum identities and their study have become the most important topics.Â Artists have deliberately confused the elements of figurative and not figural painting in his works, blurring the difference between figurative and abstract details.Â Products by Janne Kaytaly, Yucca Korkeyly and Janne Ryaysyanena have expressive style, associated with film and comic book, combining the same degree of artistic and historical quotations, and graphic elements of popular culture.
Modern designers of Finland. Virpi-Vessanen-Laukkanen an almost fabulous product, namely, dresses.Â And she does it out of colorful candy Oberto.Â The work may last for years.Â Virpi also collects dolls, takes photographs.Â Also, the designer has teaching activities: introduces children and adults with art schools and universities.Â Since 1983, Virpi participates in exhibitions both in Finland and abroad and also writes articles on art education. Esa Veismane is a young interior designer.Â Esa Veismane is specialized in studying the history of kitchens and their creation. Klaus Haapaniemi is a Graphic Designer of the Year 2008 according to the Association of Designers and Ornamo Grafia for innovation and artistic value.Â The designer lives and works in London.Â He is committed to drawing comics, illustrated books and reputable journals.Â He also creates prints for the leading representatives of the fashion world. Among them, Cacharel, Diesel, TopShop, Levi's.Â Klaus Haapaniemi actively participates in exhibitions in Helsinki, Seoul, Oslo and London.Â The style of designer influenced such cultural phenomena as the Finnish national traditions, the Kalevala, Slavic, and Japanese culture.
Finnish cuisine reflects the peculiarities of everyday people, and in different regions of the country, it is markedly different, while certainly there are some common features. First, the inactive use of spices, and secondly, of course, plenty of fish dishes.Â Using herbs sometimes is very original.Â The national Finnish drinks can be classified as beer (olut, kalja).
For dessert, serve Finns berry pies and jelly.
Process of realizing national independence, affecting all areas of Finnish culture, has become the basis for the formation of the National Art School.Â The architecture and painting revived tradition of folk crafts, wooden carvings, medieval monumental painting and architecture, a characteristic was the speech to themes of national history and folklore.Â The old center of Helsinki is built largely designed by Karl Engel in the first half of 19the century.Â This remarkable architectural monument of the Empire style has many similarities with the ensembles of St. Petersburg.Â In the early 20 centuryÂ in Finnish architecture, best are seen national romanticism, strengthened the link between the building and its natural surroundings.Â Buildings themselves are different pictorial interpretation of the decorative architectural shapes, images of resurrection of Finnish folklore, in the construction has been widely used the local stone.Â The most famous works are the building of the National Museum of Finland, the National Theatre, the Nordic bank and the railway station in Helsinki.Â Leading figures of this movement were Eliel Saarinen, Lars Sonck, Armas Lindgren and Herman Gezellius.Â National romanticism is firmly entrenched in the history of world architecture.
Back in the early XVIII century during the Swedish rule in the anthology, were marked in red birthday royalty, which, for the commoners were public holidays.Â First Day of Finland became independent on Independence Day, celebrated on December 6.Â There was gradually formed a list of new holidays and commemorative days, and now they are in Finnish almanac, there are about thirty of them.
Finland is one of many European countries that actively develop institutions of cultural diplomacy.Â Thus, in the world, there are 17 organizations, the so-called "Institutes of Finland", who are responsible for the formation of ideas about the culture of the nation from other nations.