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Japan is a country of peace and harmony that continues to develop in a positive construction of tradition and modernization. Japan has been extended and colourful history and culture, a separate model hierarchy, the EEA and the etiquette that still many social and business practices today. . Japan has been extended and colourful history and culture, a separate model hierarchy, the EEA and the etiquette that many social and business practices today. Due to the influence of Confucianism, it is important to have more respect for the oldest members appear in Japanese business culture. Age and rank are strongly linked. A change in the current business environment requires educational background and power often about age appropriate. Personal space is highly valued in Japan on the densely populated areas in which they live. If your organization is planning to do with Japan, is the potential success of a proper understanding of the current cultural influence of the Protocol. Physical contact, other than a handshake is never displayed in public.
Wa - The most valuable principle alive in the Japanese society today is the concept of "WA" or "harmony". The preservation of the first Constitution in 604 AD and teamwork is required when who live and work in collective farms, which dates back to social harmony. In the operating conditions, "WA" is reflected in the avoidance of self-assertion and individualism and the maintenance of good relations despite differences of opinion.
Kao - One of the fundamental elements of the Japanese social system is the concept of "face". Glance is a trademark of personal pride and is the basis of an individual reputation and social status. Preservation of sight is delivered via the confrontations and direct criticism to avoid when possible.
Omoiyari - Closely linked to the concepts of "wa" and "kao", "omoiyari" refers to the sense of empathy and loyalty in Japanese society, encouraged and authorised in Japanese business culture.
Business Culture in Tokyo:
In terms of business culture, Japan remains the second largest economic position in the world and its economic environment is forcing the local population to the so-called ' Japan style "of the corporate culture and rules by which they have lived for a long time to make drastic changes. Japan is a country of peace and harmony that continues to develop in a positive construction of tradition and modernization. Japan has with its elaborate culture, a separate model hierarchy, the EEA and the etiquette that still many social and business practices today.
In the Japanese, companies will be reflected in the negotiating process. They begin at the executive level and continue at the middle level. Decisions will be made, however, often within the group. In General, in the Japanese business meetings will be aligned in order of seniority, with the leading person on the front and at the very least, a senior person closest to the door. In addition to this rule, however, it can happen that the highest person where choose. It is important to realise that in today's Japan, even a low-ranking individuals allows a Manager to receive his or her performance as well. Because of the great contemporary business competition in Asia, the old concept of the "unhurried" Japanese negotiation process no longer applies the decisions quickly and efficiently. When a business appointment, will arrange a personal call more effective than sending a letter and seen as good ways. Late is as a sign of violation punctuality is essential in Japan .Due to the influence of Confucianism, it is important to have more respect for the oldest members appear in Japanese business culture. Age and rank highly connected, but a change in the current business environment means that educational background and power often about age appropriate. Personal space is highly valued in Japan on the densely populated areas in which they live. Physical contact, other than a handshake is never displayed in public. It is good business practice in small talk before negotiations. The Japanese counterpart questions relating to education, family and social life. More private questions are not acceptable.
Japanese Business Etiquette:
DO use apologies where the intention is serious and express gratitude frequently as it is considered polite in Japan.
DO avoid confrontation or showing negative emotions during business negations. Express opinions openly but evade direct or aggressive refusals.
DO greet your counterparts with the proper respect and politeness. If your counterpart bows make sure you return the gesture, which is usually performed shortly and shallowly. More often than not, a handshake is sufficient.
Taiwan is located east of the Taiwan Strait, off the southeastern coast of mainland China, is the largest island in the Republic of China. Taiwan's population is mostly Han Chinese, who were born on the mainland and divided into three groups based on the dialect of Chinese they speak (Taiwan's Country information 2007).
Taiwanese Communication and culture:
Communication in Taiwan can be difficult, if someone does not speak official languages such as Mandarin Chinese or Taiwanese, a southern Fujian dialect, which are broadly spoken. Levels of English will be irregular even within Taiwanese multi-nationals and major large companies based in the country. Within small to large-sized businesses, little or no English at all will be spoken. It may, therefore, be necessary to employ the use of a translator, which will further slow down an already slow process. Be prepared for the inevitable delays and confusions (Taiwanese Communication Styles n.d.).
In general in Taiwanese society, the business culture is Confucian with strong hierarchical and family influences, particularly in the important small to large size business sector. Decision-making tends to be concentrated in the hands of organization or company owners. They are proud of their achievements and history and continue to be energetic, in the main economical. They have a natural commercial style and are welcoming to foreigners. Relationships are the key issues to success in Taiwan, its take time be familiar with your business partners (Taiwan economy brief 2008). The best relationships usually meet testing times before belief and trust develop.
Taiwanese are generally tough negotiators, while they are enjoying negotiating. But Taiwanese are not formal as Japanese, it is good to continue formalities until they invited to do otherwise, self addressing like Dr Alex, Chairman Alex, Mr Alex etc (Taiwan economy brief 2008). Business visiting cards are compulsory and business cards are should be presented and received with both hands, starting with the top manager present. Instead of place the card in a pocket, treat the card with respect at the meeting. If possible print names at back of business card in Chinese and it is advisable to carry a passport for identification when dealing with government agencies (Taiwan economy brief 2008).
A thoughtful gift is a suitable gesture for introduction and indicates of person desire to explore and build a good relationship. Taiwan economy brief (2008) suggested that do not give clocks, umbrellas, white flowers, handkerchiefs and sharp objectives, those are indicating that cutting or breaking a relationship. "Time is money" (Taiwan economy brief 2008) normally Taiwanese are comfortable to quick response and they expect quick action and decision-making. Face feeling are important in great business dealings, it is polite to speak of others in glowing expressions and be modest and deprecating about the negotiator. Never let others lose face, even in worry situation. For formal meetings it is best wear a suit and tie, after relationships are made strong, it is appropriate to dress according to the occasions and season (Taiwan economy brief 2008).
Effective Verbal Communication:
Japanese people often prefer to speak what is implicitly rather than explicitly, in order to prevent conflicts, and to a more ambiguous interpretation of meaning open. 2 Japanese society hierarchically structured, and the language demands the speaker choose verbs and verb steal is determined by the hierarchical relationship of the speaker to the person, to (3) therefore, opinions are often better proposed discretion, instead of directly expressed (Seltman 1991).This is reinforced by the fact that the Japanese instructors are generally a direct translation methodology, as well as for reading with students by a permanent and converting the following sentence in a text from English to Japanese (Seltman 1991). The motion, as a whole, more reserved in Japan than in the West. A physical code of conduct appears to be almost everywhere in Japan. People in general are not hard to talk, touching, unless forced by overcrowding or other disturbance in places that are traditionally considered to be public. People keep to themselves and between strangers. Japanese people tend to be cautious others straight and try to change their behaviour.
Effective Written Communication:
Writing is the representation of language in a textual medium by means of a series of characters or symbols. Writing is an extension of human language in time and space. Write probably began as a result of political expansion into the old cultures, that reliable resources needed for the transmission of information, maintaining financial accounts, historical records, and similar activities. Around the 4th millennium v. Chr. the complexity of the trade and the Administration outgrew the power of memory and writing was a more reliable method of recording and transactions in a final form to present
This report concludes with the reflections of cross cultural business communications of different places like Australia, Tokyo and Taipei. The results of this studies about the awareness and understanding of the cross cultural and communicational characteristics of the country and are termed to be crucial for the successful business interactions between members of different countries. More precisely, too effectively and ethical business in countries like Australia, Japan and Taiwan requires an understanding and acceptance of collectivism, saving face particularise and the maintenance of the harmony. We leave not only agree with practitioners from other countries must ethical judgments made by the Japanese and the Taiwanese but by understanding the principles underlying these judgments, other countries business people can discuss business with Australians , Japanese and Taiwanese more effectively and confidently interactions.