Theories In The Built Environment Cultural Studies Essay

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As a fan of Peter Eisenman I have always followed some of his design ideas and tried to put some influence in my own work accordingly, for example his book Diagrams of exteriority by Peter Eisenman [1] he talks about SITE, TEXT, MATHEMATICS and SCIENCE .By reading this book he has opened my mind and led me to new ways of thinking regarding the creation of architectural projects.

Figure 1 Truss wall by Ushida FindlayUshida Findlay has a different approach but has been inspiring nonetheless, and is a role model for my designs. Truss Wall House (FIG1) in Japan in 1993 is one of her best designs with a different language in architecture that has pushed me to create interior spaces with a new perspective as an architect also her approach to exterior creation of architecture is unique by itself (FIG2) . C:\Users\hp\Desktop\history\find02g.jpg

Figure 2 Truss wall by Ushida FindlayThe Belgian architect Philippe Samyn with a master in Civil Engineering is another inspiration for my way of thinking about art. Of particular significance to me has been his design of a research centre named M&G RICERCHE in North America. It features a creative façade (FIG3), open plan and beautiful interior This type of work was another motive to create discontinuity, self-similarity and recursively in my next attempts to create a new idea while I was trying to manage my project of a rug gallery in Iran about 4 years ago in an exhibition .(FIG4)samyn.jpgwhite.jpgTRUSS-WALL exterior ushida findlay.jpg

Figure 3 M&G RICERCHE by SamynBy reviewing some of my designs and comparing them to the other architects I have found myself very interested in the movement of complexitism. This movement belongs to the late 70s and it had a relation between science, mathematics and architecture and features a major shift in order and disorder in architectural projects. With so much criticism of its time it has moved forward and falls in later years.white.jpg

Figure 4 Rug Gallery by A.H.Ra1.tif


Upon close observations scientists have realized that the world is not completely ordered and predictable. In some places with less expectation they were facing chaotic and Unpredictability, and so on this was a new philosophy to face a new shift in Architecture. This shift relied on fractal geometry, both chaotic and complexity science, and supported their way of analyzing nature [2] .


Figure5 The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao by Frank GehryThe chaos theory in complexity has similarities to the deconstructivist Architecture movement as it is the next movement, such as the visual appearance of finish building to be unpredictable, however deliberately controlled to be chaos [3] . A significant example of this is the Guggenheim Museum Bilbao by Frank Gehry. (FIG5). The difference in complexitism is that the architects try to predict issues of philosophy and determination, however, in the end, it can turn out as something else. 450px-Guggenheim-bilbao-jan05.jpg

Complexitism also has some similarities to Electicism when it comes to scale. In Post Modern Electicism one of the noticeable aspects is the exaggeration of design for human scale such as huge handrails and no limitation for heights [4] . As we see in complexitism the scale can be so much bigger than human scale or so much smaller that the structures can be unlivable. However there are also many differences, such as in the use of materials; the usage of steel and iron is far more common than in complexitism. Electicism often features bad jokes, whereas complexitism is has more serious tones, with a heavier bases of science and mathematics.


The form of buildings and their facades is the first thing that architects use to distinguish them from each other and classify them in certain movements. One of the factors in the complexitism movement is fractal geometry. Fractal geometry can be defined as having broken dimensions so that each one looks like an exact copy of the second (like the Mandelbrot group in Mathematics [5] . This factor creates a relation between mathematicians and architects, thus each of them has their own way of translating this word. "Architects have generally valued it more for its connection to Chaos theory and Complexity Science." [6] [NEXUS NETWORK JOURNAL - VOL. 3, NO. 1, 2001, review editor Michael J. Ostwald]. For a better understanding of the affects that fractal geometry had on architecture I can refer Peter Eisenman's house11a that he introduced for exhibition in 1987.FIG7 Eisenman explained philosophically that "three destabilizing concepts: discontinuity, which confronts the metaphysics of presence; recursivity, which confronts origin; and self-similarity, which confronts representation and the aesthetic object" [Eisenman 1988:70].

I have always followed some of Peter Eisenman design ideas and tried to put some influence in my own work accordingly. For example his work for Arizona cardinals stadium on 2003 -6 in Glendale, United States of America FIG8was an influential way of thinking about art to my design for Formula 1 convection about 2 years ago FIG9.

One of the similarities that I have found in some of my designs in previous years with complexitism was that I had some approaches to fractal geometries as in my plan drawings and sections as well I could see the repetitions of the form with different scales FIG10. Following this type of geometry has led me to chaos architecture, as when I finished my designs I could see aspects of disorder in my entire form, although I realized there were also aspects of order noticeable in functions but my forms were not the same as functions FIG11.


Study in philosophy, mathematics and physics to predict the behavior on initial sensitive conditions is known as the Butterfly effect FIG12. Sometimes it is impossible to predict the conditions in long term although these fields behaviour are meant to be fully predictable. T his behavior is known as chaos.

As a result of following the Fractal geometry and mathematic relations they have formed the chaos and disorder appearance that is called chaos in architecture. That is argued on presenting the following changes in scales of form without putting the lead out of human scales in order as reference to create spaces, instead, the new references were culture, philosophy and modern technology; these factors followed the unpredictability in architecture.

Chaos is defined differently by different architects. Charles Jencks's view on this is that he can see structure and order at the end of chaos [i] , whilst Iranian architects Gisue Hariri and Mojgan Hariri see Chaos theory as a trend [ii] . As a result of the existence of these different perspectives, I have attempted to keep an open mind regarding this movement and develop my own understanding.

The Chaotic approach and fractal geometries are two factors that situated my designs and projects in the complexity movement. In addition, because I have deigned without the knowledge of this movement I have found some similarities to other movements such as deconstructivism, primarily due to the chaos that I deliberately put in some of my forms, usage of materials that are similar to post modern such as reinforced concrete because of the flexibility it allows, in that nonlinear and curved forms can be achieved.


THE BRIEF The first step to translate client briefs is to find out their culture, tradition and philosophy, and their need to start the process on the numerics and facts of architecture behavior.

CONTEXT As a starting point of new thoughts I believe that I have understood all of the surrounding circumstances and the facts that have produced the situation and that motivates the response as either positive or negative.

CONCEPTS To create a new design for clients the next step after understanding the context is to come up with a new idea or concept that suits the needs of the client and the context, to cover all the aspects of traditional, cultural and Architectural approaches to provide inspiration.

SITE The area that is playing the role of place and environment is unique and every time an Architect is trying to create a new design he or she is faced with new conditions and the challenge of constructing a new idea that responds to their situation. This idea can be chaotic, complementary or defensive; it depends on site and architect, however, the site highlights architects that can provide a different solution.

PLAN After gaining an understanding of the surrounding, it is time to create a space in response to previous steps. It should be considered as the function to create a communication between large and small environment, and is necessary to respond to functional needs such as residential, commercial and industrial.

SECTIONS To provide fractal geometry with the understanding of human scale the best approach is to use the concepts of discontinuity and self similarity in order to provide a responsible and positive space with a relation to the human body and mind.

ELEVATION Language of dimensions and math in this factor are the key factors to keep the connection between the interior living and exterior surrounding and also make them depart of each other in this way I am trying to keep the order and chaos in architectural approach.

MATERIALS In the case of high creativity and no limitations, technology is vital; while using the reinforced concrete and steels had their time it is time for using thin and flexible surfaces with new materials such as light carbons, titanium and prefabricated elements using highly accurate computer software's.

SUN CONTROLL For better use of sun it should be controlled by the meaning of providing light for better sight, warmness and less usage of natural Sources . Better understanding of light in building always has always been a concern and this movement is not an exception. Consideration is made for a more sustained, effective and practical use of natural light.

OTHER Sustainability has become a major concern in modern architectural design, and can be achieved with green roofs, rain water usage, the use of recycled materials, and consideration of heat islands.


Complexitism has seen a rise and fall within architectural history, but has nonetheless left its mark and played an important role in connecting math, science, physics and architecture. It has reevaluated past actions to create, produce and invent new ideas and has, in turn, revealed that all of these subcategories intrinsically related. This movement has added new characteristic values to its own generation and to following generations, has shown new ways of observing the aspects of architectural elements, and has created new events that progress beyond the limitations of architecture.

At the end it is noticeable that to merge with a movement and follow its solutions, it is critical to understand the movement's history and development. In addition, to use It correctly it is necessary to find out more about the weaknesses as well as the highlights of the movement. By putting yourself in the shoes of architects in certain situations in the past and rethinking the processes they have gone through, it can be found that an understanding of any movement is laid in its place, time and surrounding environment. Every movement is a solution to create a better connection between people, nature and their needs of surviving without interrupting one another, and, at end, to provide Architecture for life.