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According to Eleanor Heartney postmodernism is "Like the concept of a god who is everywhere and nowhere, "postmodernism" is remarkably impervious to definition" (Heartney 6). Just as the term advocates, postmodernism is distinct in contradiction of what it followed, specifically modernism. The term hardly miscarries to spawn controversy; postmodernism mostly denotes to the central literary expansions, modifications, and styles that arose in the literature, theater, music, film, philosophy, art, and architecture of progressive capitalist countries following the decease of the self-styled modernist age. Postmodernism expresses the innermost reality of that newly embryonic social order of technology, and how it affected the past generations, still affecting the current generations, and will affect the future generations.
According to Pauline Marie Rosenau "postmodernism is not entirely original. Its precursors can be traced and credited: postmodernism represents the coming together of elements from a number of different, often conflicting orientations, it appropriates, transforms, and transcends French structuralism, romanticism, phenomenology, nihilism, populism, existentialism, hermeneutics, western Marxism, Critical Theory, and anarchism. Although postmodernism shares elements with each, it has important quarrels with every approach." Rosenau states that postmodernism is not fully original to its contents, but a variety of selection of some of the past movements that were mostly located in France. She also implies that "much of what has been said about postmodernism up to this point implies its highly unorthodox nature, but this too must be questioned." which suggests the unconventional elements that were imbedded into the movement itself.
Postmodernism Art And Different Pieces Of Art
From the 1970's till now the drifts were shifted from the modernism art era toward a new era called postmodern art. This drift involved familiarizing the modernist ideas, and often merged some features of popular culture, and even the performance of art, into newer strategies, plans, and tactics that united the new era of art. Some artists used their art to make political proclamations and statements, others felt that art was no longer a valuable means of conveying political and personal proclamations. Art became extremely abstract, denoting to nothing but itself and itself only.
During the 1970's three artistic movements had thriven and delivered reliability in the art municipal of op art, pop art, and minimalism. While these movements mislaid much of their inspiration, they did not merely vanish. Op art intended to create animated visual effects through the recurrence of different shapes. There is no intellect of complexity in these works, also by eliminating the painting from any impression of reality. Like the other movements, there is little determination to implant profounder values and meanings. The well-known American op artist is Richard Anuszkiewicz. Pop art did not adore the ingenious development; but, it distinguished motorized design and the dullness of mass media. Pop art used images drawn from prevalent culture. Using shared objects and images: soup cans, comic strips; pop artists altered everyday objects and images into works of art. Andy Warhol, Roy Lichtenstein, and George Segal were leaders in pop art. Warhol, a prior marketable illustrator, used images of shared objects and replicated them in reformed colors. Minimalism is the use of symmetrical shapes or other modest units in statue or painting. Minimalists' use of new media: metal, plastics, plexiglas was an thrilling new expansion. One of the forerunners of this movement was Donald Judd.
The usage of new media indicated many improvements in art between 1970's - 1980's. "Site sculpture", was also known as earth art, the consumption of new media on a magnificent measure, which was performed on the scene. These sculptures were momentary; recording the making and annihilation of the piece was part of the art itself. One of the well-known pieces was created by Robert Smithson in Utah in 1970, which was named the Spiral Jetty. By dumping 6,000 tons of earth in the Great Salt Lake, Utah; Smithson positioned the establishment for a 1,500-foot-long spiral of black rock and salt crystals that stretched into the lake. By shifting the lake in this way, the artist had the ability to modify and adjust the viewer's observation of the lake itself. Other distinguished site sculptors were incorporated with Richard Serra, whose sculpture Tilted Arc, comprising of three steel plates, was installed in New York City's Federal Plaza. One of Serra's goals was to displace the loveliness of the plaza. The piece encouraged protests and appeals for its elimination. In 1970 Christo and Jeanne-Claude began preparations for Valley Curtain which after its completion was gained the recognition of Claude hung a huge orange curtain across a canyon in Colorado, and that's how it was entitled Valley Curtain.
Nam June Paik and Bruce Nauman demonstrate sculpture on a minor measure. Paik fashioned sculptures using numerous television sets on which memos flashed by, carrying the momentary nature of information. Nauman integrated flashing lights and images that barrage the viewer with troubling and distasteful words, thoughts, images, sounds, and views. What should be superficial from these samples is that art was not a product. People could not buy a Serra or a Nauman. Art was neither embellished nor eloquent: Art was meant to shock and impress in this era.
The usage of new media in art was not partial to industrial factual or lights. Between 1970's - 1980's art was frequently attentive on the procedure as much as the ending outcome. A natural postponement of this was performance art. Performance art trusted its imminence and its provisional nature. Much like the earth art, the process was as much a portion of the art as the tangible piece itself. One of the well-known examples of performance art is Laurie Anderson's Duet on Ice. In that piece, Anderson played violin while wearing skates implanted in chunks of ice. The piece finally ended when the ice melted and liquefied.
Postmodernism has escorted in a plethora of styles and approaches with no single mode or method leading. Pluralism has meant that any style is acceptable, genres can be mixed, and limits between media have blurry. Artists have continued to work with traditional subjects alongside new themes, although humor and irony have been particularly significant features. The emphasis on the "unique" nature of the artwork formerly associated with modernism has become outdated as some artists have employed parody and pastiche and have appropriated or quoted from historical work, while others have collaborated to produce "multiples", denying the notion of the "original".
Not all art was barren of meaning. There was a convinced amount of matter-sloping art. Sections used art to prompt group pride and group identity. Amongst feminist artists, photographer Cindy Sherman used photographs to remark on female stereotypes. African-American artist Melvin Edwards allocated with violence against African Americans. Robert Mapplethorpe celebrated homosexuality in some of his photographic pieces.
Finally, the public was usually stumped by art tendencies during the last portion of the 20th century. With the expansion of noncommercial methods such as earth art, performance art, and the multifaceted hypermedia productions, photography became the most appreciated and collectable art of the era. In the 1980's reminiscence for classical art produced a demand for the works of Wyeth, Picasso, and Pollock. Classical art once again became a product and began selling for some highest prices. Commercial funding for the arts rise steeply and many corporations displayed modern art in their anterooms. While some artists lamented the new commercialism, others answered to the money. This expansion commanded some art critics to foresee that art in the 21st century will become more ornamental.
Postmodernism Architecture, Well-Known Architects And Their Projects
American architecture since 1970 is noticeable by two design tactics. The first is worldwide modernism, which discards historic styles, embellishment, and highlights pure practical functionalism. The enormous skyscrapers constructed throughout the late 1960's and the early 1970's, architectures like the John Hancock Center and the Sears Tower in Chicago and the World Trade Center in New York (which was destroyed in the Al-Qaeda terrorist attack in 2001), demonstrate the international postmodernism architectures.
Postmodern architecture varieties extensively, from plans resembling global modernism to those constructed on ancient or Renaissance models. In reaction to the desolation of global modernism, postmodernism architecture grips embellishment, joining curves and lines to produce visually fascinating and massive buildings. Some postmodernism architects relate postmodernism designs to the global style. In difference to those approving the impressive measure of skyscrapers and airline terminals are those of the same architects who engaged postmodern differences on historical methods and specifics. An example of this is Charles Moore's Piazza d'Italia in New Orleans; Moore used orthodox forms but used modern resources, building the ionic principals of the pillars out of stainless steel. This mixture of substantial and design is referred to as satirical postmodernism. Other differences of postmodernism architecture contain dormant classicism and archaeological classicism. In dormant classicism the classical fundamentals are current, but not apparent. In archaeological classicism, the architecture is sketched straight from classical models, sometimes as an identical copy. By the 1990's the central difference of postmodernism was original postmodernism. These different improved outdated details into modern buildings deprived of the unusual additions of ironic postmodernism.
One of the outcomes of postmodernism architecture is an enlarged stress on comfort and decoration. The old modernism had focused on cabinet buildings for the wealthy, and practical office towers, which were tasteless and antiseptic buildings enclosed by concrete. Postmodernism designs were based on aesthetics and the public which offered a linked, "natural" atmosphere for people. The 1990's also saw supplementary schools of architecture, in deconstructionism, the well-known Frank Gehry's buildings, and new modernism with its non-linear, curled building styles. By the change of the century, postmodernism was on the downfall, being substituted by new schools of architectural ideology.
Specifically, the melody of ecological sustainability began to enter into the architectural mainstream. Portion of this movement contains consumed and recycled materials for building, which aids the environment by isolation fresh materials that may be in short-supply, like definite species of trees for wood, may be resulting from remnant fuels, or like blacktop from oil. Other inventions include decreasing energy ingesting by manipulative buildings that ingest much less energy to heat and cool or that of usage of energy from renewable sources, like the sun or wind. This environmentalist tactic to building is portion of the larger environmental movement going on in a 21st century world that is anxious with global warming, pollution, and energy consumption. In 2006 President George W. Bush's SAI (Solar America Initiative) provided national funding to quicken the progress and production of solar cell technology, with the goal of building American homes that produce more energy than they ingest by the year 2015.
Finally, America was on the cutting edge of this era, with Philadelphians' Robert Venturi and Denise Scott-Brown in the vanguard. Venturi built the Vanna Venturi House for his mother in the early 1960's, refunded to pre-20th century resources and an architectural vocabulary that would have been distinguished by the modernists. Postmodernism architects challenged Mies van der Rohe's slogan "Less is more" (Venturi's slogan was "less is a bore"). They sought to conglomerate the best of commercial and fine architecture together. Venturi was a friend of Warhol and shared his goal of violating down the barricades between fine and commercial art. Venturi was also very debatable among his colleagues at first, because he advocated the idea of architects as facilitators, rather than as demigods or heroic figures who reluctantly donate wisdom upon a chaotic, ignorant public. But Venturi's method of creating consensus among the client, building users, and neighbors has since become standard procedure.
In essential withdrawal from these forthright behaviors of the blitz stands the contemporary author Thomas Pynchon's Gravity' s Rainbow (1973), a novel that, befitting its position as one of the launch texts of postmodernism, critiques the traditional start of the airborne attacks. In its dwelling, it deals as a plot principle that the communication between the location of V2 strikes in numerous locations of London and the sexual overthrows of Tyrone Slothrop, an American lieutenant allocated to work with British intelligence. He is allocated the task of determining the linking between the V2's machinery and his own. In the process, he approaches to see himself and all humanity as forms of matter not all that unlike from the rockets. Both have been launched into space for a short-term period, underwired to self-annihilate on impact.
Vladimir Nabokov is best known as the author of Lolita, one of the most controversial novels of the 20th century, he wrote dozens of novels, as well as several assortments of poetry, that were highly praised for their expression and formal novelties. Admired as the outstanding postmodern writer, his work prejudiced the expansion of postmodernism in American literature. Postmodernism in literature usually denotes to a recurrence of limitations between high and low art forms and between genres, an importance on parody, irony, and spirit, and a liking for reflexiveness, destruction, and ambiguity. Although numerous of these features are linked with modernism as well, it is the altered attitude to these styles that divorces the two movements: modernism howled the loss of difference between genres and a sense of completeness and meaning in art; postmodernism holds these trends.
In the 1970's, with the original black impressionists and humorists now completely involved in postmodernism, American literary humor took a conclusively political turn. For example, Philip Roth violently satirized the Richard Nixon administration in his Swiftean satire, Our Gang (1971), while Robert Coover curved the impeached previous president into the wide-eyed narrator of his parody of 1950's Cold War politics, in The Public Burning (1977).
In the mid-1980's newer novelists who had come of age in the fading days of 1970's postmodernism arose to look for fresh ways to move past parody and self-reflexivity. Short-story writer Lorrie Moore achieved a mixture of lyrical tragedy and self-protective irony in such currently classic short stories like, "How to Be An Other Woman," "Like Life," and "You're Ugly, Too." The decade also observed the rise of new humorists such as Fran Lebowitz, a New Yorker whose collections Metropolitan Life (1978) and Social Studies (1981) combine the cutting tone of Dorothy Parker with the contemporary metropolitan complex of Woody Allen and P. J. O'Rourke.
According to Frank Kaufmann "the reader should be warned that this volume is not easy to understand. It requires that the reader have familiarity with 20th Century Continental and American philosophy, especially with what is called the "post-metaphysical" period. Terms and thinkers which inform this volume include Nietzsche, Wittgenstein, Heidegger, Gadamer, Dewey, Benedetto Croce, Derrida, nihilism, historicism, postmodernism, hermeneuÂticism and neo-pragmatism. As such The Future of Religion is a book by philosophers for philosophers. Add to that a starting point for the conversation that takes "the death of God" for granted, and a strong temptation arises to dismiss it along with a blast of related scattershot decrying "everything that's wrong with this world." To succumb to such a temptation, however, would be a mistake. The Future of Religion is a valuable and intellectually important encounter" (Kaufmann).
The growth of the mass entertainment industry greatly affected literature in the 20th century, particularly in the latest half of the century, with the appearance of vast media and entertainment firms that combine movies, "blockbuster" fiction, and figure marketing of books. One chief importance has been a harsh distinction between "serious" literature that pleas to well-educated readers and "popular" fiction. Although there are irregular overlaps between solemn literature and popular literature, an increasing difference between the two types that became gradually evident as Americans entered the 21st century. Observing this increasing detachment between audiences and the exhausted literature of a postmodernist world, some critics confirmed the "end of the novel." Serious literature often became more mysterious and, certainly, unfathomable and unlikeable, to most readers.
The tendency toward the "blockbuster" novel was exemplified in the early 21st century by the success of the Harry Potter novels and films. A series of seven novels by J. K. Rowling, a hostile single mother in England, the books apprehended the imagination of children around the world. Each book in the series sold outstandingly well and, to date, six of the seven have been made into major motion pictures. The same configuration occurred with Dan Brown's novel The DaVinci Code, another best-seller made into a major motion picture. In this case, however, the debated fictional plot, suggesting that Jesus Christ was married and fathered a daughter, although the plot and story-line maddened Christians around the world, and the disagreement may have donated to the lack of financial success of the movie.
Postmodernism Philosophical Views
Philosophically, postmodernism proclaims the expectations of modern science erroneous and distortive of reality. Both normal and social reality is illogical, impulsive, and disordered. There is no unbiased truth but only relative, dependent knowledge. Similar to existentialism, this interpretation inspires individual, subjective generous of connotation to life. According to Garrett Sheldon, "politically it leads to a radical individuality, moral relativism, and antiauthority sentiments". This negativism and imprecision, made postmodernist political theory less powerful than other 20th century political philosophies. By the 21st century, it, like communism, fascism, and existentialism, had faded in significance.
According to Hugo Holbling "the remark that much of postmodernist thinking demonstrates a lack of knowledge of other disciplines-leading to weak criticisms thereof-is one we could make about most subjects but has more importance in this context. Is it sensible to complain at the relationship between power and knowledge, say, without knowing how physicists and biologists claim to come by the latter, particularly given the diversity of approaches even in these. A situation to be avoided if possible is one in which no-one really knows what anyone else is doing but criticises them all the same. The problem of realism that we looked at before is very significant to the kinds of ideas postmodernists have put forward, which is why we find it being addressed by some of them. Opponents of postmodernism find it doubtful that the search for facts or truth need oppress anyone; although it is possible to use knowledge as power, they say, this has nothing to do with the facts themselves and everything to do with interpretation and the people doing the interpreting. Another telling criticism is to note that to be anti-theory is still to have a theory; that is, the theory that we shouldn't have a theory. Rejecting the need for criteria is still a criterion. Is it possible to be as playful as some suggest, not holding beliefs or methodological approaches and instead refusing to define or pin down narratives? One point raised against postmodernism concerns the language used in many works, which can seem tangled and obtuse at the best of times. Are long, complicated words being used as part of a specialist language or because postmodernists have nothing of consequence to say and want to hide this fact behind their rhetoric? Often the answer is a matter of opinion, or of saying that even a difficult writer can sometimes offer a comment clearly enough to raise an eyebrow before plunging back into a thicket of terminology. Since a key assumption of this series is that anything worth saying can be said clearly, it may be that some people are reluctant to wade into postmodernist thinking for fear that their time will be wasted; unless the writer is composing his thoughts merely for the amusement of himself and a few select friends, this is a difficulty that still restricts the impact that postmodern ideas can have" (Holbling).
The decades since the beginning of World War II have seen extraordinary activity amongst painters and sculptors. The disorder of the war troubled what endurance of custom there was in American art; the artists who have since come to the front have recognized new traditions of their own. In the first postwar decade concept was the dominant style of members of the avant-garde. But in the 1960's and the 1970's the supremacy of thought, particularly of an expressionist character, was sharply challenged by pop art, photographic realism, new conceptions of art as action, performance, and idea, and by the examination of a variety of new technologies including videotape and film. Like the earlier revolutionary tendencies of 20th century art, the succession of trends from 1940 to the 1980's from "Abstract Expressionism" to environmental systems, performance, and "Conceptual Art" which has been inspired by the ingrained experimentalism widespread to 20th century art.
The term "postmodernism" condenses the fabrication and assembly of, and the arrangement with, American art generally since 1970. Usually used to account the ways in which artists use a diversity of unlike media and represent frequently combative subject matter, this term is unclear but however used as a "cover-all" to include architecture, film, video, photography, sculpture, and the addition of popular culture. There is very little arrangement about what "postmodernism" means and, lately, it seems to have transformed into the comparable challenging term "globalization", also known to some critics as "Americanization", or the remorseless spread of American culture. However, for the devotions of this discussion of art in the United States since the 1970's, postmodernism will aid to clarify numerous cultural and social periods and developments that have predictably molded the ways in which artists and spectators alike have involved with the visual arts.
Throughout the 20th century, and well into the 21st century, numerous novels were altered for films, establishing an increasingly reciprocal relationship between the movies and publishing industries, both of which are cornerstones of contemporary popular culture. A recent example of this relationship can be traced to Robert Zemeckis's film adaptation of Winston Groom's novel Forrest Gump (1986). Released in 1994, Zemeckis's movie stars Tom Hanks in the leading role as Forrest Gump, a mentally disabled man with an IQ of 75 who relies on his heart and his mother's wise advice for guidance through the political and social disorder of 20th century America. The movie reaches its climax when Forrest finally marries his rebellious and wayward childhood girlfriend, Jenny. Though Forrest Gump was astonishingly popular, grossing $677 million and winning six Academy Awards, the movie has been the subject of criticism in some disability studies circles. Throughout in the film, Forrest gains personal, cultural, and economic success based exclusively on his naÃ¯ve inventiveness, which allows him to exceed his disability, and, for the most part, to contribute in American culture with few, if any, significant barriers. Such a portrayal, it is argued, overlooks the reality of the cultural downgrading that many disabled people experience on a daily basis. Therefore, some disability scholars view the film as an attempt to pander to mainstream viewers by offering them with a disabled character whose appearance and actions are not offensive and do not in any way challenge the status quo.
According to Eleanor Heartney postmodernism film and Victor Burgin "are interested in the social messages embedded in photographic images culled from Hollywood film or advertising. After isolating them their sources, he provides new contexts that highlight the unspoken assumptions they embody" (Heartney 35). Also, his work pursues the postmodernism act of "purloining already existing images and recontextualising them in ways that leave plenty of room for viewer interpretation" (Heartney 36).
Another example of postmodernism film is Pulp Fiction; some claim that the postmodernism condition has personalizing effects. Consider the case that there is a medical report on the positive benefits of the public distribution of heroin, based on a successful European model, which has gained the backing of a public health body. Now the report might appear as a news item on Good Morning America; then by noon it has been revised as a current affairs item, with recycled exaggerated footage of drug addicts in, say, Amsterdam; by the time of the evening programming it is satirized and ridiculed on panel shows, with cross referencing to the opening scene from Quentin Tarantino's film Pulp Fiction, with its debate on the little differences between Europe and America; by midnight it is the butt of jokes on the David Letterman's Late Show with David Letterman. In short, a serious issue has been coded and recoded, evoking a "so what" response from the audience regarding the use of heroin.
Conclusion On How Postmodernism Effected Americans
In conclusion, postmodernism as both a critique and an art practice includes feminism, postcolonialism, queer theory, Conceptualism, deconstruction indeed, many different homilies which overtly question the "grand narratives" of the previous modernist period. Notions of "authentic" or "original" art, created by an individual artist, usually male, white, and middle class, are the primary targets for the postmodern artists and critics of the late 20th century. The previous emphasis on the "aesthetic" as the value and experience obtained from art, usually painting, has also been heavily critiqued, as it posits a neutral, asocial, and apolitical understanding of American art from the 1940's onwards. The 1970's saw a new dawn for American artists who wanted to engage their art with the social and cultural issues of their day in innovative ways.
As a cultural dominant, the result of postmodernism was a widespread sense of alienation from a once-continuous historical past. The art of this period reacted to this sense of disintegration and alienation by trying to gain a new rationality via symbolism, myth, formal ingenuity, and a new obsession with partisanship and the interior. Also, postmodernism emerged as a reaction to this blossoming of newness. Challenged with the image-based, technologically and industrially ramped-up postwar world, many artists of the 1950's and 1960's began to doubt the effectiveness of art to achieve the surrounding consistency sought by the modernists. Instead, these new writers, artists, and architects observed the profusion of insincere images and dehumanizing technologies with a new attitude of ironic surrender. Image and style became detached and free floating, forcing the postmodern artist to seize these ready-made images and redistribute them through pastiche, bricolage, parody, and fabulation, all with a new spirit of hyper self-consciousness. Although the term sometimes refers to the general postwar period, it is perhaps more usefully pragmatic to works of literature, music, art, such as Andy Warhol's famous paintings of Campbell Soup cans and Brillo boxes, and architecture in which such features as parody and spoof are self-consciously applied.
Among American novelists, John Barth's effect on postmodernism was perhaps because he was the first writer formally to diagnose the postmodern artistic agenda both in his work, Giles Goat-Boy (1966) and Lost in the Funhouse (1968), and in his famous essay, "The Literature of Exhaustion." Which also included among the American "Postmodern" writers are such figures as Thomas Pynchon, Vladimir Nabokov, Robert Coover, William Gaddis, and Donald Barthelme. In more-recent years such writers as Don DeLillo, David Foster Wallace, and Richard Powers have been characterized as moving beyond postmodernism, though there is little critical arrangement as to what this new cultural principal will be called or what characterizes it as a intelligible movement.
The postmodernism of Foucault, much like ancient and medieval thought, challenges the modern obsession of human interests as a historical customary preparation twisting the full human potential. Many other critics regard the contemporary overemphasis on interests as falling people to selfish economic beings, thus trivializing their higher human essence, worth, or spirituality.