The Rural Solution Draft Cultural Studies Essay

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Although the urbanisation process is widely acknowledged to be associated with increasing levels of national production and higher levels of per capita GDP, poverty remains a persistent feature of urban life in India, both in terms of income and immigrants' living conditions. Economic growth in cities has been found to be insufficient to achieve poverty alleviation.

It is important to note that the Urban down trodden are the Rural poor in look for better life or even the Rural well offs in search of a better standard of living.

Hence, it's a need to identify the problems related to the Rural world: their sociological and cultural aspects, the existing planning endeavours, and those in the pipe line.


To study what is the prime human force governing the Urban phenomenon.

To study the Rural world at the heart, the cultural, social and economic factors.

To study the current planning features, and those related to governance that show positive trends of development.

To take up a current case of a region with a stark change in Planning and Governance that has led to change in migration trends and increasing Happiness index.

To make a data oriented and comparative study, that shows infrastructural and planning related features.


The study would touch on the Urban problems, and the forces that have turned the civilization towards Urbanity.

The main concern would be the current infrastructural and planning trends. The prime concern would be laid upon detailing out the Case of Bihar and regions inside that are seeing stark changes due to the change in Governance and hence, planning.

The study and inferences are primarily India oriented and country specific [Though there are references to the American Urbanization].

The planning features have a lot to do with Governance [changing] and gets included in the scope of study.


The case of both PURA and Bihar are quite recent and an in depth result based analysis through secondary sources is not possible and could be vague.

The analysis part of trends and patterns, hence, can't have wide secondary sources and are primarily first hand [primary] and have author's observations involved.


Basic Study Method: To move with the chapters itself, and understand the Rural scenario as well as the urban domain as a narrative; so that, the understanding is moulded and not random.

Hence, the act of finding, through all sources [primary or secondary] would follow the sequence as it is aimed to be presented.

Involving own interpretation and analysis along with the material survey to enhance further reading and final analysis.

Adding personal talks and interviews into the final material.

Case Study Method: The case studies would involve identification of infrastructural elements that enhance the urban movement and form the basis of human aspiration that lead to it. Then, it would be seen in the light of a planning policy and physical region.

PURA : It's a new and evolving policy. Data collection would be based on primary interviews along with secondary sources esp. Government manifestos.

Taking the case of development through time at all stages.

2 Introduction

Human aspirations have led to the development of a character of human living in the present world that has been taken up by many positive and negative ruptures. These ruptures are intermingled. The Urban movement in our civilization is one such rupture.

A break away (concentrated Urban living as a universally accepted model of Civilization), two centuries ago, is now the way we live, and feel the possible way to live.[1] Urban living has become a part of Human Living, to a degree, that a stringent overpowered endeavour is required to manage it. The general mindset of high standard of living associated with urbanization is starting to take its toll. Now, the growth of cities is contributing to the degradation of rural world. Aspiration pushes people up, in to the urban centres, but the problem comes up when these migrating elements come up due to lack of amenities at the bottom [as it is called].

Government and its agencies are the only public domain possible, which can provide that stringent approach. Spreading public amenities in pockets of rural world and wiping out the deficits that are now associated with the living standards will increase the Happiness index of rural areas. And hence, the movement due to the lack can be stopped, and be managed over a long period.

3 The Force

What is man? What meaning has his life? What is his origin, his condition, his destiny? All the questions that man asks about his life are multiplied by the fact of his death: for man is the only organism being aware of his ultimate fate. He is like a child at the sea's edge, working desperately to build up the walls of his sand castle before the next wave breaks over it. But like every other animal, man survives because he plays the nature's game: he too seizes food, fights, kills and co-operates. Mastering his primitive arts, with his free hands, dominating every other species on the planet; and in this very process accomplished an even greater miracle - he domesticated himself. Creating a new form of life play, out of which most of the life conserving, life furthering processes of civilization have grown.[1]

Man's capacity to impose work on himself not merely gave him greater security and freedom but made possible a more highly organized kind of society: not by accident perhaps was the original step from the tribal societies to civilization accompanied for long by the enslavement of large groups, until all men were ready to submit to slavery of work itself for the purpose of wider and completer liberation that results from the economic division of labour.

Those who believe in economic determinism, as the single clue to history, ascribe an independent life to mechanism and conceive of the human community as being passively moulded by them. To hold that man is completely conditioned by his agents of production is as false as to hold that he can escape their pervasive effects.

"The social meaning of work derives from the acts of creation it makes possible.": Mumford[1]

Man pushes forward for creativity. Innovations, and their desires make him live, and work.. In man's world; only those who daily seek to renew and perfect themselves are capable of transforming the society; while those who are eager to share their highest goods with the whole community -indeed, with all humanity - are capable of transforming themselves.

And this is the force of centralization. The driving force of Urbanization is the force that draws us to a complex nurturing central location, where innovations can be valued and given opportunities to excel.

"Many and various are the products of man's art: but his final work of art is himself." Mumford

Today, these centralized services [the nurturing elements] are mentioned under the infrastructural edifices like connectivity, security, education, work and other amenities. These are the powering elements to innovation. They govern the very idea of human civilization and urbanization. [1]

[Mumford, L. (1944). The Condition of Man. London: Martin Secker & Warburg


4 What is Urban ?


Although the urbanisation process is widely acknowledged to be associated with increasing levels of national production and higher levels of per capita GDP, poverty remains a persistent feature of urban life in India, both in terms of income and immigrants' living conditions. Economic growth in cities has been found to be insufficient to achieve poverty alleviation. [12][11]

Government action has focused on welfare and habitat improvements under various poverty alleviation programmes but has been unable to make linkages between these improvements and increases in productivity and income for the urban poor.

The weaknesses of current policies of poverty alleviation at the national level are due to certain misconceptions about poverty: firstly, that the poor represent a drain on the urban economy rather than a source of productivity; secondly, that poverty can be seen as a welfare question, with income-raising objectives left largely to national economic growth reports and assumed trickle-down development processes.


In these clean and green city of India, Due to rising population, the number of slum dwellers rising in Indian cities. Slums area always lack by some basic necessities of Life clean water, electricity and sanitation. The inhabitants are mostly rickshaw puller, seasonal small vendors, house maid servants with a family income ranging from a meager Rs.1500 to Rs.3000. After a hard and low-earning working day, most of the men spend their daily earnings on homemade illicit liquor. The slum population is constantly increasing: it has doubled in the past two decades. The current population living in slums in the country is more than the population of Britain. [9]

Examples: [12]

Dharavi, Mumbai: Mumbai "The Dream city" holds the biggest slum area in India known as Dharavi. Dharavi, is spread over an area of 1.75 km along the Mahim river, is Asia's largest slum, in central Mumbai.

Bhalswa Slum, Delhi: In "The Heart of India" the population of the slum was considered to be around 20% of the total population of Delhi. It also houses the largest number of child labours. These slums tend to bank on river Yamuna. Delhi Government is thinking to launch a survey to prepare a data base of slum dwellers in the city to help them.

Nochikuppam, Chennai: Nochikuppam slum with 1,300 huts where around 5 thousand people live below poverty level and don't have enough money for two meals a day.

Basanti Slum, Kolkata: "The City of Joy" has a slum area known as Basanti slum, it is one of the major slum areas in Kolkata. One third of Kolkata's population lived in 2000 registered and 3500 unregistered slums.

Rajendra Nagar Slum, Bangalore: "The garden city" alone hold 570 slums form total of around 2000 slums in State. It is estimated that about 20% of Bangalore population reside in slums. The families living in the slum are not ready to move into the temporary shelters, saying it is unjust and risky to live under a flyover.

Indiramma Nagar, Hyderabad: Around 625000 people live in slum areas of Hyderabad. There is very little land available for all the people who live in 104 identified and 24 unidentified slums in Hyderabad.

Saroj Nagar, Nagpur: Nagpur has 424 legal slum areas; Sarojnagar is just one of the 424 slums in the city. In Nagpur, approximately 40 % of the population lives in slums. These slums are home to over 1, 42,000 people and cover about 1,600 hectares of prime land. Due to struggle for land in Maharashtra, it was making second largest slum area in Nagpur after Dharavi Mumbai.

Hence, the Slums in India are wide spread and cover almost all the urban centers of India.

Not only that, these urban house typologies can be found all over the world in many ways and different living condition. Though, the definition changes the slum remain.

4.3 MIGRATION [10]

The push and pull factors have dominated much of the understanding of migration. Push factors like low income, low literacy, dependence on agriculture and high poverty are cited as some examples associated with place of origin. On the other hand, high income, high literacy, dominance of industries and services, are the pull factors associated with place of

destination. It has been found in this study that both in and out- migration rates have ignificant positive association with per capita income, percentage of workforce and share of

GSDP in the non-agricultural sector. This means that higher income and sectoral transformation of economy from agricultural to non-agricultural sector is associated both with higher in-migration as well as out-migration rates. In other words, the areas which are

experiencing higher in-migration are also the areas characterised with high out-migration rates. On the other hand, poverty is not found related with increased out- migration at the state level. Neither per capita monthly expenditure nor social categories of households indicates that migrants largely come from disadvantaged sections of Indian society. It appears that push factors are not effective in influencing migration as it is generally believed.

On the other hand, increased mobility of India's population after liberalization of the economy in 1991 is confined to relatively better off sections who can better fit into the emerging areas of job opportunities.


Redirection of investment is recommended to develop strong economic base for small and medium city neglected so far.

Redirection of migration flows is required. Since the mega cities have reached saturation level for employment generation and to avoid over-crowding into the over congested slums of mega cities i.e Bombay, Calcutta, Delhi, Madras etc it is required to build strong economic sector (Kundu and Basu,1998) in the urban economy, growth efforts and investments should be directed towards small cities which have been neglected so far so that functional base of

urban economy is strengthened. Then redirection of migration to these desirable destination will be possible.

Policy should also relate to proper urban planning where city planning will consist of operational , developmental and restorative planning.Operational planning should take care of improvement of urban infrastructure, e.g roads, traffic, transport etc. Developmental planning should emphasize on development of newly annexed urban areas. Various urban renewal process can be used. Restorative planning should aim to restore original status of old building monuments which have historic value.

In general urban planning must aim at :

a)Balanced regional and urban planning (Mukherji, 2001)

b)Development of strong economic base for urban economy

c)Integration of rural and urban ( Kundu, Sarangi and Dash, 2003 ) economy-- emphasis on

agro-based industry. Raw material should be processed in rural economy and then transferred to urban economy.

d)Urban planning and housing for slum people with human face.

5 What is Rural ?


"The non-centralized human world with primary occupations; esp. Cultivation, and nature driven operation is termed as the Rural world."

Social life in the country side moves and develops in a rural setting as does the the urban life in its own setting. Its important to locate and study the distinctive features of the two types of urban phenomenon.


Various criteria and the comprehensive features are;


Rural World

Urban World


Totality of Cultivators and their families. In the community are usually a few representatives of several non-agricultural pursuits.

Totality of people engaged principally in manufacturing, mechanical pursuits, tyrade, commerce, professions, governing, and other non-agricultural occupations.


Predominance of nature over anthropo-social environment. Direct relationship to nature.

Greater isolation from nature. Predominance of man-made environment over natural. Poorer air. Stone and iron.

Size of Community

Open farms or small communities, "agriculturalism" and size of community are negatively co-related.

As arule in the samecountry and at the same period, the size of urban community is much larger than the rural community. In other words, urbanity and size of community are positively co-related.

Density of Population

In the same country and at the same period, the density is lower than in the urban community. Generally density and rurality are negatively co-related.

Greater than the rural communities. Urbanity and density are positively co-related.

Heterogeneity and homogeneity of the population

Compared with urban populations, rural communities are more homogeneous in racial and psychological traits.[Negative co-relation with heterogeneity]

More heterogeneous than rural communities (in the same country and at the same time]. Urbanity and heterogeneity are positively co-related.

Social differentiation and stratification

Rural differentiation and stratification less than urban.

Positive co-relation to Differentiation and stratification.


Territorial, occupational and other forms of social mobility of the population are comparatively less intensive. Normally the migration current carries more individuals from the country to the city.

More intensive. Urbanity and mobility are positively, co-related. Only in the periods of social catastrophy is the migration from the city to the country greater than from the country to the city.

System of Interaction

Less numerous contacts per man. Narrower area of the interaction system of its members and the whole aggregate. More prominent part is occupied by primary contacts. Predominance of personal and relatively durable relations. Comparative simplicity and sincerity of relations. "Man is interacted as a human."

More numerous contacts. Wider area of interaction system per man and per aggregate. Predominance of secondary contacts. Predominance of impersonal casual and short-lived relations. Greater complexity, manifoldedness, superficiality and standardized formality of relations. Man is interacted as a "number" and "address."

8 Conclusion (Tentative)

Overall factors that govern the Urban movement relating to the current scenario. Whether its a natural phenomenon, and hence, can't be changed naturally.

The forced planning changes necessary.

The positives and negatives that are involved in the forced changes, if suggested.

Clear migration patterns and infrastructural change patterns (evolution) from Bihar, overlapping the Governance change, emphasising their importance.

Trend of Governance activities and Planning, their results and assessment.

The role of educational institutions, road-rail connectivity, rural development schemes (new and better implementation of existing) and Urban-Rural collaborations on the Rural Sphere.