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Danish cuisine first appeared in the produce of local farmer, and it was developed to goods in the Industrial Revolution in the end of 19th century. The open sandwiches (smørrebrød) as the national speciality of Denmark, are prepared and decorated with a huge number of ingredients, and they are usually eaten for lunch. Meat balls (frikadeller), roast pork with crackling (flæskesteg) and poached cod (kogt torsk) are considered as the traditional hot meals of Denmark. Also, the Carlsberg and Tuborg beers of Denmark are famous for its akvavit and bitters. (1. Unknown, 2012)
As same as many other Scandinavia countries, the basic forms of traditional Danish cuisine are meat and fish which is rich of fat and carbohydrate. To make sure the natural products is enough to feed family member, families had their own store of long-lasting dry products, rye, barley, dried peas and smoked or salted pork. With cooperatives displaced family farm step by step in the second half of the 19th century, milk become to a part of staple. Wood-fired ovens, meat grinders, refrigerators and other modern kitchenware contributed to variety of new dishes such as including frikadeller, roast pork, poached steaks of ground beef and a range of desserts.
Over the centuries, sausage, which is one of the main materials of Danish cuisine, developed several different kinds by the end of the 18th century. In the 1880s, Oskar Davidsen opened a restaurant focusing in making open sandwiches, which is consists of a single slice of bread with one or more food items on top.
Around the end of the 19th century, the one-hour lunch break was shortened to 30 minutes. To adapt the change, people was start to take a few pieces of smørrebrød, which is a piece of buttered rye bread, a dense, dark brown bread topping with piece of meat or fish, cheese or spreads, to work in a box as lunch. Since tomatoes and cucumbers were introduced to Danish, they were used more and more frequently as a topping to the cold cuts around 1920s and 1930s. In the 1940s, Henry Stryhn popularized leverpostej by making deliveries around Copenhagen on his bicycle.
The concept of fast food arrived Danish in the 1960s and 1970s as new kitchenware gained the availability of deep frozen goods. At the same time, Mediterranean dishes as Danes spread more widely in Danish. Since ingredients were being imported from the south by the 1990s, Danish cuisine achieved great progresses in development, especially in gourmet dishes.
Like most western countries, many idea of Danish cuisine came from France. Soon, the young generation of chefs started to travel abroad and learning how to use the local ingredients as a basis for new dishes. With more and more communication, Danish cuisine has marked on the world gastronomic map with several Michelin-starred restaurants. (2. Unknown, 2012)
In Danish cuisine history, it has less affected by other country around. The main influence is come from France. In the 1960s and 1970s, with fast food is introduced in Denmark, it aroused the interest of Mediterranean dishes. Most inspiration came from France when Danish chefs travel around. They learned how to prepare dishes such as canard à l'orange or authentic sauce Béarnaise. Danish cuisine also absorbed experience from Spain and other Nordic countries.
On the other hand, as the main exporter in Europe, Danish cuisine affected many countries. During the German occupation 1940-45 agricultural production and exports played a crucial role in this regard and it was the core of the Danish economy. (3. Mogens R. Nissen, 2012)
Denmark is almost surrounded by water which is the North Sea to the west of Denmark and the Baltic Sea to the east. There are lots of lakes in the middle interior region of the Jutland which known as the Lakeland region and the largest lake of them is called Arre. Denmark is also a low-lying country. There are large numbers of hills and ridges but the highest point only exceeds sea level by 173 meters which is called Yding Forest Hill. (4. Unknown, 2012)
The climate in Denmark is temperate. It is about 16°C in summer and 0°C in winter, and the summers are cool and the winters are mild and windy. The average rainfall of whole year in Denmark is about 610 mm. (5. Unknown, 2012)
Danes are the one of the world's largest exporters of pork. It gains over 32 billion from pork export industry every year as similar as the USA. Danes have many ways to cook pork. For example, smoked ham or pork has been preserved in Denmark since 1000 AC and it still is one of the most popular dishes in Danish. (6. Unknown, 2012)
There are 63% of the land of Denmark is cultivated farmland. There are between 25 to 385 acres per farm. The most important crop of the land is wheat. Besides, there are several crops grown in Denmark such as potatoes, cabbage, sugar beets, carrots, onions, barley, oats, rye, flax, hemp, hops, rape, and tobacco. Dane feeds potatoes to pigs and also makes it into alcohol. (7. Voters, 2012)
The weather of Denmark is maritime and quite changeable. The Gulf Stream encircling the islands tempers the climate. Snowfall occurs, but is shortlived. Averagely Denmark has 600 mm precipitation a year. As solids are many and varied in different areas, Dane cultivates wide-ranging crops. To keep the land fertile they add chemicals to the soil for fertilizer.
As same as other Scandinavian countries, Denmark's geography and climate has long, cold winters. The Danish cuisine is traditionally heavy and rich in fat, consisting mainly of carbohydrates, meat and fish. It also produces good cheese as well for Danes keeping large amount of cheese as the main food in long, cold winter.
The main animals are cattle, pigs, and chickens. Most of the cattle are in Jutland, but there are also pigs in Jutland too. Dairy and beef cattle, pork and chickens are Denmark's main meats.
There are a lot of fish in Denmark. Some of the fish are cod, halibut, salmon, herring, Norway pout, sand lances, sprut, whiting, and trout. Around 20,000 people are employed in fisheries and there are about 610 inland fish farms in Denmark. As the fishing at the shore has dropped in the last few years, Fisherman might travel as far as 100 or 200 miles out to sea. (8. Unknown, 2000)
Denmark Copenhagen food festival
Denmark Copenhagen food festival start in 2005, it only opens 10 days every year from 24th August to 2nd September. People can taste a broad variety of Nordic food made by Danish and Swedish restaurants and guesthouses or food producers. (9. CNC report, 2012)
Holidays with special meals
There are special meals during festivals which include Easter, Christmas, New Year's Eve and Martin Mass. During Easter, elaborate lunches and roast lamb for dinner are served. In Christmas Eve dinner, roast duck and pork, or goose stuffed with prunes with red cabbage can be seen everywhere in Denmark. And during these two festivals, special seasoned beers are sold. Boiled cod is used for celebrated New Year's Eve. And roast goose is for Martin Mass. And the desserts for all these festivals include almonds, rice porridge mixed with whipped cream, and vanilla and served with hot cherry sauce. (10. Unknown, 2012)
The Regular hot Dog ä¸¹éº¦çƒç‹-æ‘Špolsevognè¡-å¤´é£Ÿå“
In Danish, there are some street foods. Hotdogs and hotdog stands are popular almost everywhere. People can find it on the mainly streets. (11. Steve, 2009)
The origin of the Danish pastries is ascribed by the Danish Confectioners, Bakers and Chocolatemakers Association to a strike amongst the bakery workers in Danish bakeries in1850. The strike forced Danish bakery owners hired foreign workers and one of them was unfamiliar with the Danish baking recipes, so he baked pastries with his own way. This new pastry became popular in Denmark and it was improved by Danish bakers, increasing the amount of fat.
Danes usually have three meals a day; include a cold breakfast, a cold lunch and a hot dinner. Some also have a snack in the afternoon or evening. The most common ingredient in hot meals is meat, especially pork. It is often cooked with potatoes or some other vegetable like carrots or lettuce. Most hot meals have no starter but usually have desserts like fruit or ice cream. And during the meal, Danes like drinking beer or wine instead of soft drinks, milk, coffee or plain water. (12. Unknown, 2012)
Denmark is the country in Europe. They use spoon, knife, and fork to eat food. (13. Unknown, 2012)
Special or significant foods
The traditional Danish "cold table" (or Koldt bord) is a special type of Danish buffet or entree, cheese and "smørrebrød." It often offers a large selection of toppings from herrings, fish, seafood, meet, salami, liver paste, salads, cheeses etc. Many luncheon restaurants served it at lunch time and accompanied by cold beer and ice cold snaps. (14. Unknown, 2012)
The kransekake, which means wreath cake, is a traditional Danish dessert. It is a special cake that is used on occasions such as weddings, baptisms, Christmas, or New Years's Eve. Kransekake is made by cooking rings in different sizes, which are then stacked into a pyramid-shape. It usually made from almonds, icing sugar and egg whites. The taste of it should hard to the touch, yet soft and chewy. (15. Unknown, 2012)
Torvehallerne, which opened in September 2011, is the biggest fresh produce market in Copenhagen, offering all kinds of fresh food products such as fish, vegetables, fish, cheese, meat, cakes, bread and Danish specialities, as well as chocolate, flowers, tea, coffee, spices, Spanish tapas, Italian products, French cheeses and Asian specialities. The market is open every day except Monday. (16. Unknown, 2010)
Religion in Denmark
I found the Lutheran Church of Denmark is the main religion. Islam is the second religion of Denmark. Christian is the third religion of Denmark. But here no more detail to talk about the religion influence on Danish cuisine. (17. Unknown, 2012)
Danes are the one of the world's largest exporters of pork. It gains over 32 billion from pork export industry every year as similar as the USA. Danes have many ways to cook pork. For example, smoked ham or pork has been preserved in Denmark since 1000 AC and it still is one of the most popular dishes in Danish.
In the 1880s, Oskar Davidsen first opened a restaurant focusing in making open sandwiches, which is consists of a single slice of bread with one or more food items on top. (18. Unknown, 2012)
J.c.Jacobsen founds Carlsberg outside Copenhagen, Denmark. First brew Novermber 10. Since that, this small workshop grows up to one of the most important beer supplier in the world step by step. The company's main brand is Carlsberg beer, but it also brews Tuborg as well as local beers. Jacobsen set up the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1875 that hammer away at scientific problems related to brewing. (19. Unknown, 2012)
Kristine Marie Jensen
Kristine Marie Jensen published a cookery book that named Frk. Jensens Kogebog in 1901. This book contains all the authentic recipes for traditional dishes and baking bread, cakes and biscuits as well. After reprinted dozens of times, it becomes to the Danish cookery bible that can be found in most Danish bookshops. (20. Unknown, 2012)
Bread is a very important part of the Danish cuisine. Before electronic oven been invented, Danes baking bread with ceramic like other Europeans as well. The first electronic oven was invented in the very late 19th century. One major improvement in electric ovens was the invention of resistor heating coils. It can make sure the temperature more stable. With electronic oven's help, people would baking not only bread but also cookies, Danish pastries, Kransekage, and Kringle in a more accurately and efficiently way. (21. Mary Bellis, 2012)
Carlsberg Laboratory and Pale lager
Carsberg laboratory was set up by the J.C.Jacobsen in 1875. This laboratory worked on scientific problems related to brewing. It isolated and named the species of yeast Saccharomyces carlsbergensis which used to make pale lager. Pale lager is a very pale to golden-coloured beer with a well attenuated body and a verying degree of noble hop bitterness. (22. Unknown, 2012)
The origin of the Danish pastries is ascribed by the Danish Confectioners, Bakers and Chocolatemakers Association to a strike amongst the bakery workers in Danish bakeries in1850. The strike forced Danish bakery owners hired foreign workers and one of them was unfamiliar with the Danish baking recipes, so he baked pastries with his own way. This new pastry became popular in Denmark and it was improved by Danish bakers, increasing the amount of fat. (23. Unknown, 2012)
Rye, wheat, barley, dairy, beef cattle, pork, chickens, potatoes, cabbage, sugar beets, carrots, onions, oats, herring, and other seafood.
knives, forks, tablespoons, teaspoons, food scoops, turners, juicers, boxes for spices, grinders for spices, graters, food containers, pans, trays, pans, bowls, food scales and kitchen thermometers. (24. Unknown, 2012)
There are Manual labor and combine-harvester, Spraying Equipment, and automatic irrigation machine. Before famers use iron sickle or leaf-knife to harvest crops. It is more difficult to do. Now the combine-harvester can be save time and save labor to harvest the crops, like rye, wheat, barley. The spraying equipment and automatic irrigation machine also can save time and save labor, then give high-efficiency.
Baking, salting, frying, roasting, boiling seasoning and drying are the cooking method. For example, when people do the pastry, they can use electronic oven. It is more efficient. The salting is the items of meat - fish and fruit was salted - smoked or brine-pickled and could be stored for a very long time. Roasting can cook some meat, such as pork. Frying can pan fry the bacon. Boiling can boil potato. Seasoning will give food more flavors. Drying can dry vegetables.
Not long ago, the basic ingredient of Danish cuisine was associated with potatoes and bacon and Danish cuisine was almost obscure in the world. But everything changed tremendously during the last decade. The wind of New Nordic Cuisine crossed the Denmark and has revolutionized Danish cookery. More and more new ingredients, cooking methods and new ideas are mixed with Traditional Danish cuisine. Even so, many Danes still love to eat traditional foods like porridge, open sandwiches and the classic roast pork with parsley sauce - of course served with a glass of good Danish beer.
Usually, an ambitious chef would not put the open sandwich on the menu as it is a mark of tradition. Nowadays, Globalized consumer culture has swept the globe. Open sandwich found its own seat on the shelves in the supermarket with Indonesian, Chinese and Italian foods.
Agreements made during a Chinese state visit to Denmark earlier this year with further strengthen trade. With Chinese middle class grows and increased demand, exports of Danish pork are expected to increase. If current trend continues, Danish agricultural exports to China will increase by about 20 percent this year.
Nordic food has a closed environment for a long time. The Danish dishes remained the original ingredients and method, like Flæskesteg, The traditional method of preparation was made by roast a joint of pork from the breast or neck without removing the rind, and was used a sharp knife to cut the skin through to the meat in narrow strips to obtain crispy crackling. Salt and pepper is added when the skin is rubbed and bay leaves and optionally cloves are added when the skin is being cut. After all above, the Joint is roasted by a hot oven. And then the boiled potatoes and caramelized potatoes (brunede kartofler) will be accompanied with it. The special method of preparation is to melt sugar in a frying pan over strong heat, add a clump of butter, and bathe a portion of small round peeled potatoes (available in cans) in the mixture while they become richly caramelized or browned. Red cabbage (rødkål) will be included too. Sliced apples are added at the beginning of the preparation of the cabbage. This traditional recipe is considered to be the one described by Frk. Jensen in her 1901 cook book by many Danes.
Denmark has more butter, milk, cheese, ice cream. They contain more saturated fat. It is not good for humans healthy. Now lower fat dairy product or lite fat dairy product is more popular. The sugar free ice cream is healthier than regular ice cream.
Danes baking bread with ceramic before, now we have electronic oven. With electronic oven's help, people would baking not only bread but also cookies, Danish pastries, Kransekage, and Kringle in a more accurately and efficiently way.
Before famers use iron sickle or leaf-knife to harvest crops. It is more difficult to do. Now the combine-harvester can be save time and save labor to harvest the crops, like rye, wheat, barley. The spraying equipment and automatic irrigation machine also can save time and save labor, then give high-efficiency.
In the future, the menu of Danish cuisine could be filled full of new experimental ingredient such as musk ox and wild berries, and sauces are made with beer rather than wine. Those cutting edge ingredients will give Danish cuisine sharp taste and enrich the menu. But how to maintain traditional gastronomy is the new question arrived with the new ingredients and methods.
The first Nordic Food Festival was held in Aarhus 7th through 9th of September 2011. It was the largest event that Dane has ever established. Over 27.000 visitors attended the festival during three days. Many similar festivals could be hold around the world in the future to propagate not only the Danish cuisine but all the Nordic food. It will develop a better culture of Danish cuisine. Finally, you may find Danish cuisine restaurant in any corner of the world just like the hamburger.
With science and technology are advancing rapidly, there is no doubt that high technology will affect Danish cookery widely in the future. For example, Flæskesteg is the Danish version of roast pork, is considered to be one of Denmark's principal national dishes. To make pork skin crisp, it need be roast in the oven over 90 minute. However, new electromagnetic oven could reduce the time to around 10 minute once it is good enough to heat food more accurately.
Application to an establishment
Restaurant Sankt Annæ is located at Amalienborg (the Royal castle) and was established in 1894. This restaurant is keeping the Danish lunch traditions. The most classical open sandwich can be found here. The restaurant makes Danish specialties of the highest quality and everything is home-made from the restaurant's own kitchen. (25. Unknown, 2012)
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Sankt Annæ Menu
Curry spiced herring
Boiled and pickled herring
Fried and marinated herring
Pickled herring from Christiansø Island
Freshly peeled Danish shrimps
Smoked salmon with creamed spinach
Fried filet of plaice with remoulade
Smoked eel with scrambled egg
Lobster salad (freshly boiled lobster) with toast
Smoked herring with an egg yolk
Egg with shrimps
Boiled cod roe with remoulade
Smoked leg of deer with scrambled egg and chives
Boiled tongue with Italian salad
Boiled brisket of beef with pickles and horse-radish
Boiled ham with fried egg
"The vets nightcap" liver pate voverd with boiled, salted beef
Roastbeef with remoulade and fried onion
Roastbeef with fried egg
Beef tatar with capers, raw onions, pickles and egg yolk
New Danish potatoes, raw onions and mayonnaise
Chicken salad with crispy bacon and toast
Warm liver pate with bacon ans musgrooms
Warm rib roast with red cabbage
Fried meat balls with pickled cucumber
Fried calf´s liver with bacon and onions
Corned beef "Paris style" with egg yolk and pickles
Brie with radish
Gorgonzola with raw onions and egg yolk
Old cheese with gravy jelly and raw onions
Danish blue on toasted rye bread