The Problem Background And Statements Cultural Studies Essay

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Every day consumers are exposed to thousands of ads (Thornson, 1990) and this will hamper companies to create a unique position and receive attention from consumers. Using celebrities can help companies to create unique ads and engenders a positive effect on the attitude and sales intention towards the brand (Ranjbarian, Shekarchizade and Momeni 2010). For many years celebrity endorsement is applied. Already in 1979 one in every six commercials used a celebrity and in 2001 that percentage grew to 25% (Erdogan et al, 2001). The usage of celebrity endorsements has increased in the last decades and at the same time also their corresponding cash flows did. In the year 1996 US companies paid more than 1 billion dollar to celebrity endorsers for endorsement deals and licensing rights (Lane, 1996). The usages of celebrities remain accruing and also the contracts and payments of the celebrity endorsers with sponsors keep rising over the years (McGill, 1989). Endorsement of celebrities is not likely to change because people and Western culture have been obsessed by celebrities.

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This is emanated from the fact that media overloads society with news and illustrations about celebrities and gives them an entertainment function (Choi & Rifon, 2007).

The strategy of celebrity endorsement has positive effects for both company and celebrity. Using a celebrity, the consumer receives a positive feeling of security and association. Since his or her idol is recommending the product; it must be a good product. Consumers would like to identify themselves with the celebrity and they buy the product because they would like to be as the celebrity. Advertisements with celebrities create instant brand awareness and it induces personality to a brand. Unfortunately there can be some pitfalls. The celebrity his or her image can change or the celebrity could lose the status of a celebrity. It could happen that a celebrity is endorsing for many brands, that this negatively affects the credibility. Furthermore, it might happen that celebrities negatively appear in the news. How do companies deal with that? Like the issue with O.J. Simpson, where the company tried to avoid possible negative consequences by breaking all connections with the endorser (Till and Shimp, 1998). Or companies could keep their fingers crossed; hoping for their brand image will not be negatively influenced by the actions made by the endorser in his private life. For example Michael Jackson came in 1984 negative in the news (alleged child molestation and intimacy), but remained a celebrity endorser for Pepsi. Regarding to Pepsi, it acquired 8 million sales increase in 1984 due to Michael Jackson as a celebrity endorser (Gabor et al. 1987).

This thesis is written because celebrity endorsement is of major importance to companies.

Every company has an image. By making a celebrity spokesman for the company, they put a significant part of the company's image in the hands of a celebrity. When the celebrity subsequently creates a negative image for him or herself, also the image of the company will be affected. That's why it is important to pick the right celebrity as endorser for your product. Companies can outlay a mountainous amount of money on the celebrities for promotional and image campaigns. With the help of celebrities consumer attitude can be changed, purchase intentions can be enlarged and profit can be extended. But the right celebrity has to be picked for the right company.

1.2 Problem definition and problem statement

Problem Definition:

Regarding celebrity endorsement some issues remain unclear. What is the effect of using celebrities and how can celebrities effectively change the attitude of the consumers towards the brand? What can be positive effects of celebrity endorsement, and what can be negative effects of celebrity endorsement. How can the use of celebrity endorsement influence the consumer attitude towards the brand of the ad and how does the level of involvement affects this? What role does the negative publicity of celebrity endorsers entail? Does it influence the consumer attitude negatively and/or positively?

1.2.2 Problem Statement:

How does celebrity endorsement influence the consumer attitude and how does negative publicity affect this relationship?

1.3 Theoretical framework

Explanation of variables:

Independent variable: Celebrity endorsement

Determinants of independent variable: Expertise, trustworthiness, similarity, liking,

attractiveness, match-up, meaning transfer

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Dependent variable: Consumer attitude on brand

Moderator: Negative Publicity of the celebrity endorser.

1.4 Research Questions:

What is celebrity endorsement and what are determinants of celebrity endorsement?

What is the effect of celebrity endorsement on consumer attitude?

How do negative publicity and involvement influence the relationship of celebrity endorsement on the consumer attitude?

1.5 Relevance

A multitude of scientific research has been done about the subject celebrity endorsement. However, there is some dissension and discussion about the exact role that celebrity endorsement has on the attitude towards the brand. Some papers state about the weak relation between the celebrity and the consumer attitude towards the brand (Cabellero, 1989) and some indicate there is a strong relation between these two (Kahle and Homer, 1985). There is also a lot of research done about the role of the negative publicity of the celebrity endorser (Till & Shimp, 1998).This thesis will summarize these papers about it to get a clear view on it.

1.5.1 Scientific relevance

The scientific relevance is to acquire better insight in the field of consumer attitude towards the brand and particularly the roles celebrity endorsement and negative publicity of the celebrity entail.

This thesis will examine the effect of celebrity endorsement on the attitude of consumers towards the brand. In particular, the relationship of negative publicity of the celebrity and consumer attitude will be reviewed. A lot of research with respect to celebrity endorsement has been done (Erdogan, 1999). To get a clear view on this subject this thesis will present a literature review. Previous literature and research will be critically analyzed to identify the main issues and theories with respect to celebrity endorsement. This paper will construct a systematic review with respect to these relationships to provide marketing economists with a useful guides and recommendations for future research.

Practical relevance

Because this paper can help to clarify the role of the celebrity endorser, also the societal and practical relevance will be served. For companies it is extremely important to identify the positive and negative effects of the celebrity endorser on the attitude of the consumer towards the brand. To conclude, this literature review will critically asses and combine the articles which are currently available. A better understanding of applying celebrity endorsement, indisputable triggers managers to pursue a more efficient policy and creating the best consumer attitude towards the company. This will result in higher consumer purchase intentions, which will positively affect the company sales.

1.6 Thesis structure

This thesis is divided into 5 chapters. By now the content of the first chapter is already presented and familiar, consequently, only the content of the following chapters will be briefly discussed. The second chapter provides the reader with a literature review on celebrity endorsement. Amos, Holmes and Strutton (2008) presented a theoretical model which will be the foundation of this thesis. In this paper celebrity endorsement will be described on the basis of the trustworthiness, expertise, similarity, familiarity and liking. Also the match-up principle will be put forward. In chapter 3 the influence of celebrity endorsement on attitude will be explained in conformity with theories described in chapter 2. In chapter 4 the moderating role of negative publicity will be described, and in chapter 5 the conclusion and discussion are presented and recommendations for future research will be given.

2. Celebrity endorsement

A celebrity endorser is "an individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses this recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement" (McCracken, 1989, page 310). Friedman and Friedman (1979, page 63) state that "a celebrity endorser is an individual who is known to the public for his or her achievement in areas others than of the product class endorsed". In this paper the first definition will be used.

In this chapter celebrity endorsement will be explained with the use of several determinants. This section describes which factors a celebrity should have to be a solid endorser. To explain the determinants of celebrity endorsement, this thesis will look at the determinants illustrated in Amos, Holmes and Strutton (2008). Also the source credibility model and the source attractiveness model will be used as foundation for selecting the determinants (Erdogan, 1999). The determinants described in this paper will be: trustworthiness, expertise, attractiveness, simularity, liking, the match-up and the meaning transfer. The source credibility depends on the expertise and trustworthiness. The source attractiveness depends on familiarity, liking and similarity. In the next chapter the cohesion between all these determinants will be further explained. Also will be described how celebrities can be effective, without knowing of being used as an endorser for the company; celebrity abuse.

2.1. Trustworthiness

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Trustworthiness refers to "the honesty, integrity and believability of an endorser" (Erdogan et al. 2001, page 40). But it is also dependent on what target group you are focusing on. Therefore companies always try to find endorsers who are widely seen as trustful and who are seen as honest, believable and dependable (Shimp 1997). Trustworthiness is the most important factor with regard to credibility. Accompanying correlations of trust also influence the credibility, and likeability is mentioned as the most important attribute (Friedman, 1978). Advertisers can create the most effectiveness by taking these two factors, liking and trustworthiness, into account. Friedman, Santeramo and Traina (1979) state that when consumers like a celebrity, the consumer will automatically trust this celebrity. Controversially, Ohanian (1991) found that trustworthiness of a celebrity endorser had no relationship with the purchase intentions of the related brand by the consumer. This tangled conclusion had to do with the level of involvement, which will be described in the following chapter. The trustworthiness is of major importance for effective endorsers. If consumers believe what the endorser is telling and they trust him or her, it will be the most effective. When a celebrity comes negatively into the news, this will affect the believability and the trustworthiness of the endorser, and will negatively influence the accompanying product.

2.2 Expertise

Expertise of celebrity endorsement is being defined as "the extent to which an endorser is perceived to be a source of valid assertions" (Erdogan, 1999, page 298). The literature investigating source credibility in settings involving persuasive communication generally indicates that a receiver's perception of the source's expertise positively influences source effectiveness (Ohanian 1990). Furthermore, in a selling context, an expert salesperson caused a significantly higher number of customers to purchase a product than the non-expert salesperson did (Woodside and William Davenport 1974). Expert sources also influence perceptions of the product's quality, and the source or celebrity that is more expert has been found to be more persuasive (Aaker and Myers 1987) and generates more intentions to buy the brand (Ohanian 1991). On the other hand is declared by Speck, Schumann and Thompson (1988) that expert celebrities generate a higher product recall than celebrities who are seen as a non-expert. The level of celebrity expertise will determine its effectiveness. The more expertise a celebrity has, the more effective it will be. The expertise of a celebrity will not be changed by negative publicity, but his or her believability and credibility will be negative influenced.

2.3 Attractiveness

With attractiveness not only the physical attractiveness is meant. Also is aimed at for example intellectual skills, personality properties, lifestyles or athletic skills. Physical attractiveness suggests that a celebrity determines the effectiveness of persuasion as a result of that consumers want to be and identify with such endorser (Cohen and Golden (1972). On the other hand, examples are known about celebrities who are not physical attractive, but do represent the image the company wants to create and have. There are huge numbers of physical attractive celebrities who endorse a product. An example is David Beckham for the Armani brand. A lot of people are attracted by David Beckham. Men want to be associated with the soccer player and fashion man David Beckham, while woman are physically attracted by his appearance. Because David Beckham always looks fashionable, never comes negatively into the news, he is extremely credible, attractive and has a high degree of similarity; people want to be like him. That makes him a good celebrity endorser.

2.4 Similarity

The source attractiveness model states that the efficiency depends on similarity, familiarity and liking for an endorser (McGuire, 1985). Similarity is described as a supposed resemblance between the source and the receiver of the message. In other words: if a consumer can identify him/herself with the endorser. People can be influenced more easily by an endorser who is similar to them. If the celebrity and the consumer have common factors or interests or lifestyles, a better cohesiveness is created. That's why celebrities are selected upon their characteristics that match well with consumers. Companies also try to create empathy using celebrities (Belch & Belch, 2001). Using empathy engender a bond between celebrity and the consumer. Also the level of persuasiveness is increased with the help of using similarity. For that reason companies might sometimes choose not to pick a celebrity, but a regular-normal-looking person whom people can identify themselves with more easily. Regarding celebrity endorsement can be stated: the higher the similarity, the higher the effectiveness.

2.5 Liking

Likeability is the affection for the source as a result of the source's physical appearance and behaviour (McGuire, 1985). Because people like successful celebrities, they are used in commercials and advertisements. And when people like the celebrity, they will also like the accompanying brand. Celebrity endorsement will influence the consumer behaviour and attitude (Belch & Belch, 2001) and advertisers believe that a celebrity can influence the consumer's vision of the image of the company. In Kahle & Homer (1985) the process of the disliked celebrity is explained in an experiment. The experiment contains the example of celebrity endorsement used with disposable razors by means of John McEnroe. He has been the celebrity endorser for this particular brand. John McEnroe is a tennis player who can annoy people; his famous rough language on the tennis court is widely well-known. It can be stated that he isn't the ideal endorser of a brand, and John McEnroe can be assigned to the disliked celebrity. The company retains him because his image implies wealth and concern for protection of self-interest; two attributes the company wants consumers to be associated with the consumption of disposable razors. Despite McEnroe is a disliked celebrity, the company can use him as a successful endorser.

2.6 The match-up principle

Cooper (1984), Forkan (1980), Marchel (1987) and Hawkins (1989) show that the match-up between celebrity endorser and the product or company is of major importance. This correspondence results in a better recall of the commercial and brand information and will positively affect the transfer influence with regard to the personification of the brand (Rockney and Green, 1979). Advertising a product via a celebrity who has a relatively high product congruent image, leads to greater advertiser and celebrity believability if you would compare it with a less congruent product/celebrity image (Kotler 1997). The match-up principle consists of two central terms: the perceived fit and the image of the celebrity (Misra & Beatty, 1990). When a celebrity has a good image and fit to the product and company, this will lead to greater believability and so effectiveness. The has to do with the fact that if you combine these two, the tie-in of the celebrity and the image the celebrity has, you can get both things, the fame and the tie-in, working for them. What is of great importance for an endorser, is the match up of the celebrity endorser with the image and message a company wants to stand for and propagates. With the Nespresso commercials, George Clooney has been used as a celebrity endorser. Nespresso wants to be associated with terms as style, refinement, charm and a first-class quality brand. In addition Olivier Quillet, international marketing president of Nespresso, therefore states that George Clooney is the perfect match for his brand, because Clooney's profile illustrates these characteristics the brand wants to be.

2.8 Meaning Transfer

The meaning transfer model is based upon meanings and it proposes that the effect of the celebrity endorser is depended on the meaning the celebrity brings into the endorsement process and the product (McCracken, 1989). The model is created to illustrate the process of the celebrity endorser. All the celebrity endorsers have different connotations. They differ in demographics, personalities and lifestyles. That's why when you think of a celebrity, multiple meanings are in the association set. Celebrities can be very valuable in marketing campaigns of the product or brand because they provide the customer quite a few characteristics when they think of the product or brand. Celebrities have more effect than non-known endorsers, because a celebrity offers meaning of deepness and power from their character and lifestyle into the endorsement. (Schlecht, 2003). When companies create a appropriate meaning transfer between the celebrity endorser and the product, this will positively influence the attitude of consumers.

Culture Endorsement Consumption

The meaning transfer model is divided in three stages. In the first stage the meaning associated with the celebrity moves from the endorser to the product or brand. Meanings of the endorser become linked with the product in the brain of the customer. Then is determined if the symbolic characteristics of the celebrity are the ones sought for the product and has to be chosen if a celebrity represents those symbolic properties. Once the celebrity is picked, the consumption process will start and via the use of a promotional campaign the celebrity will be linked to the product. In the last stage the consumers link the celebrity with the product, and the product with themselves. Celebrities play a role in the last phase of this model while they have generated the self.

2.9 Celebrity abuse

Normally, celebrities are well paid for their involvement regarding to commercials or brands. But nowadays companies can also make use of a celebrity, applying new smart marketing strategies. The idea of this smart methodology is using the celebrity in an action, without the celebrity knowing he or she is informed about. A company creates a (strangle hold contract? = "wurgcontract") in which the celebrity can earn a huge amount of money. But the contract is being created in such a way that it is impossible for the celebrity to agree on. For example: being 3 days a week fulltime available for promotion purposes. So the celebrity will reject the proposition. Subsequently, the so-called company sponsor tells in the media that the celebrity rejected a huge amount of money and generates free publicity.

For example: the company PaddyPower offered Tiger Woods approximately 75 million dollar for a 5-year contract. The management of Tiger Woods refused this deal, after which PaddyPower extensively brought this into the media's attention. Not only the gossip papers began to write about this gigantic refused contract, but it also reached the national and international news and a lot of search engines and news sites linked and referred on their website to the PaddyPower website. This resulted in a lot of website-visitors, gigantic grow of brand awareness and publicity for PaddyPower with zero costs of this marketing strategy.

3. The effects of celebrity endorsement on consumer attitude

In this chapter the relation is described of celebrity endorsement on the consumer attitude. This will be described on the basis of determinants described in the previous chapter. Expertise and trustworthiness are described in the source credibility model. Similarity, liking and familiarity are described in the attractiveness model. They will be used to examine the effect they have on the consumer attitude towards the brand. The determinants of the match-up principle and the meaning transfer will be used for explaining the multiple product endorsements model. Furthermore will be taken into account in what way involvement influences this.

3.1 Background of attitude

Celebrities are being used as endorsers, artists or spokesman for companies. With the use of characteristics like expertise, trust, similarity, likeability and familiarity, the consumers will see celebrities as a source of persuasive information and this creates a high degree of security for consumers (Surana, 2008). For the effectiveness the physical attractiveness is also of major importance (Khatri, 2006). Research has shown that the use of celebrities affects consumer attitude. (source) An attitude will show us if we are attracted to something. According to most researchers an attitude exists of 3 parts: affect attitude, behavioural attitude and cognitive attitude; also remembered as the ABC model of attitude. Affect refers to the way a consumer feels about an attitude object. Behaviour involves the person's intentions to do something as for an attitude object and cognitive attitude refers to the beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object. This model emphasizes the relation between the knowing, feeling and doing (Solomon, 2006).

3.2 Source credibility model

One of the main goals of advertisements is to persuade and try to positively change the attitude of consumers towards the brands (Solomon, 2002). For changing the attitude of consumers and attractiveness of the brand, the credibility of an advertisement is of major importance. Consumers suppose that celebrities are credible with regard to the information they endorse about the products or brand (Goldsmith et al. 2000). According to the source credibility model the effectiveness of a message depends on the perceived level of expertise and trustworthiness of an endorser (Hovland et al. 1953, page 20). Consumers suppose that celebrities are credible with regard to the information they endorse about the products or brand (Goldsmith et al. 2000).Attitude towards ads is being defined as "a leaned tendency to respond in a consistently desirable or undesirable approach towards advertising in general" (Haghirian, 2004). There are papers which have concluded that celebrity endorsement has a positive influence on attitude (Seno and Lukas, 2005). When an endorser is successful he or she is able to improve attitudes or purchase intentions positively, credibility is here of major importance. According to Liu (2007) an endorser who scores high on expertise and trustworthiness is able to impress the attitude and purchase intentions. Because consumers believe an endorser is credible, they suppose that the info this celebrity tells, is an accurate position on the issue. Also an endorser who is an expert in the field, consumers will have a favourable attitude towards the brand or advertisement. Danwshvary and Schwer (2000) also conclude that the endorsement of a certain product will improve the consumer behaviour and attitude.

3.3 The source attractiveness model

Source attractiveness refers to the endorser's physical appearance, personality, likeability, and similarity to the receiver, thus to the perceived social value of the source (Solomon 2002). This is beautifully quoted by the famous philosopher Aristotle: "Beauty is a greater recommendation than any letter of introduction". Companies want to use celebrities because they combine two important things: they have the celebrity status and consumers are attracted to them. Consumers like looking to ads where an attractive person or celebrity is in it. The beliefs and purchase intentions of consumers can best be changed with the use of physically attractive celebrity endorsers (Baker and Churchill 1977). Furthermore this behaviour can best be explained by the halo effect, where a person who performs well on a particular dimension, for example physical attractiveness, automatically scores high on other dimensions (Solomon 2002). Most papers told us that attractiveness of endorsers create an attitude change (Baker & Gilbert (1977), Caballero and Price (1984), Chaiken (1979), Petty and Cacioppo (1980).

In Kahle & Homer (1985), a study had been done to grade celebrities on physical attractiveness, involvement and likeability. The subjects got a couple of brochures to read with advertisements of celebrities in it and got a questionnaire regarding to the attractiveness, likeability and involvement of the celebrities. The results of this study were that participants who saw an attractive endorser liked the product more than participants who saw an unattractive source. Also looking to the likeability Kahle & Homer (1985) stated that participants had a more positive attitude to the liked celebrity than the disliked celebrity. The brand recall was also higher the attractive celebrities, the same was described for the liked celebrity. With respect to the involvement, Kahle &Homer stated that high-involved subjects could recall the product better than the low-involvement participants.

3.4 The effects of multiple product endorsements of celebrities on attitude

Normally, a company uses only one celebrity as endorser for their product. But celebrities can endorser multiple products for several brands. Because millions of dollars are spent on a yearly base on celebrities as endorsers, the impact of multiple product endorsers is important to examine. An example of a multiple product endorser is David Beckham who promotes products for Armani, Pepsi and Adidas. McCracken (page 311, 1989) states that the celebrity endorser takes on meanings that carry from ad to ad, does endorsing multiple product affect those assigned meanings such that the consumer perceive the celebrity to be less credible and less likable. In chapter 2 the meaning transfer and the match-up principle are put forward. With respect to the meaning transfer, it is very essential that the celebrity stands for his product and his affinity with it. When a celebrity endorsers for multiple product, the meaning transfer loses its strength and the attitude of the attitude of the consumer will decrease. Consumers might think of that the celebrity just endorsers for the money, without the behind reason if he or she really likes the endorsed product or brand (Belch & Belch, 2001). Studies investigated and concluded that when a celebrity is endorsing for four different type of products or brands, the credibility, trustworthiness, expertise and likeability of the celebrity is influenced negatively, and so the attitude (Redenbach, 2005). When endorsing for multiple brands the celebrity will eventually reap a lack of incentives.

Some positive effects of multiple product endorsers of a celebrity are the transfer of positive product images and also the consumers' shape of the customers response is positively influenced then (Redenbach, 2005). Other positive effects are that celebrities stand for a different mix of characteristics, like lifestyle and demographics. Using multiple celebrities in collaboration, it ismore easy to successfully represent a specific brand. For example the company L'oreal matches their extensive product lines on the celebrities and their characteristics (Redenbach, 2005).

4. How does negative publicity influence the celebrity endorsement on the consumers' attitude?

Verder is mij duidelijk geworden uit de literatuur dat er een groot verschil bestaat van negative publicity mbt lage- en hoge involvement. Het is verstandig dat ook te beschrijven in dit hoofdstuk ( elaboration likelihood model, pheripheral/heuristic processing, central/systematic processing / source effects model.

Previous chapters have described the positive effects on the use of celebrity endorsement. But the use of celebrities is never without risk. One risk with respect to the use of celebrities is the possibility of negative publicity regarding the celebrities. If a celebrity is strongly associated with the brand, than the occurrence of the negative publicity about the celebrity can influence the attitude and purchase intentions of consumers towards the brand. What the moderating role of negative celebrity endorsement is towards the consumers' attitude will be described in this chapter. Because the level of high or low involvement of consumers is of major importance, the elaboration likelihood model will also be explained and applied on negative publicity.

"They're humans. When you sign on to a celebrity, you sign on to the whole package:

the good, the bad, and the ugly." (Conrad 1995)

There can be three possible effects of negative publicity of the endorser. Negative publicity can have negative effects. If an endorser is interrelated with drunkenness several times, like for example David Hasselhoff, this will negatively influence the related brand he is endorsing. The second effect of negative publicity is that it can have positive effects. When something happens to the endorser which is negative for them, such as left out of consideration after a false switch on the skating rink, it can have a positive effect regarding the attitude of the consumers. Consumers feel empathy for the endorser, and so for the brand they endorse.

The last effect of negative publicity is that the endorser is fired from his activities for the brand. The brand will do this, to show the consumers that they disapprove the behaviour of the endorser, so people will hopefully not link the negative publicity of the endorser with the brand or product and their attitude will not be influenced negatively. These effects will be described.

4.1 Negative effects of negative publicity on attitude

The reason why firms use celebrities is that famous individuals have celebrity equity. Celebrity equity is the awareness and associations and firms hope those to be transferred to the brand. That's the most important aspect celebrities do have and non-celebrities don't according to the paper of Agrawal & Kamakura (1995). However, when a firm signs on to a celebrity, the possibility always exists that the celebrity becomes involved in an so called undesirable event. McCracken (1989) states that the effectiveness of the endorser depends upon the meanings that the celebrities bring to the endorsement process; also seen as meaning transfer. When an undesirable event occurs, it can change the effectiveness of the celebrity as a spokesman, and will influence the target market's awareness and attitude towards the brand.

This will affect the purchase decision and sales rate of the product, and so the firm value. According to Till and Shimp (1998), negative information about a celebrity resulted in a decline of attitude towards the brand and the change of attitude will be mostly influenced by the association set size, the timing of the negative information, and the strength of the link between brand and celebrity. With respect to negative information and undesirable events, also injuries can limit a (sport) celebrity's contribution in the activity generating fame, which can reduce the individual's celebrity status and, for this reason, effectiveness as an endorser and the attitude towards the brand.

- ( examples Mike Tyon, O.J. Simpson )

- oplossing die bedrijven gevonden hebben: gebruiken van bugs bunny / mickey mouse, cartoon-figuren die immuun zijn voor negatieve publiciteit

4.2 Positive effects of negative publicity on attitude

Langmeyer and Shank (1993) stated that negative publicity of a celebrity endorser could also result in positive effects for the company. The public, and so the consumers, reacted very positively to Sven Kramer towards he's being left out of consideration after a false switch on the skating rink. Firms seemed to recognize his favourable appeal and correct media appearances after the dramatic race. And he received numerous post-incident endorsement offers. While having a deleterious component from the standpoint of the celebrity, some types of undesirable events may increase the effectiveness of the endorser and, as such, enhance the attitude.

4.3 Disposal of celebrities after negative publicity

*nog te schrijven*

CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS IN JAPAN AND THE UNITED STATES: IS NEGATIVE INFORMATION ALL THAT HARMFUL?

Does Gender Impact the Perception of Negative Information Related to Celebrity Endorsers? 

Agrawal, Jagdish, and Wagner Kamakura. (1995). ``The EconomicWorth of Celebrity Endorsers: An Event Study Analysis,'' Journal of Marketing 59 (July), 56-62.

Till, Brian D., and Terence A. Shimp (1998). ``Endorsers in Advertising. The Case of Negative Celebrity Information,'' Journal of Advertising 27(1), 67-82.

4.4 The level of involvement: the elaboration Likelihood Model

The Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) assumes that once a customer receives a message, he or she begins to process it. There two routes that can be taken, the Central Route to Persuasion (high-involvement) or the Peripheral Route to Persuasion (low-involvement).

The elaboration likelihood model is a two-process model of response to advertising stimuli. It explains how attitudes are formed and change on the basis of the level of involvement. The Elaboration Likelihood Model explains the process of the advertisement and promotions leading to the persuasion by indoctrinating attitudes. The forming of the attitude is depended on the amount of elaboration, the processing and the relevant information. The model consists of high and low elaboration. High elaboration means that the consumer thinks carefully about the decisions and evaluation and takes into consideration the qualitative level of arguments. Low elaboration means that the consumers do not think deeply about the decision making and evaluate looking to simple positive or negative indications. The Elaboration likelihood model is a function of two main fundamentals, namely the motivation and the ability to process the message. Motivation is the willingness, involvement and the needs of the consumer. The ability is having the knowledge, being academically capable and having the possibility to process the message. According the Elaboration Likelihood model, there are two main routes that can be followed: the central route and the peripheral route.

Central route

When the consumer finds the information in a persuasive message to be relevant or somehow interesting, he or she will carefully attend to the message content. The person is likely actively to think about the arguments presented and generate cognitive responses to these arguments.

Peripheral route

The peripheral route is taken when the person is not motivated to think deeply about the arguments presented. Instead, the consumer is likely to use other cues in deciding on the suitability of the message. These cues might include the product's package, the attractiveness of the source, or the context in which the message is presented. Sources of information extraneous to the actual message content are called peripheral cues because they surround the actual message.

Consumers do not carefully consider the message

Consumers are not motivated to think about arguments presented

Major determinants of attitude change are Peripheral Cues