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Next, for the second stage, McCracken suggests endorsers will bring their meanings into the ad and transfer them to the product they are endorsing. Thus people evaluations of the celebrity endorsement, the measure of interest in this research occur when the advertisement is viewed by consumer.
In the final stage, the meanings has given to the product are transferred to the consumer. As stated by McCracken (1989), this stage positively shows the importance of the consumer's role in the process of endorsing brands with celebrities although Belch and Belch (1998) arguably said that this stage is complicated and difficult to achieve.
The researcher tends to investigate the impact of celebrity endorsement in fashion advertisements in print media on youth.
When asked from youth do you read Newspapers and Magazines, 52% replied that they read them. They agreed upon the fact that they enjoy reading Newspapers and Magazines as it is the source of entertainment for them and a good time pass. This shows that majority of youth read them.
When asked from youth that what they read them for, 38% of the youth replied that read them for entertainment. Magazines and newspapers along with providing information on current issues also cater entertainment for general public.
On investigating the youth if they they are attracted by the advertisements on print media, 50% of them answered that they are attracted by ads in print media. Advertisements in print media are generated in a way to gain a lot of publicity and attention from the public.
On inquiring the youth that what they focus on most in these ads, 40% of them answered that they focus on a celebrity endorsing that particular product. Celebrities enjoy public recognition by a large share of a certain group of people. There are many forms of celebrities like actors, models, sports athletes and pop stars.
Upon asking the youth how do they generally make their buying decision, 65% of them answered that they buy products on the basis of their own personal choice. They are well aware and grown enough to purchase things of their own choice and do shopping at their own pace.
On investigating if the name of the company or brand influence their buying decision, 55% of the youth agreed that they are influenced by the name of the company or brand. They viewed that the companies who are famous attract more customers. But at the same time the companies who are unknown in the market have limited number of customers.
When asked from the youth that what would encourage them to try out new fashion and style, 55% replied that they follow their friends and family's suggestion when trying out new fashion and style. Youth believes and trusts their friends and family and takes advice in matters of everyday life.
On inquiring from youth if they follow celebrity endorsement ads when buying accessories and clothes 73% of them agreed that they consider celebrity endorsement ads when buying that particular product. Celebrity Endorsements activity has been increasing over the past years. Using a celebrity in advertising is likely to positively affect consumers brand attitudes and purchase intentions.
When asked from the youth if they consider price and quality while purchasing the celebrity endorsed goods, 45% claimed that they do not consider price and quality while purchasing the celebrity endorsed goods. They find quality of the product as good as claimed. This indicates that except print advertisement, price and quality are considered the most decisive factor in purchasing celebrity endorsed goods.
On inquiring from youth that what their preferred products are, 50% of the youth responded that they prefer celebrity endorsed goods. Advantages of employing celebrities to endorse products are to draw attention, crisis management, get easy recognition of the brand, brand repositioning, global marketing and boosting sales.
On investigating the youth if celebrity endorsement increases the product demand, 65% agreed that celebrity endorsement increases the product demand. Celebrity Endorsements increase awareness of a company's advertising create positive feelings towards brands and are perceived by consumers as entertaining.
When asked from the youth in what manner celebrity endorsement helping in choice making, 45% responded that in helps consumers to make a better choice. A central goal of advertising is the persuasion of customers, i.e. the active attempt to change or modify consumers' attitude toward brands. In this respect, the credibility of an advertisement plays an important role in convincing the target audience of the attractiveness of the company's brand.
On inquiring the youth that who are mostly influenced by celebrity endorsement in fashion advertisement, 80% replied that they are themselves mostly influenced by celebrity endorsement in fashion ads. Youth are more prone towards these ads because they want to maintain themselves and be updated all the time. Advertisements leave an impact on youth and whatever they see or read in advertisement it gets registered in their minds.
When asked from the respondents if ads influence youth to be more brand conscious, 50% of them responded that these ads do influence them to become brand conscious. In today's modern world, youth are much influenced by the advertisements in various newspapers and magazines. They usually buy specific items they are well aware of.
Upon interrogating from youth if celebrity endorsement plays a significant role in youth's purchasing habits, 70% agreed on this statement. This means that when they wish to buy things, celebrity endorsement plays a vital role in their purchasing habits. Youth just cannot be defensive against the advertisements they see, when they see advertisements of any product with the attractive personality in the advertisement they try to grab that product. Advertisements play a significant role in youth's purchasing habits. Advertisements are the root of youth's desires.
When asked from youth if celebrity endorsement is used as a promotional technique by the company, 45% of them agreed that company uses celebrity endorsement as a promotional technique. Celebrity Endorsements advertising has been recognized as a "ubiquitous feature of modern day marketing".
On investigating the youth if the think that celebrity endorsement has an influence on building up brand's personality, 35% of youth agreed with the statement that celebrity endorsement has an influence on building up brand's personality. The majority thinks that there is an impact of the celebrity endorsement on the brand personality. Thus in case of a new brand, care should be taken before going for the celebrity endorsement, because there may be a transfer of some personality attributes from the celebrity to the brand which is unwanted by the marketer.
When asked form youth that should the choice of model's gender be appropriate to use the product, 35% agreed on this statement.
Last statement asked from respondents that why female models are used in most of the advertisements, 45% of the claimed that female models are considered to be more attractive. It can be seen from that commercials with female models are more effective as it catches the attention of everyone seeing that ad.
The study aims at identifying the impact of celebrity endorsement in fashion advertisement in print media on youth of Lahore. Based on the theoretical perspective of Meaning Transfer Model, the model is built upon the general process of meaning transfer and is based on the assumption that celebrity endorsers bring their own symbolic meaning to the endorsement process. According to this model, the cultural meanings residing in a celebrity go beyond the person and are passed on to the products (Erdogan, 1999). So, the celebrities are the main "players" in the process of meaning transfer (Johansson & Sparredal, 2002). With reference to this model, it is advisable to use celebrity endorsement when the company wants to emphasize the particular features of the product that the celebrity also possesses, and transfer the meaning to the target audience.
The researcher has also determined to examine the impact of advertisements on youth age 18-24 year old. Survey method is used to collect the ratio that to what extent celebrity endorsement in fashion ads are affecting youth.
The researcher adopted survey method and made a questionnaire to get the accurate results of impact of celebrity endorsement on youth. For this purpose five institutions offering post-graduation programmes were selected randomly. Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore College for Women University, Punjab University, G.C for Boys and F.C College.
A quota of 50 students was allotted to each institution in order to get a sample of 250 students. Questionnaires were filled by class university students.
The first objective of this research was to find out if celebrity products and non - celebrity products influence the buying decision of youth. The results showed that majority of youth prefer products with celebrity endorsement. This means that celebrity products influence the buying decision of youth.
Another objective was to determine the effect of the commercials with female model viz male models on youth. The results showed that female models are considered to be more attractive.
The third objective was to analyze the importance of celebrity endorsement as a promotional technique. It was stated from the results that celebrity endorsement draw attention to advertising messages and enhance message recall. They help in recognition of brand names, create positive attitudes toward the brand and create a personality for the endorsed brand.
The last objective was to analyze the influence of celebrity endorsement and impact on brands personality. The results showed that the use of celebrity endorsers in marketing enjoys high popularity, largely because they may exert a positive impact on brand image.
As per 1st hypothesis it is stated that name of the brand or company influence the buying decision of youth. The p value of the hypothesis is 0.00 which is highly significant and verify our hypothesis that name of the brand or company influence the buying decision of youth.
In the 2nd hypothesis it is stated that after seeing fashion advertisements, youth becomes brand conscious. The p value of the hypothesis is 0.00 which shows highly significance. Youth becomes brand conscious after seeing fashion advertisements. The researcher's hypotheses are significant.
In the 3rd hypothesis it is stated that celebrity endorsement in fashion ads convince youth to buy that product. The p value of the hypothesis is 0.00 which is highly significant and verify our hypothesis that youth is convinced by celebrity endorsement in fashion advertisements to buy that particular product.
If the celebrity is strongly associated with the brand then the occurrence of the negative publicity about the celebrity can spill over to the brand. There is also a risk that some actions of celebrities can harm or alter their images (moral danger). According to Tellis (1998) such changes in image can negatively affect the meanings that advertisers wish to transfer to their brands through the endorsement.
Celebrity endorsement can play a valuable role in developing brand equity and enhancing brand's
competitive position. Therefore, the use of celebrities in advertising is a popular practice and a continuous topic for discussion.