The Globalization Of Rastafari Culture Cultural Studies Essay

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Globalization of Rastafari is a (rich historical and ethnographic work) rich ethnographic exploration of Rastafarian from origin in the early twentieth century. The book analyses the political, cultural, geographical, political, sociological and psychological aspects of globalization on the rastafari movement, and provides a carefully weighed and richly illustrated assessment of the benefits and ills that have flowed from globalization as well as suggestions for steering it towards more positive outcomes in the future.

in particular it does a really good job of explaining, outlining & contextualizing the role of rastafari in both jamaican & caribbean society.  covering political developments, labour movements, pan-africanism and more.  horace campbell fills a gap in the literature on rastafari with this original analysis.  big ups for real.

Modern Blackness is a rich ethnographic exploration of Jamaican identity in the late twentieth century and early twenty-first. Analyzing nationalism, popular culture, and political economy in relation to one another, Deborah A. Thomas illuminates an ongoing struggle in Jamaica between the values associated with the postcolonial state and those generated in and through popular culture. Following independence in 1962, cultural and political policies in Jamaica were geared toward the development of a multiracial creole nationalism reflected in the country's motto: "Out of many, one people." As Thomas shows, by the late 1990s, creole nationalism was superseded by "modern blackness"-an urban blackness rooted in youth culture and influenced by African American popular culture. Expressions of blackness that had been marginalized in national cultural policy became paramount in contemporary understandings of what it was to be Jamaican.

Thomas combines historical research with fieldwork she conducted in Jamaica between 1993 and 2003. Drawing on her research in a rural hillside community just outside Kingston, she looks at how Jamaicans

interpreted and reproduced or transformed on the local level nationalist policies and popular ideologies about progress. With detailed descriptions of daily life in Jamaica set against a backdrop of postcolonial nation-building and neoliberal globalization, Modern Blackness is an important examination of the competing identities that mobilize Jamaicans locally and represent them internationall

Jan Aart Scholte's new book provides an introduction to globalization covering its definition, measurement, history, causes, consequences and policy implications. The book analyses the cultural, ecological, economic, geographical, political and psychological aspects of globalization, and provides a carefully weighed and richly illustrated assessment of the benefits and ills that have flowed from globalization as well as suggestions for steering it towards more positive outcomes in the future

Diaspora (dispersion; a migration; the dispersion of an originally homogeneous people). The mass dispersion of peoples of a common culture or national origin is commonly referred to as a diaspora. Historically, these movements tend to be forced or involuntary. They may be the result military occupation, systematic persecution, servitude, enslavement, or laws by which the dominant society defines an ethnic group as marginal, undesireable, or subordinate. These movements also tend to reflect pervasive regional or global forces that separate peoples of common origin form their homeland (real or imagined), leaving them to think of themselves as exiles. Such is the case of the African diaspora which began in the early 16th century and displaced tens of millions of Africans from their ancestral continent to various sites in the New World.

Many people commonly mistake reggae music and think that it is directly linked with the Rastafari religion. Several Rastafarians believe that, 'Reggae music is some sort of mix-up, mix-up business. Only Nyabingi music is divine and pure Rastafari music" (Winston, 86). In actuality it is an imitation of Nyabingi music that is drummed and composed by reggae artists. "Reggae emerged from the secular beats of Ska and Rock Steady, which were imitations of American rhythm and blues in the 1960s, and it later took on the African drum rhythm of Count Ossie of Mystic Revelation, a Rastafarian group in Rock Fort" (Barrett, 245). Bob Marley is still one of the originators of reggae. Although he was a singer of reggae before he embraced the Rastafarian religion.

Nyabinghi music is the most integral form of Rastafarian music. It is played at worship ceremonies called grounations, that include drumming, chanting and dancing, along with prayer and smoking of ritual ganja. The name Nyabinghi comes from an East African movement from the 1850s to the 1950s that was led by people who militarily opposed European imperialism. This form of nyabinghi was centered around Muhumusa, a healing woman from Uganda who organized resistance against German colonialists. The British in Africa later led efforts against Nyabinghi, classifying it as witchcraft through the Witchcraft Ordinance of 1912. In Jamaica, the concepts of Nyabinghi were appropriated for similar anti-colonial efforts, and it is often danced to invoke the power of Jah against an oppressor.

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