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The purpose of this report is to analyse the changes to the nature of work in Shanghai and New York. The 2nd section discusses the major changes in the management approaches in Singapore for the last 30 years (from the 1890s to 2010s). The 3rd section provides a detail analysis in the areas of Leadership, organization structure and work culture; and discussed the impact on the society, organisations and patterns of work.
The 4th section examines the 3 aspects in 2nd country of Indonesia. The 5th section provides a comparative analysis between Shanghai and New York(section). The last section predicts the potential changes in Indonesia, in the next 10 years.
The evolution of Management approach in Shanghai
(from 1960s to 2010s)
Shanghai is a national city in the world, it is the largest city of China. Shanghai is one of the municipalities in China and it is a financial center of the world. Shanghai located in East China, this is a major port in China.
From 1960s to 2010s, management approach in Shanghai had changed a lot. China basicly completed the transformation of socialism in 1956s. In 1960s, China was still a poor and backward country. People are all controlled by the government. And the economic is very slump, so the development of Shanghai was slow. Because China just finished the war and Shanghai used to be a concession, and at that time Shanghai was already a prosperous place in China. In 1960s, the management approach of Shanghai was traditional and controlled by the government. All the business wanted to start would through by the government.
At 1980s, after a long time groping, Chinese government made a new decision was reform and opening up. So Shanghai became one of the special economic zones and the financial center of China. The main management approach of China was planning on the basis of must be in the public sector of the economy, at the same time play a supplementary role of market regulation. ( third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee, 1978) This meeting was very important that because it was the third Plenary Session of the 11th CPC Central Committee that pushed the country on to the road of its historic reform and opening-up drive. People increased income and improved their living standard.
In the early 2000s, after the reform and opening up, the development of Shanghai, China had a great progress. More and more input and output increased the economy and many people got many choices to find a new job. In 2001s, China joined WTO that also improve the economy of society. At that time, the main management approach was socialist market economy. Speed up the system of reform and innovation, improving the socialist market economic system.
Situational Analysis of Shanghai
This section is talking about the leadership, organizational structure, and culture of Shanghai.
Leadership is learned, the skills and knowledge processed by the leader can be influenced by his or hers attributes or traits, such as beliefs, values, ethics, and character. (http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/leader/leadcon.html) Leadership is very important for the society, people always respect those who have a clear view and direction for the future, they can lead the people forward to a right way to achieve the goal. Shanghai is a big city, so many people live and work there. This a a little bit difficult for the leader to control a large number of people. The leader should help people understand the overall of the society, and understand how they can make a contribution for the society and how the society is doing. And there are four factors of leadership: situation, communication, follower and leader. The situation of Shanghai is stable and the development is rapid. With the control of the leader, the followers doing their own business regularly. The leader always communicate with their followers. But almost followers will agree with the leader with every decisions.
3.2 Organizational structure
Organizational structure refers to the way that an organization arranges people and jobs so that its work can be performed and its goals can be met. The organizational structure of Shanghai is traditional and completed. For example, the chart shows Shanghai Municipal Government structure. From this chart we can know that there is only one final leader in this organization, and follow it, there has some different departments, and every department has their own leader, but these leaders are followed by the final leader. After these departments, there has some branches, and each branch also has their own leader. In each branch there has a lot of employees work in the department.
Organizational structure is very important for Shanghai. Each city need a clear structure for itself, because it can be good for the leader to hold the people under leaderââ‚¬â„¢s control.
Shanghai is a multicultural city of China. Known as "Shanghai-style culture", the Shanghai Culture has gradually taken shape from integrating China's traditional culture of Jiangnan (Wu Culture). With the reform and opening up, Shanghai built a lot of new constructs, such as Shanghai theatre, People Square, Henglong centers and New world centers. These show a new Shanghai to the people all over the world. Many foreigners come to Shanghai stay here and work here because it is a new financial center in the world. People can find different cultures here, such as Western Chinese culture, Eastern Chinese culture, European culture and American culture. Many different cultures come here and mix together become a new culture. But culture in Shanghai almost are very traditional, people there are very euphemistic and modesty. The culture of organization is also multiplied, as we know, many foreign investors invest in Shanghai, so there are many foreigner companies and manufacturings. Different companies have different ways to do the business and management approach to hold their staffs. But in the traditional companies, leaders have the traditional thoughts to operate the company. For example, the public behavior: saving face, or avoiding unappealing public displays, is important in China. Bargaining: Indulge your bargaining skills freely in China, especially in outdoor and indoor markets. And Chinese all use chopsticks on the table, this is also the main culture of China called table culture. In Shanghai, there has a lot of festivals. So during that time, people will celebrate the festivals with their families and friends, this is significant for Chinese people, because this a good chance to show their love and respect to their families. So in the society, no matter who are you, respect is very important for Chinese, they should respect people who are older than them. The same in the traditional companies, hierarchy is clear between the leaders and the followers.
Situational Analysis of New York (2nd country)
This section is talking about the situations in New york. It is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is known for its status as a center for finance and culture and for its status as the largest gateway for immigration to the United States.
Leadership is varied in New York than in Shanghai. In New York, there are five: directive, participative, empowering, charismatic and celebrity. Directive now is declined in New York. In the past, the leader gave the tasks to the employees directly, and asked employees to do the work. Participative is the normal way in New York. People always participate in any decisions. For example, people working in the company and they can participate in every decision of company, they have the right to decide what they want. For example, American presidential election, everyone has the right to elect who can be the president in every state. Empowering leadership, is new and stresses delegation of responsibility to employees. New York companies that operate with autonomous divisions employ this style of leadership. And the main point of empowering leadership is to energize the employees in the company. Charismatic leadership means people follow a leader who looks like a leader. Celebrity leadership is that people follow the leader who is famous in the society.
4.2 Organizational structure
The organizational structure of New York is similar with Shanghai. The leader gives the work to the follow department, and the leaders of these follow department divide the work to every staffs. They have a clearly structure, and everyone has different skills to do the work. If they have any problem, they can ask the leader for help, and the leader will not blame on them.
Each department has its own responsibility to do the work with the control by the leader, and every step is very clearly.
Since the 1990 s, with the globalization of economy, American culture has formed a powerful "American-style" power, radiation all over the world. American culture has become a real "strong culture" to the other countries. The culture in New York is totally different with Shanghai. New York is a very opening and fashion city in the world. New York is a Western culture, based on British culture from the other parts of Europe. People here have their own personality. New York is famous for its shows, and finance. Liberal democracy is one of human civilization in the United States, although only 200 years of history, it created the economic, military, culture is unprecedented. American culture insisted that liberal democracy is the goal of the pursuit of all mankind, is more advanced than socialism goal, second only to communism. America won the global "cultural hegemony", and "cultural hegemony" status, in turn, become a useful instrument in American influence all over the world. Cultural industry in the United States use their own advantages, in a way that is induced by forcing the rest of the world's national cultural identity, it also rejected the national culture of their own identity. The global expansion of American mass culture, there are two aspects of spontaneous behavior and government behavior. In practice, two aspects of enterprise and government's promotion will end up together. Enterprise business activities will be affected by the government's support, the government's cultural policies, would be the multinational culture pursued by enterprises.
5. Comparative analysis between Shanghai vs New York
Compare with Shanghai and New York, we can know many differences between these two cities. In general, Shanghai and other Asian cultures reflects the social scientists known as "collectivism" orientation. These pay attention to the group cooperation and individual modesty. On the contrary, Americans often show an individualistic orientation. They pay more attention to independence. Self-realization, if not an expectation, but at least more easily accepted by people. Americans pay more attention to "freedom" is not subject to external constraints.
Chinese social relationship more formal than Americans, level more clearly. Chinese people are very accustomed to hierarchical structure, they can based on their position in the structure and practices to determine their own behavior. Americans are more focused on informal and equal relationship. Americans usually is the same as the social status of people together is the most comfortable; They don't attach importance to the social hierarchy.
Education of Chinese people usually avoid direct conflict, public criticism and controversial topic. They want to maintain harmony among the surrounding, leave "face" for others. On the contrary, Americans are usually willing to directly face the problems, criticism, discuss contentious issue, and insisted that he thinks is "facts" opinion. They didn't care about "face". The role of laws, rules and regulations: in terms of communication, the Chinese usually trust relationships, more, less trust written rules and procedures. Americans generally believe that the written rules apply to everyone, and can produce fair and reasonable procedures and decisions.