The Early Level Of Renaissance Cultural Studies Essay

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In the topic of art history, the most noted term would be the style that covered the time of European history around the middle ages and the upcoming of the modern world. An art style that was born around the 14th century and lived for another three centuries. An art style which was broken down into eight forms according to regional tastes. That meant rebirth. It was the renaissance. It was a time when expression and experience became the major themes. It was founded upon the appreciation of arts of classic antiquity and the belief in man's nobility, as well as advancement of the artistic skills in perspective and realism. It evolved in Italy first, in Florence, Rome, and Venice.

The chronology of renaissance goes as follows:

Proto-Renaissance (1300-1400): this period marked the introduction for renaissance and was largely influenced by paintings of Giotto. Giotto did fresco style and introduced a new realism into painting which altered many iconographic conventions which were used then.

Early Renaissance (1400-490): the major artists of this era consist of Brunelleschi, Donatello and Masaccio.

High Renaissance (1490-1530): considered as apogee of renaissance. Its aesthetic ideals in the areas of beauty and harmony. High renaissance was centered on Rome. It was majorly dominated by the works of Leonardo Da Vinci, Raphael and Michelangelo.


Renaissance re-established the western art according to the principles of classical greek art. In search for new artistic values, renaissance artists were inspired by ideas and forms of ancient Greece and Rome.

This perfectly coincided with their desire to create noble and universal form of art which could express confident mood of times.

Renaissance was driven by "humanism". Humanism downplayed the religious dogma and portrayed the greatest dignity and worth of the individual instead.


Renaissance was noted for four things mainly:

1. Revival of classic Greek roman art forms and styles.

2. Humanism - faith in nobility of man

3. Mastery of linear perspective- depth

4. Realism of figures and faces.

In northern europe, renaissance was characterized by the advancement in portrayal of light through space and its reflection from different surfaces, and the achievement in realism in portraiture and still life.

Oil paints produced rich colours, and due to their long drying time, it could be reworked on many times to produce a fine art piece.


Born in Vinci, Italy; Leonardo studied light and effects it had on the human figure.

He was a sculptor, artist, architect, musician, scientist and inventor.

Da Vinci's paintings were one in realistic style.

Leonardo's first steps in painting began with "the baptism of Christ", alongside Verrocchio. Another two paintings were done during this time, both being annunciations. One of them was small which has Mary averting her eyes and folding her hands in a pose that symbolized her submission to god. There is a girl in the larger one who is interrupted while reading by a messenger. In both these annunciations, Da Vinci has used an arrangement that was formal.

Da Vinci is most well known for his Mona Lisa and Last Supper.


Cubism is the most radical, innovative and influential art style of the twentieth century art. It is the complete denial of the classical concept of beauty.

Cubism was the joint invention of Picasso and Braque. Their achievement built the foundation of Picasso's early works which later on developed into Synthetic Cubism. The early "pre-cubist" period is characterized by emphasizing the process of construction, followed by creation of a pictorial rhythm, and conversion into geometrical shapes like cube, sphere, cylinder, cones.

Analyzing human forms and still life, led to the creation of a new style which allowed the artists to transpose the thee-dimensional objects into flat images.

An object seen from various points of views can be re-constructed using particular separate views which may overlap or intersect. The result of such reconstruction was a summation of separate moments on the canvas that Picasso called "sum of deconstructions".

Because colour interfered in the intellectual perception of form, monochromatic scale was used which was dominated by grays and browns.

When synthetic cubism began, painters attention was now construction, not analysis. Colour regained its decorative function and was no longer restricted to greys or browns.

Compositions then made were still and centered but lost its depth and turned into abstract works but retained its subject in synthetic and simplified forms.


Picasso was born in Malaga, Spain. His father was a painter under whom his training began.

In 1897, he became tinged to Symbolist influence, in a series of landscapes rendered in non naturalistic violet and green tones. Some called this his "Modernist period". Picasso developed Analytic Cubism along with Braque using monochromatic brownish brushes.

Picasso's view on art was as he has told once "Art is a lie that makes us realize the truth."

His works are broken down into periods. The most widely recognized periods during his works are the "Blue Period", the "Rose period", and Cubism which includes both analytic and synthetic.


By, Jeffy Zachariah, 09BA01065, Game Design


*1Being about five thousand years old culture, India is rich, in heritage and art. The earliest art work of India that is recorded comes from a Hindu background, later replaced by Buddhist. For a very long time, art in India has been inspired by the relation man shares with god; in both spiritual and mystical manners. Indian art has spread all over the world in time; which was possible mainly because the kings back then, realized the talent in art and they were connoisseurs themselves.

From the second century BC, cave art came into existence and were a big attraction. The famous Ajanta and Ellora caves are solid examples for this. Most of these artworks reflects mainly on the growth of Buddhism during that period.


As the Indian artists confided heavily on religion to draw inspiration and was under no restriction at all, they flourished, under their respective rulers. Water colors, veggie dyes and charcoal were among the modes of painting. Fabric painting was used in abundance and the Indian designers adapt the patterns made then to modern works.

The purpose of Indian art was not just to decorate walls, but also every painting had a story within itself. Visually it was a treat. It was colorful, aesthetic and was beautiful to the eye. Artists were commissioned by their rulers to paint from inspiration.


*2Indian art was influenced on various levels such as religion, social and culture since a very long period of time. Being a country with a very wide variety of races, religions, cultures and languages, a diverse nature of art can be witnessed.

Influence of religions such as Hinduism, islam, Christianity, and Buddhism is clearly seen in Indian art. Buddhism is one among the religions to ponder its influence as it is witnessed in their stupas and chaityas.

Indian art is also significantly influenced by the various invasions that had taken place. The first among them being the Aryans, imposed their social and philosophical ideas and the art forms then produced resulted in a mixture of Aryan and Dravidan cultures.

The Mughal influence marked an evolution in Indian art. The Mughals had brought Persian influences in their artwork. Miniatures of the Mughals talk about a different sort of art form. The Mughal art represented the importance of the king.


In the beginning of the 20th century, Indian artists began painting new themes, which were directly inspired by the ancient culture of India. With the arrival of the foreigners, most artists were pinning to get back to the core of native themes.

During this time, the biggest name that emerged was that of Raja Ravi Varma from the kingdom of Travancore. Most of his paintings are based on Indian epic stories and its characters.

He depicted the beauty of indian women in traditional clothing.

Among the few revivalists was Rabindranath Tagore from West Bengal. He was the pioneer to make use of swadeshi values in Indian art. He believed in traditional Indian techniques of paintings. He was very much influenced by the mughal style of art. He late started integrating Chinese and Japanese traditional calligraphic styles into his paintings.

During the turbulent days, a group of progressive artists, decided to express their art talents. Among the themes chosen were landscapes, nature, portraits. These artists gave a completely new meaning to art of India. As artists began to express their views, galleries required to be open to display their art works. The pathway of Indian art was staring to take a deviation.

Once the need to give a solid platform for these artists was realized by the government, the art was inspired and it also encouraged many talents from all over the country.

There are a lot of artists who produce great art works and exhibit them abroad in different countries. Most paintings are sold to foreign buyers. The uniqueness of Indian art is rooted to its cultural heritage.



If someone has said that,"art is a gift of God, and one of the most beautiful forms expression", then M F Hussain is a living proof for the phrase. He has become one of the most prominent figures in the indian art industryBorn in 1915 at Pandharpur, in Maharashtra; Hussain comes from a traditional muslim background. As a child, Hussain learnt the art of caliography and loved to read poems. After painting many landscapes and finishing his schooling, he moves to mumbai, to make his career in art.

He joined J J school of arts, and started to make a living by painting billboards for feature films. In 1947, Hussain won an award for one of his paintings at the annual exhibition of the bombay art society. This marked the beginning of his vibrant career in art.

Hussain did a lot of experimentation by mixing different themes, ethnical and mythological, to create luminous art forms during his early days. He is one among the most enigmatic artists of India who is known for his vigorous appreciation for the human circumstances and its traces can be seen in paintings.

His creative style, and innovation has made him reach the peak in indian art. He was invited to become a member of the Progressive Artist's group in 1948. In 1955, Hussain was awarded with the "Padma Shree". In 1971, Hussain was invited along with Pablo Picasso at Sao Paulo Bennial. In 1973, he was awarded the "Padma Bhushan". In 1989, he was awarded the "Padma Vibhushan" In 1986 he was nominated to the Rajya Sabha.


Born in Madhya Pradesh, Syed Hyder Raza, studied painting at the Nagpur school of art. He then moved to J J school of arts in Mumbai to study. He studied painting from Ecole Nationale des Beaux -Arts, Paris with the scholarship that was granted to him by the french government.

In 1981 he was awarded the "Padma Shri". He was one of the founder members of the Progressive Artists Group. In 1965, he was awarded the "Prix de la critique" in Paris.

Raza is bette known as 'the master of colours'. His works mostly include real and abstract lanscapes in vibrant colours. Raza emphasised western modernism and his paintings depicted abstraction. Raza ia basically a nature based painter who has come a long way from painting real landscapes to abstract ones. Raza captures the beauty of his region, where ever he is, in his paintings. Raza uses wavy brush strokes and other stylistic devices of paint. His earlier works were dazzling with vibrant colours, but during the late days, his works has become more restrained and subtle. Raza believes that his works are his own experience and involvement with nature which is articulated in line, space, colour and light.