The Cultural Factor Considered By Writers Cultural Studies Essay

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Cultural factors play an important role in any organisations nowadays, especially with who work abroad. It is very important to understand the host country's culture in which all people come from around the world to work as well as cross-culture. There are many concept of culture. According to Usunier: "Culture is a set of beliefs or standards, shared by group of people, which help the individual decide what is, what can be, how to feel, what to do and how to go about doing it… It does have the advantage of highlighting the multicultural nature of many individual nature of many individuals in today' s societies, such as bi-nationals, multilingual, and even people who have a particular national identity and an international professional or corporate culture. It also draws our attention to the important issue of the sources of an individual's acculturation" (Usunier, J & Lee, J; 2005)4

To understand clearly why cultural factors are considered by many writes on international marketing to be the central core of marketing policy, we are going to look further fundamentally "what are cultural factors?" And discuss on the relation of having the marketing strategist on behalf of marketing policy.

In the book of Doole, I & Lowe,R; they defined the social and cultural factors as: " Influence all aspects of consumer and buyer behaviour, and the variation between these factors in different parts of the world can be a central consideration in developing and implementing international marketing strategies. Social and cultural forces are often linked toether.Whilst meaningful distinctions between social and cultural factors can be made, in many ways the two interact and the distinction between the various factors is not clear cut. Differences in language can alter the intended meaning of a promotional campaign and differences in the way a product is positioned in the market and the benefits a consumer may seek from that product. A sewing machine in one culture may be seen as a useful hobby: in another it may be necessary to the survival of a family." (Doole, I & Lowe,R; 2008)72

Although it may seem self-evident to most that such a discussion must take place, it is important that it should not be based on the pre-conception that the consideration given to the 'cultural issues and cultural factors' is, ipso facto, important. Furthermore, as business is, essentially, a rational activity, one must consider the degree of mysticism affecting the decisions made within the rational framework.

So, an important point begins to take shape - that the consideration of 'cultural issues' is important to our marketing strategist not necessarily because of the differences in culture that almost certainly exist between target markets, but because of the effect of the cultural issues upon the business dynamic of the target market. This is to be explored herein.

In any organizations, it is very important to understand that it might not be based on the pre-conception which the consideration given to the culture factors. Moreover, in business, we need the only one decision made within the rational framework. Therefore, culture issues are so important in all business dynamic of the target market and inside organizations. We need to avoid the affection from the culture.

Another definition about what the culture is from Doole, I & Lowe,R. " A culture is the configuration of learned behaviour and results of behaviour whose component elements are shared and transmitted by members of a particular society. Or perhaps, more appropriately: The way we do things around here. In relation to international marketing, culture can be defined as: The sum total of learned beliefs, values and customs that serve to direct consumer behaviour in a particular in a particular country market." (Doole, I & Lowe,R; 2008)73

Basically, Culture is made up of three main components. There are Beliefs, Values and Customs. In many views, the Beliefs and Values of a culture society a need within all organization for all purpose such as direction and guidance.

Culture factors also affect legal and ethical behaviour in some issues. Legal system frameworks might be different from culture. Besides that, Ethical issues in different choice are more complex when communication across cultures. Culture factors are always an important issue for all people in organization business in order to set up a good relationship between colleagues and to customers as well as prevent to trouble problems which may come from many resources under difference culture cause to.

We could see the determinants of theory in national cultures which implement the goal of exploring culture, understanding the way of thinking of people in different culture. One culture could encompass many national states. However, it could cover just only and only one state

Cultural map of the world

Source: Shekar, R: Clustering Countries on Attitudinal Dimensions

Cultural factors create the frame where are formed the customers or consumers user achieve the goals. Cultural knowledge becomes more and more important in onganizationof marketing policy.Because most of the organizations are having the different sections and behaviour of customers. In different area, companies have different customers, creating the central core of marketing policy. It makes the result of the effection of the cultural factors in different societies.

Creating the marketing policy is to create the demands, customers to be matched in all areas; It could be approriate culture for setting up competitive on the market among all the companies in order to win the market even though it is a very difficult job. Moreover, think about the long run, It would not be the same competition, permenent competive profiling of an specific area.

According to Dr. sc. Ratko Zelenika and Dr. sc. Anton Ogorelc; In many ways, we could see the relation marketing policy and cultural factors is interactive.


"In order to ensure the appropriate verbal and non-verbal communication with the representatives of other cultures and overcoming the language barriers, tourist companies' market policy should appreciate the problems of language usage, delicacy of language usage, problems of translation and correspondence, addressing forms, problems of communication of non-verbal meaning.


Many cultures find the reasons of their existence in religion.3 In order to be able to bring decisions based on market situation, the management of tourist company should study the specific meaning of religion or religions within specific originating area, its influence to different aspects of living and behaviour through recognition of major religious holidays, social and economic position of women and minorities, place, role and position of family in the society, engagement of religious institutions, dependency of system and the framework of consumption on religious requirements.

Aesthetic values.

Aesthetic values of individual cultures significantly influence the tourist companies' market policy. The management of tourist companies should be extra careful when choosing colour, illustration, symbols, appeals, messages, music, but also architecture of tourist buildings and their interior, and adjust them with the culture of the originating and not receptive area.

Material culture.

Material culture manifests itself through accessibility and quality of economic, traffic, social, financial and market infrastructure, or as Dobzhansky says "Man is what he is due to his nature and achievements ". The implications of different material cultures to tourist companies' market policy reflect on the level of strategic and tactical orientation on the source of originating area and emission of more important market segments, choosing the ways of performing business activities and appropriate market entanglement. To create efficient tourist companies' market policy it is essential to have in mind the shifting of basis of materialistic conception from consumption motivated by social status to consumption motivated by personal pleasure.''

In general, cultural factors considered by many writers on the international marketing to be the 'central core' of marketing policy.One of the specific example that Mac Donald, when they opened and made their menu in India, afterward they have to change all the system order and menu because of the culture of India. Specific in beef is replaced by pork because the religion in India, all the cultural challenges exist in any clusters in relation to the acceptance of the all the products to customers.

In conclusion, whenever we decide to start the business on a specific international marketing challenge. We need to define the global marketing in marketing policy objectives and policies. Also implementing to examine on many factors which would impact the marketing policy and strategy.Therefore the cultural factors are considered by many writers on international marketing to be the "central core" of marketing policy.

(b) Cateora and Ghauri (2006) state that 'for the inexperienced marketer, the similar but different' aspect of culture creates an illusion of similarity that usually does not exist'. What do they mean by this statement? Explain and give specific examples to illustrate the points made.

Nowadays international marketing has become a very popular and important concept for all organization businesses around the global where international trade is a common issue and that open business wider outside the domestic market into the next step that making all companies have to work hard and harder to remain and success in business norm. International marketing plays an important role in businesses and need to implement skill and knowledge.

There are many countries where their population can speak same language, have many things same such as culture,heritage, race, manners and custom. However, it does not follow the similarities exist exactly. Furthermore, the products can be accepted by other, also mean the successfully in business throught out the culture issues.

"Marketers must assess each country thoroughly in terms of the proposed products or services n never rely on an often used axiom that if it sells in one country, it will surely sell in another. As worldwide mass communications and increased economic and social interdependence of countries grow, similarities among countries will increase and common market behaviours, wants, and needs will continue to develop. As this process occurs, the tendency will be rely more on apparent similarities when they may not exist. A marketer is wise to remember that a culture borrows and then adapts and customizes to its own needs an idiosyncrasies thus what may appear to be the same on the surface may be different in its cultural meaning.

The scope of culture is broad. It covers every aspect of behaviour within a society. The task of foreign marketers is to adjust marketing strategies and plans to the needs of the culture in which they plan to operate. Whether innovations develop internally through invention, experimentation or by accident, or are introduced from outside through a process of borrowing or immigration cultural dynamics always seem to take on both positive and negative aspects."

According to homeeducationresources, there are six aspect of culture:

"1. Government & International Relations

How do the people make laws and enforce them? Who rules over the people, and how

are the rulers selected? What types of relationships do the people have with other groups?

2. Resources & Economics

What natural resources do the people have available for their own use and for trade?

What goods are produced? What type of barter or monetary system do the people use? How

do the people buy and sell the goods they produce, and those produced elsewhere?

3. Religion & Spiritual Beliefs

What do the people believe in? How and whom do they worship? Do the people have

a structured religious system? Is practicing religion mandatory or optional? How are those

whose beliefs differ from the majority treated? How do beliefs affect everyday life?

4. Learning & Technology

How are the people educated? Who attends school, and what is taught? Who deter-

mines what is taught in the schools, and who teaches it? What technologies do the people

use both in schools and in everyday life? How "advanced" is the society?

5. Family Life, Community, & Society

How are people arranged into groups? Who lives together, in what types of housing,

under what sanitary conditions, and how close together? How do the people relate to each

other? Are family, race, religion, ethnicity, or other factors of high importance? Do these is-

sues divide the people? How do the people live day to day? What are their daily customs?

How do they celebrate special days, and how do they amuse themselves?

6. Arts & Crafts

What types of paintings, sculptures, music, and architecture do the people create?

What types of handmade goods such as baskets, pottery, or decorative items do they make?"