The Concepts Of Le Corbusier Cultural Studies Essay

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For my written assignment I have chosen to compare two modern designers Marcel Breuer and Le Corbusier and see how similar and different they are and how they used art in each of their designs. I also want to see how modern architecture was viewed in the 1900s.

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier who was born on October 6th 1887 and died on August 27th 1965. Corbusier was a Swiss architect, designer, urbanist, writer and painter he is famous for being one of the pioneers of modern architecture. His career spanned five decades, with his buildings constructed throughout central Europe, India, Russia and one each in North and South Americia.

He was a pioneer in the studies of modern design and was dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities. His striking innovations have influenced every generation of architects and designers that followed him.

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Le Corbusier was attracted to the visual arts and studied at the La-Chaux-de-Fonds Art School. His architecture teacher in the Art School was somewhat a large influence on Le Corbusier's earliest houses.

Marcel Lajos Breuer was born on the 21st may 1902 and died on the 1st july 1981. Bureuer was a hungarian architect and furniture designer, Breuer displayed interest in modular construction and simple forms. He was also one of the masters of modernism. Breuer became one of the greatest architects and furniture designers of the 20th century.

Breuer studied and taught at the Bauhaus in the 1920s a school of design where modern principles, technologies and the application of new materials were encouraged in both the industrial and fine arts. He was appointed to a teaching position as head of the schools capentry workshop. In the 1920s and 1930s Breuer pioneered the design of the tubular steel furniture. Breuer used new technologies and new materials in order to develop his 'International Style' of work.

The Bauhaus also introduced Breuer to some of the architects and designers of the era who were Le Corbusier, Miles van der Rohe and Walter Gropius who he worked with in both London and Harvard's architecture faculty.

One of the earliest pieces of architecture work the designer done was of Breuer that was the Breuer House I

(http://www.stylehive.com/tag/marcel_breuer)

Breuer got a generous offer from a wealthy lady from Boston to build himself a house in the countryside at her own expense. The house was built in Lincoln, Massachusetts between the years 1938-1939.

Breuer and Walter Gropius designed the house and as you can see from the picture this design of Breuer was very modern and has a futuristic fell to it. As you can see there is a lot of glass in this design which I feel would bring a lot of light into the space to make it look fresh. I like how this design is so streamlined and so simple, which is what Breuer was well know for.

I don't think this design could be labelled to a certain design era I feel it would fit in with any design era, as it is so modern. It also looks as if the house is slotted together.

In this design you can clearly see similarities between Breuer and Corbusier Villa Savoye, which on its own it is very modern and futuristic looking also it is streamlined and simple, but both of these buildings are powerful pieces of design.

(http://coolboom.net/architecture/the-classics-villa-savoye/)

although both of the designs are similar they are also different, in my own opinion I think that the Villa Savoye is one of the most modern homes built to this day. Ville Savoye was built in Poissy, in the outskirts of Paris, France between 1928 and 1931. It was designed by Swiss architects Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret.

Savoye represents modern architecture which is what Corbusier was well known for, and is one of the most easily recognizable examples of modern architecture and International style.

I like how corbusier designed this space to be open planned and have a lot of light around it and how he used support stilts to help hold the design up. Villa Savoye also has an urban style to it and also very symmetrical.

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(http://connect.in.com/le-corbusier-villa-savoye/images--la-villa-savoye-le-corbusier-11-678906630922.html)

(http://lmsketchs.blogspot.com/)

The picture above are of the inside of the Villa Savoye which you can see how opened the space is and the roof space which is completely differnet from the building as the roof space has been designed with a lot of curves.

(http://www.writedesignonline.com/history-culture/bauhaus.htm)

This is Marcel Breuer's Wassily chair which is also known as B3 chair Breuer designed this while he was teaching at the Bauhaus. People seem to this the chair was designed for the painter Wassily Kandinsky but this was not true. Breuer's Wassily chair was made from chrome steel and leather. Breuer got the idea from his Adler bicycle that was an inspiration to him.

The Wassily chair was the first ever chair to feature a bent-steel frame.  While it was first created in 1926, it marked the beginning of a new era in modern furniture with a design that maintains a progressive look even today.

Breuer said about this design "two years ago, when I saw the finished version of my first steel club armchair, I thought that this out of all my work would bring me the most criticism. It was the most extreme work both in its outward appearance and in the use of materials; it is the least artistic, the most logical, the least "cosy" and the most mechanical." I honestly think that Breuer was judging himself a bit too much as this design is so modern and contemporary even though it was first created in 1926.

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http://www.comparestoreprices.co.uk/bedroom-furniture/unbranded-le-corbusier-chaise-longue.asp)

Corbusier chaise lounge chair was made with chrome-plated steel, a black lacquered base and leather. This piece of work would be the most famous furniture design that Corbusier has done.

I think Breuer's Wassily chair would be more comfortable than Corbusier chaise lounge chair to sit on and I think the Corbusier Chaise lounge chair would be more comfortable to relax on. The Wassily chair looks like it would allow you to mould into the leather as the leather straps are evenly spaced out. The chaise lounge chair looks like a chair you would be able to rest and relax on but I don't think you would find it in the likes of waiting areas like you would probably find the Wassily chair. I think this of the Chaise lounge chair because it is shapes like a persons body, which would make it easy to rest on it and read a book or listen to music, it also reminds me of a chair you would maybe see in a psychiatrist or psychologist office.

Both of these chairs are each of the designer's most famous pieces of furniture design work.

(http://jakerajs.photoshelter.com/gallery-image/New-York-City-Monuments-Selects/G0000SqkVri1MxGo/I0000ywGQ5OzoET4)

This is the Whitney Museum Of American Art in New York City also known as the Whitney, Marcel Breuer and Hamilton Smith designed it in 1966. Breuer designed this building with not that very much windows, as he didn't want a lot of natural light in the building. I really like this building, as its so modern it doesn't look like it was designed or built in 1966, like I said before Breuer's designed do not fit into one specific era of design, like the Whitney Museum it looks so futuristic and modern one of the many things which Breuer was known for.

(http://amlancedesign.blogspot.com/2010_10_01_archive.html)

This is Le Corbusier Chapel Notre Dame du Haut; also know as Ronchamp, which is in Ronchamp, France. This building was completed in 1954; this building is one of the most important examples of twentieth-century religious architecture. The chapel is a simple design with two entrances, a main altar, and three chapels beneath towers made of both concrete and stone. Even though the building is a small design I think it is a powerful and complex desing.

I like how this design is simple but it has a modern feel to it, and I also like how both of the designers didn't use a lot of windows in each of their design, but that is where the comparison stops as Breuer's Whitney Museum Of American Art design is very streamlined whereas Corbusier Chapel Notre Dame du Haut design is very curvy. I like how the roof looks like a sail off a boat blowing in the wind.

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Out of both of the designers I think that both of their work is the same in a way, both of the desiners came from the modernist architectural movement. Throughout this essay I was learning new things about the two designers and their designs like how modern each of them were which was one of the things I mainly liked about each of the designers, I liked how each of the designs I compared looked modern and futuristic, and how each building or piece of furniture they design was very artistic like a sculpture. I also like how the designers are still looked at and compared by the new generations of designers and architects and even still to this day.

Bibiography

Websites:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Le_Corbusier

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcel_Breuer

http://www.marcelbreuer.org/

Books:

Marcel Breuer - furniture and interiors - Christopher Wilk

The Beehive Metaphor - From Gaudi to Le Corbusier - Juan Antonio Ramirez

Le Corbusier - a life - Nicholas Fox Weber