The Attitudes Towards Technological Advancement Cultural Studies Essay

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The aim of this paper, by analyzing two well-known architects before World War II with a number of projects designed by them, to compare and contrast their own reflected thought in the projects, and how the technology is to be treated in the construction process and technology creation, which holds very important significance.

As we all know, Walter Adolph Georg Gropius was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture. Bauhaus School and Faculty, in Germany, built in 1945, is one of the most famous architectures. And in 1967 he contributes his talent and ideas to Tower East Shaker Heights which was his last major project.

While another peer, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was also a German architect. He is commonly referred to and addressed by his surname, Mies, by his colleagues, students, writers, and others. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, along with Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of Modern architecture. Mies, like many of his post World War I contemporaries, sought to establish a new architectural style that could represent modern times just as Classical and Gothic did for their own eras. He created an influential 20th century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. His mature buildings made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define interior spaces. He strived towards architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of free-flowing open space. He called his buildings "skin and bones" architecture. He sought a rational approach that would guide the creative process of architectural design. He is often associated with the aphorisms "less is more" and "God is in the details".

Before World War II, both of them created numerous classic works, and works itself also reflects their own style, the following article will list their representative to discuss the works in this period,in which how the science and technology are integrated. This is the purpose of this article.

2 Compare and contrast the use of and attitude towards technology

Europe before the building complex and ornate structure and shape, spire, pillars or windows, arches,

Whether the style is Victorian Gothic style, emphasizing the concept of artistic appeal to the myth embodied in religious influence on secular life, this building is unable to adapt to industrialization and mass production. Gropius made him for these new design requirements: both art and science, and both the design is practical, but also to the factory assembly line mass production manufacturing. To this end, different from traditional schools in the Gropius of the school, students not only learn to design, shape, material, but also to learn drawing, composition, production, therefore, National Building Technology The school has a series of production Workshop: carpentry workshop, brick workshop, steel workshop, ceramics workshop, etc., the school is not a "teacher" and "students" in the title, and students called each other "master" and "disciples." Gropius guide the students how to understand everything around: color, shape, size, texture, quality; he taught students how to not only meet the practical criteria, the designer can express unique ideas; He also told the students how to certain shape and contour in a house or piece of equipment to make the function to obtain the most of it. Gropius building process of teaching for the State has brought to the school as the basic shape of the geometric lines of the new design. School of Design, National Building Technology no longer have any decorative plants, plant is square, flat roof, floor, pillars of the body than all but take the structure with a metal plate, outside the large glass insert, concise and open

Liang, completely suitable for production. School of Design, National Building Technology without any decoration carved chairs, four chairs back only by a few curve-shaped wood or steel bar supports it on the production line can output hundreds of the day. School of Design, National Building Technology lamp, metal lamp shade under a semi-circular vertical pole on a thin circular holder ... ... At this point, small to large kettle buildings Gropius to his students learned In the simplest square, rectangular, square, round to win the design style and modern style. In 1932, the National Building Technology School held the first exhibition, design exhibits from cars to lamps, from ashtrays to office buildings, the exhibition is the most enthusiastic audiences throughout Europe's major manufacturers, industrialists had a premonition that this is only texture to the material itself is decorated, emphasizing the use of straightforward design features will bring them huge benefits, because once the design is the implementation of such a production, cost reduction and performance but it will increase a hundredfold.

For the level outside the building without walls and glass, this initiative was later widely adopted by modern architecture. Today, many cities are still visible in the world, many of Gropius "milestone "in the style of the building, which stands in our generation the vision of life, prove a rich foresee the great thought and action. In 1928, President of Bauhaus Gropius resigned from office because of the Bauhaus design style of the people could not understand that the Bauhaus buildings is not only anti-traditional, it is transplanted from Moscow, including House of Soviet penetration of the red forces. Since the end of World War I, was occupied by Soviet forces in many cities in Germany, the Soviet red heart means in German history is difficult to forget the pain. In this context, the conservative forces of the Bauhaus in the attack on a highly lethal. In 1932, the Nazis closed the Bauhaus force. At that time students were in exile led by the president to Berlin, the school barely able to maintain 1933 until the day Nazi troops occupied the premises. Since then, Gropius's Bauhaus disappeared. Although the Bauhaus existed in the world only 15 years, but it is simple and practical design concept has generated a broad and far-reaching impact, because the idea of scientific progress and the people from the need to respect and to fully reflect the 20th century Ever-changing face of human life.

Law and Cologne Exhibition Goose Public House plants:

Two buildings are frame, wall and pillar was torn off and made ​​large areas of continuous light curtain. Law Gus shoe factory wall by the large plate glass windows and skirts below the wall composition, in sunlight, narrowing the difference with the outside; the four corners there is no corner column, give full play to the steel works

Cantilevered concrete floor performance. Exhibition buildings facing a full glass curtain wall at each end of the round tower. Inside the spiral staircase and down the stairs were all exposed. These practices in the later modern buildings, especially in department stores and nursing homes and the like are widely used in public buildings. The two buildings not only the new features and performance of a new aesthetic point of view and that is the same functionality and aesthetics of modern materials and construction techniques inseparable. His emphasis on the building function is also reflected by the use of space, nature, relationship to the rational organization and layout, according to human physiology, human scale to determine the minimum limits of space and so on. These views are fully embodied in the following buildings: the Bauhaus school, he co-designed the United Kingdom and EM Fry, Gordon College, Cambridge Naim products (1936), he and his colleagues in Concord Architects designed the Harvard Graduate Center (1949 1950), and high-rise apartment District (1957).

Saxony - Anhalt Dessau Bauhaus

It was built in 1925-1926, the school design for the Bauhaus, Gropius is a masterpiece. Campus area of ​​about one million square meters, is divided into three work

Points: 1, school buildings, 2 living rooms (including student dormitories, dining room, hall, kitchen, boiler room, quarters for six, and the remaining two layers), 3, four subsidiary of vocational schools (and Teaching Building By the Guojie Lou link). After the two parts are mixed structure. Five-minute walk from school to the faculty that a small residential area. Designed to emphasize practical function, full use of modern building materials, structure, performance of simple, transparent, with the asymmetric shape to seek balance and flexibility of the entire composition, with very economical means to show serious geometry. Stage of development coincided with the creation of the Bauhaus in Germany after World War I period undone, in order to help solve the housing problems of the civilian population, Bauhaus focuses on the small area of ​​residential and industrial buildings, and pay attention to single buildings and Groups, architectural harmony with the environment issues. From housing to the Bauhaus design teapot lamp, voluminous all-encompassing. The design of products in daily life, the Bauhaus designers must focus on emphasize industrial production, to produce beautiful and practical for the majority of items, rather than a luxury for the few rich production.

Gropius actively promoting the unity of design and technology, the combination of art and technology, pay attention to functional, technical and economic benefits. His architectural works Design pay attention to adequate lighting and ventilation, advocated by the use of space, nature, relationship to the rational organization and layout, according to human physiology, human scale to determine the minimum limits of space and so on. Gropius advocated use of mechanized mass production of prefabricated building components and construction methods. During the early Bauhaus schools, he is committed to research vessels and other daily necessities to make furniture and architectural design to adapt to the requirements of industrial mass production, that the only way to large-scale construction and reduce cost. He also set on the standardization and prefabricated housing design theory and methods. Gropius Building Society to participate in launching the modern organization, communication theory of modern architecture, development of the theory of modern architecture has played a role. His masterpiece was completed in 1965, "New Architecture and the Bauhaus. " Since the 70s, new building construction industry in Western schools and theories continue to emerge, there has been criticism modernist architecture is monotonous, boring tendency to think that this is the emphasis on functional, technical and economic requirements of neglect caused by the human spirit. This criticism affected Gropius. For Gropius architectural theory and practice in the role of mixed reviews, but he founded the Bauhaus school of modern architecture such as the contribution of education is consistent with the affirmative. Gropius Building Society to participate in launching the modern organization, communication theory of modern architecture, modern architecture has played a role in the development of theory

In 1886, Mies was born in Aachen, Germany, formerly known as MariaLudwigMichael, to establish his own laboratory was renamed after they Mies van der Rohe (MiesvanderRohe), vanderRohe was his mother's surname. Smith in the 1908-1911 years and renowned architect Peter Behrens to work with, and later, he adopted the style of Bauhaus and Walter Gropius inherited (WalterGropius) left style. 1938-1958, he served as Chicago A Mawr College (later renamed Illinois Institute of Technology) Department of Architecture.

Pedro's contribution is close Sifan on steel frame structure and the application of glass in buildings to explore, develop a balanced and with the classic style of extreme simplicity. His work is characterized by clean and the appearance of exposed skeleton, flexible space and the flow of concise works of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. The production of fine detail. His early work shows the body of his extensive use of glass windows, which makes it a sign of its success. Smith engaged in architectural design idea is realized by building systems, and it is this took him to the building structural front. At the same time, he advocated the glass, stone, water and steel and other materials to join the construction industry views are often able to use his design. The use of secret Sifan der Rohe designed the style of a straight line features, but to a large extent determined depending on the structure and technology. In public buildings and museums, architectural design, he uses symmetric, positive methods such as paint and painted the side of the design; and for residential and so on, are the main choice of asymmetry, liquidity and other methods of chain design. Considerable attention to the details of Smith to a large extent, in his words, "the details of God", thanks to his father, his techniques are taught. Although he never received formal architectural study, but he was very young with his father learning masonry, the nature of materials and construction techniques have a better understanding, but also decorated by drawing a large sample master drawing skills. At the same time, he is very bold, simple and perfect way to design, architecture and structure of the complete combination of perfectly simple. Smith is not particularly concerned about the choice of decorative materials, but pay special attention to interior architecture works. The stability. Like Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, as Smith also pay special attention to the natural environment, human and architectural integration in a common unit inside. The outskirts of the villa he designed, exhibition halls, factories, museums and monuments and other buildings are a manifestation of this. At the same time, Smith has re-defined the walls, windows, columns, piers, pilasters, soffits, and scaffolding and other aspects of design. Smith established a standard of contemporary popular architecture, his architectural concept has now become famous around the world. Steel and glass structures as the father of Smith's "less is more" philosophy, this focus reflects his architectural ideas and artistic characteristics, also affect the whole world. Mies in many areas have played a considerable role in his autobiography, said: "not very exciting, just better!" Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, the work of the occasion, he designed the lake from the apartment (LakeShoreDriveApartments) to demonstrate his architectural genius of the technological age. Death until 1969, Mies had to stay alone in the design work in Chicago apartment

New National Gallery in Berlin, Germany

Smith's reputation, from the Barcelona International Exposition of 1929 German Pavilion designed start through 40 years of life, for his design of the new National Gallery of the motherland marks the end of life even in the highest reaches. And the German Pavilion in Barcelona than in his later years has been designed in a simple form to find the end, he designed the new National Gallery is an almost does not require any cutting of the huge square. Smith also advocates the noble art of absolutism, and tried to built a temple of the absolute doctrine, this new National Gallery, and that pieces of Malevich "Black Square" has recognized the spiritual relationship works. Smith is the only ground as the gray square canvas, the perspective is that if people see the building from the air vertically, is a black square, the best that is on the building construction drawings clearer demonstration of The relationship between the square and the edge. But the real shock comes not from the perspective from looking down, but when you walk into the museum, only eight columns up huge black square cantilevered roof, all covered in the head, forming a huge feeling of constriction. If the essence of art is the return of the original point, then Smith is through the "New National Gallery, " creating in effect for this, return to the absolutism icon painting "Black Square" to be the ultimate performance of the world. When people Friedrich's paintings after continuous study, you will find the romantic life of the works of top artists, is an "imperative" journey of life, then the romantic context, as the successor Mies van der Rohe Building, it is devout "prayer"of life portrayal.

Seagram Building

Brought the famous American architect Mies van der Rohe, people will think of Xi Gemu Building, filed Xige Mu building, people will think of Farnsworth house. These buildings not only embody the idea has always been the architect, the structural system with a simplified, streamlined structural elements, pay attention to the structural logic of the performance, so there is no barrier produced by the large space available for free, that is "less" is " more "architectural principles. But also created a human wall of glass as a precedent, he talks of these things have to mention that the interesting story architectural history. It was 1950, female doctors Farnsworth hired Mies designed for her a small house. This area is less than 200 square meters of buildings in architectural history is no small fame. Because this house is the first glass curtain wall for the house, when completed, it is crystal clear, gorgeous, gorgeous extraordinary, are like a "Crystal Palace." Unfortunately, this glass is more than transparent, heat can not, sun tan female doctor Rehan dripping, cold winter, and her straight through the glass cold chills, sunny days of intense sunlight dazzled her unbearable thorn, and soon Health onset to. This house is called a transparent single women do feel the inconvenience, and cost more than 85% exceeded the original plan, so she filed a complaint to the court. Smith stood on the dock had to try to justify their own ideas. In the audience sat by his eloquent and brilliant exposition of the infection: "When people wandering in the ancient tradition, people will never exceed the old frame of mind, especially in highly developed and urban people material prosperity of today, the house will have high requirements, especially the spatial structure and choice of timber. The first requirement is that the building's function as a starting point for building design, open and flexible interior space, this modern work, study and life will change very important, this house has so many shortcomings, can only say sorry, and would like to bear all the losses. "attitude of everyone touched by his honesty, especially the doctor, and finally she offered to withdraw the prosecution, which lawsuits on the way to nothing. Because this housing crisis, no one dare risk such a big risk to please Mies, because people do not need to see not "to" houses. However, Smith failed unwilling, under a lot of hard work, and finally found a stained glass instead of the colorless glass. After some hard work and advocacy, in 1952 he finally re-designed and built a 38-story glass curtain wall high-rise buildings - the Seagram Building in New York. New York, this building stand Xiong Fa Yuen Street in Manhattan, the Seagram Building is a luxury office building, with a total of up to 158 meters, the building at the bottom, in addition to the central elevator is located in the transport equipment, all retained a large open space, so to facilitate the transportation, it seems lofty, extraordinary, building a very simple shape, a whole square, straight down the positive hexahedron. The whole building has always been advocated by Smith, with just invented stained glass for the curtain wall insulation, which accounted for 75% of exterior wall area of ​​amber glass, together with copper inlaid bronze package pane, so that many buildings in New York high-rise buildings more elegant and luxurious, unique. Expensive building materials, and careful scrutiny and construction of Smith's precise construction workers to become New York's most luxurious building beautiful buildings. Although Mies van der Rohe died twenty years, but his emphasis on technology, the kind of exquisite style and the "less" is "more" claims, and the use of glass, enriching the art of architecture, the West Graham House, became his best monument. When people see this building, would think that an outstanding architect.

Seagram Building

Brought the famous American architect Mies van der Rohe, people will think of Xi Gemu Building, filed Xige Mu building, people will think of Farnsworth house. These buildings not only embody the idea has always been the architect, the structural system with a simplified, streamlined structural elements, pay attention to the structural logic of the performance, so there is no barrier produced by the large space available for free, that is "less" is " more "architectural principles. But also created a human wall of glass as a precedent, he talks of these things have to mention that the interesting story architectural history. It was 1950, female doctors Farnsworth hired Mies designed for her a small house. This area is less than 200 square meters of buildings in architectural history is no small fame. Because this house is the first glass curtain wall for the house, built partly in the art of modeling in the building, which is purified form of construction, making it something that does not have any extra, just a straight line, right angle, rectangular form with rectangular the geometries of Fig. On the other hand, precise and strict construction, material selection and color, texture and lines of well-exposed, while filling the form is even more clear and pure refined elegance, with never get tired of formal beauty. Such thoughts were expressed in Weisen Hough Village of multi-storey apartment house, the Barcelona International Exposition of the German Pavilion and Tugendhat house in spit. Mies's buildings are mostly rectangular shape from flat to a clear, concise, logical, rational characteristics demonstrated. This attention to his exquisite architectural design technology and rigorous modeling technique for architects around the world had a profound impact. Ludwig Mies not only the works of Mies van der Rohe

Good architectural design, but also an accomplished deep interior designer. He has been in the architectural design to follow his motto "less is more", which he also used the principles of architectural design layout of the room. In 1927, the German-made Union exhibition, he and Lilly Reich did with the wonderful design. Fewer but exhibits the exhibition seeks to require every thing can play an important role. He used the least partition walls, shelves and windows, to maximize the use and artistic effect. All the components set off the exhibits and exhibits are taken into account the nature of the agreement, such as glass walls set off the exhibits are made of glass materials; silk exhibits are set off with silk wall finishes. Walls and windows and all the design details are also very simple, and architectural features to mark the line

3 conclusion

Pedro's contribution is close Sifan on steel frame structure and the application of glass in buildings to explore, develop a balanced and with the classic style of extreme simplicity. His work is characterized by clean and the appearance of exposed skeleton, flexible space and the flow of concise works of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe The production of fine detail. His early work shows the body of his extensive use of glass windows, which makes it a sign of its success. Smith engaged in architectural design idea is realized by building systems, and it is this took him to the building structural front. At the same time, he advocated the glass, stone, water and steel and other materials added in the construction industry views are often able to use his design. The use of secret Sifan der Rohe designed the style of a straight line features, but to a large extent determined depending on the structure and technology. In public buildings and museums, architectural design, he uses symmetric, positive methods such as paint and painted the side of the design; and for residential and so on, are the main choice of asymmetry, liquidity and other methods of chain design.

Gropius actively promoting the unity of design and technology, the combination of art and technology, pay attention to functional, technical and economic benefits. His architectural works Design pay attention to adequate lighting and ventilation, advocated by the use of space, nature, relationship to the rational organization and layout, according to human physiology, human scale to determine the minimum limits of space and so on. Gropius advocated use of mechanized mass production of prefabricated building components and construction methods. During the early Bauhaus schools, he is committed to research vessels and other daily necessities to make furniture and architectural design to adapt to the requirements of industrial mass production, that the only way to large-scale construction and reduce cost. He also set on the standardization and prefabricated housing design theory and methods. Gropius Building Society to participate in launching the modern organization, communication theory of modern architecture, development of the theory of modern architecture has played a role. His masterpiece was completed in 1965, "New Architecture and the Bauhaus. "

Renferences:

1 Bauhaus, The Tate Collection, retrieved 2008-05-18

2 American Colossus: the Grain Elevator 1843-1943, Colossus Books, 2009. american-colossus.com

"Walter Adolph Gropius 1883 - 1969". British Broadcasting Corporation.

The New Architecture and the Bauhaus, Walter Gropius, 1955.

The Scope of Total Architecture, Walter Gropius, 1956.

From Bauhaus to Our House, Tom Wolfe, 1981.

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