The Architecture Applied To Disciplines Cultural Studies Essay

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The use of the term "architecture" is applied to include the disciplines of architecture, building technology, landscape architecture, urban design, and planning. Another term to consider may be the "built environment." "Culture" is used to underline the important role that economics, politics, religion, heritage and the natural environment play in shaping the built environment (1). People's behavior influence according to their cultures. If culture includes religion and living conditions in history, these points should perforate to people. For this reason, people can reflect these values to their constructions. People have been shaping beautiful environment as their values. 'The most well known quotation is from Adolf Loos's famous essay "Ornament and Crime" is the argue that, "As ornament is no longer organically related to our culture, it is also no longer the expression of our culture". The movement which is separated ornament and culture, linked Modernist architecture to the culture of modernity' (2). This relationship, between culture and architecture can be seen in aspects of architecture. Therefore, this essay will argue that culture and CVOs influence buildings and values projected in architecture according to life styles of people.

Buildings styles are shaped by cultural values. There are examples about relationship between culture and architecture. Buildings are shaped according to people's necessities and especially, cultural values. For Instance, 'Ireland was one of the first European countries in which peasants could buy land. As for today, just about all farm-land is still family owned. Irish towns generally symbolize, as far as monuments, statues, landscaping, or museums are concerned, those who fought for Irish freedom. Everyday buildings such as residential or business greatly resemble buildings from the British Isle and Northern Europe. Through research it seems as though many countries including Ireland traditionally are narrow and are intending to keep family and friends very close' (3). As in this example, it is very clearly seen that cultural values reflect to the architecture. If natural environment contains the culture, natural environment can affect the architecture. Many designs look alike flat roofed white buildings that Mediterranean inhabited. These were functional and simple constructions. The flat roofs were useful for living or spending time in hot weather. As white reflects the sun light and keeps the houses cooler than other colors, this method was a very applicable one. However, in northern Europe the climate is formed of snowy and rainy weather. This climate makes the flat roofed white building method neither advisable nor useful. This result is reasonable as the snow or rainwater would tend to be collected on a flat area, the roof would collapse or get weaken. Therefore, a white building which has a flat roof didn't belong in northern Europe. In turn, this climate might cause damp in the building. And rain also created ugly stripe shapes on concrete. White became grey sooner and under a grey sky, these buildings began to look depressing and dismal. Depending on the mood those buildings form, people didn't want these buildings to live in. They didn't want small rooms to have more space in order to keep personal stuff in their house as much as possible. People also did not like low ceilings or norrow halls in their house. Another instance is from Egypt. 'Egypt, like the rest of the world is going modern, and newer homes are being built out of brick, which although more expensive, they can build higher which is proving to save land. Culture has brought about the country socially with tradition. Each village contains at least one mosque, although only men are allowed. Churches and guest homes are churches and guest homes are a large part of celebration and social life but they are generally a very large hall that is noticeable in a difference' (3). Homes were built according to their celebrations and social life because, to built as this provide them to make their lives easier. Moreover, this can be a proof of reflection of culture to the architecture. In Britain, homes are built by cultural values as privacy. British people are individualistic people and this points' proof is each person in family member has an individual room. This is because, they do not want to be share their privatize and the point reflect to architecture as individual rooms in British architecture. 'Inside the house, private spaces is also cherished. The British do not generally like that close. Although, houses are relatively small, family members are thus ensured private spaces' (Gannon, p.289) Another examples for culture and architecture about British people is to build pubs according to be socialized British people. 'Although the British enjoy the privacy of their own small homes, they also enjoy the camadorof of the local pub. Nearly, every large and small town throughout Britain has at least one pub, many of them hundreds of years old. This is where many British do most their socializing with coworkers and friends' (Gannon, p.282) The example of British pubs could be the answer of why English pubs are very famous in the world. In fact, they symbolizes that British people's passing from privatized home life to socialized pub life. This can be the proof of cultural values' reflection on architecture. These three instances specify that there is a strong relationship between cultures which affects the architecture.

Chinese people made their constructions as their cultural values. 'Classical Chinese buildings are built especially breadth and less on height, emphasis with close heavy platform and a large roof that floats over this base, with the vertical walls not well emphasized. These things are seen on opposite of Chinese architecture which is Western architecture which is constructed in height and depth'(4). 'Chinese architecture stresses the visual impact of the width of the buildings. Architecture and culture are tightly related to each other. In a sense, architecture is the carrier of culture. Styles of Chinese ancient architecture are rich and varied, such as temples, imperial palaces, altars, pavilions, official residencies and folk houses, which greatly reflect Chinese ancient thought - the harmonious unity of human beings with nature. People may find much Chinese ancient architecture, is often composed of small yards. Instead of pursuing the over-dimensioned architecture such as western cathedrals, Chinese ancient people designed housings fit human dimensions so that they may feel intimate and safe, and this idea reflects the practical thinking in Chinese culture.'(5)

Cultural Value Orientations show that different nations' different features and behaviors in various situations. Nations have various architectural constructions because of their cultural features. According to Schwartz, 'CVO have evolved as societies confront basic issues or problems in regulating human activity. The ways that societies respond to these basic issues or problems can be used to identify dimensions on which cultures may differ from one another.' (Schwartz, 45) Schwartz identifies seven values. However, one of them influences architecture styles explicitly. This one is mastery culture. 'Mastery encourages active self-assertion in order to mastery, direct, and change the natural and social environment to attain group or personal goals.' (Schwartz,46) This type of CVO have different features and values between the others. These features are seen on architecture of individualistic mastery people who are Chinese.

Chinese people hierarchical structure is directly seen on their buildings. Chinese people are individualistic mastery people who like living together and have hierarchical structure. 'The projected hierarchy and importance and uses of buildings in traditional Chinese architecture are based on the strict placement of buildings in a property/complex. Buildings with doors facing the front of the property are considered more important than those facing the sides. Building facing away from the front of the property are the least important. As well, building in the rear and more private parts of the property are held in higher esteem and reserve for elder members of the family or ancestral plaques than buildings near the front, which are typically for servants and hired help. Front facing buildings in the back of properties are used particularly for rooms of celebratory rites and for the placement of ancestral halls and plaques. In multiple courtyard complexes, Central courtyard and their buildings are considered more important than peripheral ones, the latter which are typically used as storage or servant's rooms or kitchens' (Knapp) This is the tangible proof of relationship between culture and architecture.

Individualistic mastery's features can be seen on Chinese modern architecture or their city structure. Skyscrapers symbolize wealth, and wealth equals to power in economy and market. Firms and persons try to be advertise their names to society with constructed new futuristic skyscrapers by naming their companies. This situation can be proof of social recognition in mastery cultures. There are skyscrapers which is constructed by companies. Jin Mao Tower is the famous one in this advertisement style. The tower ended in 1999 and now it includes Grand Hyatt Hotel. After then this, it continues with Bank of China which is known interesting white design. Another firm, Bocom Group has architects constructed skyscrapers which is 265 meters in 2002. In 2005, Bank of Shanghai's tower continues to this series and finally, there was a skyscraper which was 333 meters and constructed by Shimao Group in 2006. Moreover, these companies try to have most attractive and remarkable one to advertise their names. Actually, this competition help to develop new technologies and designs for architects because, they have a chance for applying their new ideas. Therefore, the construction of this competition's main reason is desire of social recognition of society in collectivist mastery cultures.

In conclude, there is a strong relationship between culture and architecture. People have different cultures and these cultures have different values. Irish people construct their buildings like a status because of their freedom fighters, Egyptians construct their buildings for private days, British people construct pubs for socializing and create more private space because of they are individualistic people. Examples show the effect of culture to architecture. If people demote it to CVOs, it is seems as there is a specifically relationship between culture and architecture. Chinese people construct their homes according to their cultural values. Moreover, their cities are settling by mastery culture feature as social recognition. These are vital points about relationship between culture and architecture.

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