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Actually, it is a common phenomenon in many other xiaoqu like xiangmei in pudong new area. It is inconvenient for people who live here without car. Although there is a cultural and administrative center beside the residential area, which has a series of public facilities such as Shanghai Oriental Art Center, Shanghai Science & Technology Museum and Municipal building , the place is dull and unvital. The sharp demarcations between superblocks, make walking distances from one's home to "the shop" or the facilities, extremely large. The strategy and framework is designed for vehicles instead of pedestrians.
Pudong New Area is a district of Shanghai and has grown rapidly since the 1990s and emerged as China's financial and commercial hub under the policy of authority. A huge and massive development goals has been planning when Deng Xiaoping visited Shanghai in 1990, he named it "the head of the dragon" -- the economic motor whose task it was to spur China ahead. The government started to draw this ambitious future scenario. It represents "the dreams of the people who cherished with lofty ideals to build the country into a modern nation".(ä½†æ˜¯æ„¿æ™¯æ€»æ˜¯ç¾Žå¥½çš„¼Œåœ¨å®žè·µä¸æ€»ä¼šè¢«æ›²è£å’Œæªæ›²ã€‚) People are proud of it, but the planning is not a success. However, there is a wistful myth that if only we had a high-quality community, civic center or cultural center arranged along weight boulevards that we can enjoy a high standard of living, just like the City Beautiful Movement during the 1890s and 1900s. In my view, Pudong's master plan is influenced by the City Beautiful, as people are lack of cultural identity and escaping to deal with the complex relationships in big city. China is renowned for its production of copies. Now we are copying the mistakes that developed countries had been made 100 years ago, while they are trying to reform and remediate them.
In terms of design process in china, it is dominated by a top-down approach which is a state planning and market-driven development system. Actually, most of the new town projects are initiated by the direct-controlled municipality but executed by local governments, often with the help of semi-private businessman. Local governments own more power, while the private developers operate increasingly independently. Once local governments have drawn up their urban planning zone, the semi-private developers who have a long-term cooperation with governments have translated it into reality. When semi-private set up the spatial framework, land-use rights (40-70 year)are sold to private developers. Due to the frictions arise by unfamiliarity and inexperience cooperation between different group which have their own interests, resulting in a chaotic structural development, poor design and poor construction quality. As a result, the governments just play a facilitatory role under an increasing number of private development initiatives. Many private developers acquire huge power to determine what is built although they lack experience with property development and good examples of practice. For the sake of profit maximization, private developers usually build the projects in a short term without the enough research about local history, culture and locals' opinions. The problems such as serious defects, a shirt life cycle, copy's style, lack of identity and culture, Vulgar aesthetic and high speeding time for design and construction often occur in projects developed by both government and the semi-private sector and seem part and parcel of the turbulent speed of change. What they care is profits instead of people's living standard, and the project in an even larger context. This process requires more guidance and a better balance between government controlled and market-driven urban development.
The originator of this Chinese special phenomenon could trace back to the land reform since 1980. (è¿‘ä»£åœŸåœ°æ”¹é©çš„åŽ†å²P58) the urbanization during these three decades has totally changed economic system in china . In 1980s, the rural reform (household responsibility systerm ) mean the start of the urbanization in rural area in china.Responsibility system was a practice in the People's Republic of China, first adopted in agriculture in 1981 and later extended to other sectors of the economy, by which local managers are held responsible for the profits and losses of an enterprise. This system partially supplanted the egalitarian distribution method, whereby the state assumed all profits and losses.(wiki). In 1990s, the urban land reform (urban land use rights system) creates a new era of "land finance" for the authority. In China, land use rights are the rights for natural persons, legal persons or other organizations to use land rights for a fixed period of time.China adopts dual land tenure system under which land ownership is independent of land use rights. The land is either owned by the state ("State Land") or by rural collective economic organization ("Collective Land"). The term of land use rights varies depending on different land use purpose. For example, if a piece of state land is used for industrial purpose, the term is 50 years while if it is used for residential purpose, the term is 70 years. (http://wiki.answers.com/Q/What_are_land_use_rights_in_China)As a result, the urbanization in china has been easily micro-controlled by the local authority. Then in 1994, the start of tax sharing system lead to an era of government's corporate style governance. As the government can get long-term administrative tax form land supply for the private developer, it lead to a crazy and speedy urban development phenomenon in china.There has occurred a lot of urban problems along with the land reform process such as resource waste, poor material , lost culture and identity, environment damage ,speculation and wealth inequality.
The nationalization of land ownership and marketization of land use rights transfer traditional agricultural China which was characterized by private land ownership into new urban China. The Ministry of land and Resources has become the macro-control authority. The land supply is one of the main macro-control measures to regulate the scale of investment, increase the concentration of resources and maximize the value of land assets. On the base of marketization and urbanization through the land reform, land finance has become a big income for local governments. As a result, local governments enclose land and attract investment, thus greatly influence China's industrialization and urbanization processes. It is obvious that China's urbanization process differs from other countries due to the government's strong but invisible hand. However, the new leadership in china now realize that improving the living standard is the best way to deal with the domestic problems. China try to find a balance between the people and power in terms of urban planning by creating a new environment which allow trial and error. It development differ from other developed countries.
CASE STUDY: urban development and management in songjiang new city
Develope a new city
As urban sprawl in shanghai with a rapidly growing population, shanghai announced the "one city, nine towns "development plan in 2001 to meet the increasing requirement for the urban infrastructure. "One city" stands for the songjiang new city. Songjiang locates in the north-eastern fringe of the shanghai, where is renowned by the manufacturing for export. What's more, there are many factories here, and the most important identity of the songjiang new city is the University Town. Seven universities aggregate their new campus in the new city.
In order to avoid market-driven development system, the local authority assign the task to semi-private developer which is responsible for operating development plan, co-operating with governmental departments, supervising and monitoring different private developers. The developer is a state-owned urban development corporation, which controls the right of land development.
the governmental section and stated-own urban development corporation are responsible for the infrastructure before housing constructure. So that, they can benefit from the value of land which has rising after developing infrastructure. But, songjiang new town requires a large sum of pre-investment for infrastructure development. Where is that dozens of billions of RMB come from? Unlike the traditional way what investment comes from government directly, an new approach is addressed. The investments come from different types of private developers, domestic and foreign, state-own and public , small and big. The development system comminates by government while operates by the market.
Spatial planning and design
Time for reflection
Facile marketing strategy
Xiao qu(small district) shanghai new town P412
This is a standardized residential quarter (originally named shenghouqu and adjacent to or on the grounds where the work of the danwei tool place). their size can vary from a few to several thousand residents.
Since 1986 the Land Administration Law (updated in 1998) maintains the socialist public ownership of land, including the protection and development of land resources. All urban land is the property of the state and is leased for development. Land-use decisions and government revenues depend on the planning process. Currently the terms for land-use rights vary from 40 to 70 years. Chinese law defines no term for farmers' residential use of collective land.