Term Acculturation Of Consumer Behaviours Cultural Studies Essay

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"Acculturation may be defined as culture change that is initiated by the conjunction of two or more autonomous cultural systems." [Social Science Research Council (1954,

p.974)].With increasing number of people immigrating into the United States every year' the American population is becoming more diversified. In 1997 alone, a total of 798,378 new immigrants entered the US (US Immigration an Naturalisation Service 1999). The countries' three largest minority groups, the blacks, the Hispanics and Asian Americans are growing much faster than Anglo Americans.

[yupingliu, 2000]

We can see that every minor community is trying to go abroad and earn money there. They mostly choose the developed countries like United Kingdom, United States of America, Canada, New Zealand, Australia etcetera. Minor community used to live in that country and earn money. As the people live in other countries as they spend their money in those countries. We know that every people are thinking as their own maniac. We can see that different kinds of people are talking in their own languages. Even their living style will be also different from the host country. They should eat different, wear different, speak different. As an example, Indian people used to eat cooked vegetables, rice, dal, tandoori etcetera. But English people used to eat Eggs, Bread, Milk, and etcetera. So the stores (any kind of material which is using by every persons) at these developed countries have to put every kind of things in that stores. As an example, In United Kingdom, there are lots of immigrants, so the super stores like Asda, Tesco, Sainsbury's and etcetera. Have to sell every things needed by the consumers. They have so many super stores in many areas. So they have to sell the things which are in daily use in that community area. As we thought the people of same community can help each other. So people who are coming from other countries they used to live with the same community people so they can easily get their needs. As an example, in London, most of Pakistani community people used to live in East London and the Indian community people used to live in North West of the London. The theme to live there is they should get their needed things easily. Even the stores in East London are use to sell the things which are mostly needed by the Pakistani consumers. As of in North West area the same store holder are use to sell the things which are mostly needed by the Indian consumers. So the store can earn more then comparatively. But in this things daily using things does not matter with shopping some times. Marketer has to know about the mostly needed things of the guest consumers, for that the marketer have to do research about it. He can do Primary research and Secondary research. In primary research the marketer has to go to the people personally and ask the questions to people about their needs, what kind of things they mostly used, and what kind of things are good and all the deep details about the product. In the secondary research the marketer can check the details of communities on internet or some cultural programs. As an example, KFC is not using Halal food at all the stores, so the Muslim community can not eat the chicken which is not Halal as per their culture. After know about that, KFC has started Halal food to sell in some of the shops. So Muslim community can also eat that and KFC can improve its sales.

Most of Muslim and Bangladeshi community used to wear Burkha. But in western countries Burkha is not the main wear here. So the clothes marketer has to get some different kind of burkhas as per their religion allows them, and sell burkhas in the area of Muslim community and Bangladeshi community. So they can easily get burkhas and wear them.

We can see that Gujarati community is also in a large number as immigrants. As per Gujarati calendar in the month of "Sharavan" that community is not used to eat Non vegetarian food as their culture said. So for the whole month that community have to eat only vegetarian food. So marketers have to reduce to sell Non Vegetarian food and instead of that they have start to sell Vegetarian food. So the ethic minority consumers will became happy and marketer should increase his sells too.

[consumerpsychologist, 2010]

[Emeraldinsight, 2007 ]

Main Body

In the world of today everybody is a consumer and the consumer choice is variable. The entire consumer will check all the things about the products. They develop an attitude about the product and its value. In this competitive world there is not monopoly for any business. We can have more than one product for the same thing. As an example, we are going to a super market to buy a detergent washing powder. We can see that there are many types of washing powders. Some for fragments, some for cleaning hard stains, some for cloth, etcetera. So we have so many options for a product. So the marketers are using acculturation as strategy.

[sciencedirect, 2001]

Acculturation term means "The modification of the culture of a group or individual as a result of contact with a different culture."

[thefreedictionary, 2010]

Acculturation is a phenomenon by which opinion of ethnic minorities is kept in value by the consumer companies. For example KFC in London, England has various outlets spread over the entire city. Islamic population is one ethnic minority in London. In accordance with the Quran, as per mentioned in the holy book, a Muslim can only eat an animal if that animal is slaughtered in the name of Allah, also a Muslim cannot eat any by product of swine. This is what Halal food means. (ref: Quran). Now there are certain areas in London which has concentrated Islamic population for example Whitechapel is majorly populated with people of Bangladesh origin. Henceforth KFC has been running a halal trial campaign in areas similar to Whitechapel such as Upton Park, Bethnal green, Stratford, and etcetera.

[kfc, n.d.]

Now we are going to talk about K F C in India. The first K F C franchise in India was open in June 1995.Thousands of people annoyed it. The business of K F C had planned to spend upon the franchise of K F C around US$40 million in India (Around 200 Crore Rupees), with that money they are going to open 60 restaurants in India, at each location there should be around 50 persons as employee. However, other issues were considered as having greater impact than that job of creation.

KFC would flatten its chicken on maize. K F C has cereal which contains good number of proteins, which was also the cheapest source of nutrition for the poor people. Those people whose maize was being removed were the ones who could not afford KFC food. The Karnataka (a region in southern India including Bangalore) Farmers Association, which accused multinationals of harming entrepreneurs, had destroyed the Bangalore offices of Cargill Seeds in 1993; in 1995 the farmer association claimed that KFC would force small-scale chicken farmers cant able to get in competition with KFC.. With 10 million members, this group gained political clout; the association could easily round up 200,000 participants to show solidarity at a single protest.

Then the Karnataka farmer association argue that KFC should have to buy chicken in large number from the local small farmers. KFC has approved that but afterwards KFC has demand a good quality food for chicken, because it grains health of chicken and it became good in taste too. It should very good for hungry people.

To protest its interests, the Karnataka Farmers Association has starting to distribut a leaflet warning of "chemically poisoned meat" which it deemed carcinogenic. Accusations against KFC's franchise in Bangalore resulted in government invention. The health ministry announced that KFC chicken contained excessive amounts of monosodium glutamate (MSG). Because of the protest KFC outlet lost its permit. Despite problems with its Bangalore store, PepsiCo Restaurants International proceeded to open another KFC store in Delhi. Here, health inspectors found flies in the kitchen, and the municipal health commissioner ordered the KFC outlet's license revoked on the grounds of unsanitary conditions.

[emeraldinsight, 1998]

The social ramifications of transnationalism - the flows of ideas, products, people, capital, and technologies across national boundaries - have become the staple of recent anthropological literature. This interest is based largely on the high visibility of cultural artefacts from transnational corporations, which have left people in very different parts of the world. The growing power of such corporations is sometimes considered a major cause of cultural disruption in developing countries, mutating local traditions beyond recognition. For example the way in which US based Kentucky Fried Chicken catered to Beijing children in the 1990s. This focus was mainly warranted by two considerations. First, fast-food restaurants like KFC have been successful among children in large Chinese urban centres. Children are often the decision-makers in determining whether an urban family will patronise a KFC restaurant. Moreover, what children eat is a fundamental part of their socialization, and changes in children's dietary are indicative of changes in their large social environment (Beardsworth and Keil 1997). In addition, children's consumption of both material and cultural goods in becoming a fiercely contested domain in many parts of the world and among various social groups seeking to implement their particular visions of the future by shaping childhood experiences (Stephens 1995). As an organisational actor, KFC is a part of social life of Beijing children and influences Chinese experiences of childhood by becoming part of local Beijing life.

[books.google, 2005 ]

It is easy to determine the phenomenon of acculturation by the above mentioned case studies. It can be said that acculturation is widely and solely the method practiced by companies to raise its sales. We can infer from the above case studies that if a company modifies or improvises its products as per consumer needs, both the consumer and the manufacturer are on the bright side. For example, the "OUR HALAL TRIAL" programme conducted by Kentucky Fried Chicken in London, England, is conducted in more than 25 K. F. C. outlets. Out of which only 5 K. F. C. outlets were not able to reach the target sales as forecasted.

[kfc, n.d.]

The stores which were not able to reach the sales target. were situated in a locality where Muslim population was not in abundance. Hence it was an unwise decision to have initiated the HALAL campaign in these stores. Although outlets which were situated in eastern part of London, England did pretty good as it is a locality where major Muslim population dwells. This clearly helps us to understand the basic concept of acculturation in the food industry of today.

Kentucky Fried Chicken inaugurated their first outlet in India in 1995 in the city of Bangalore. India has always been a secular country. It houses more religions than any other country in the world. Therefore it makes it difficult for the companies to satisfy every consumer's need. When K F C opened its first franchisee in India, it was hugely criticised by various religious groups. The slaughtering method used by K F C was unacceptable by the Muslims in the country but was acceptable by the Sikh community and the Christian community. Although the Hindu community always criticised the opening of K F C in India, in spite of the fact that K F C brought employment to India, which was a very big issue then. Being a Hindu country K F C was criticised by Indian masses and bureaucracy at every level, which eventually led to the closure of K F C in India. Nevertheless K F C came to India again with reformed measures to satisfy the Indian fast food consumer in 2009. This time K F C had turned Halal, satisfying the Muslim population. The Christian population was alright with the Halal. Even the communities like Sikh welcomed K F C with open arms and K F C became a great success in its second innings.

Conclusion

We are able to get from above that different kind of people used to eat different kind of food and their style of living is also different. We saw that Muslim community in whole world is mostly used to eat Halal food. So the stores who sell the Chicken, Lamb, and etcetera in the area of Muslim community, they have to start to sell the Halal food. As we know the world is very small now and every body is able to know different cultures. As an example in West countries most of people is believe in Christianity but nowadays some of them believes in Radha - Krishna ISKON Temple. It means are able to get different culture. So we can understand their culture and among them we can attract them to buy our products which product realize them about their culture provides.

As we saw K F C has started to sell Halal food in some of their stores where Muslim community is living in large numbers in London. In some area of London some of the people used to eat vegetarian only. Because Hindu Religion says that be away from Non vegetarian food. So some people don't eat food where Non vegetarian food serves. For those people some of the area in London marketer has opened some pure Vegetarian hotels. They used to make and sell only Vegetarian food. Because of pure vegetarian food Hindu community people is going there for their lunch, dinner, etcetera.

Recommendation

Every marketer has to know about that culture whose community is living in large numbers in his neighbourhood.

Marketer has to note different communities' festivals. So he can arrange some special things they needed.

They have something better then as their need then they have to publish it very well.

If in that area there are more than one community then they have to divide the departments as their communities and their needs.

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