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In recent decades, now post-modern architecture has had a major impact on our cityscapes. But what about post-modern architecture, as it differs from the modern architecture? A generic, universal inventory is difficult because it contradicts almost the postmodern credo of pluralism. "Anything Goes" (Everything is possible) also applies to the post-modern trends in architecture. So it can be in no way spoken of a single image. For each example, we find the corresponding counterexample. One can almost say anything Correct, but nothing wrong because for each line of argument let you find enough examples that support their own beliefs. In the eyes of postmodern architects this is not a tragedy, but this fact has an invigorating and refreshing to the urban out.
Rarely has one can experience such diverse and creative approaches that Coexist in quiet harmony. Andreas Papadakis writes: "In place of dogmatic modernism and the wild period of reconstruction after the war now entered a pluralistic ideology that covers the entire scale of the vanguard of high-tech through intermediate stages to the traditional design. This open air, the other side varied architectural attitudes and ideologies and allows led to a revival in all fields of construction. Looking back, could argue that the attacks against modernism does not destroy it, but have inspired architects to once again set his main ideas and bring them to today's living conditions in line one. "Before I still want some of the main points of the various postmodern currents Show, provides a brief review of the modern visualization and clarification of the existing architectural ideals.
A strongly worded definition of modernity is Robert AM Star, which is not only for the architecture of meaning: "The so-called" modern period "began in the 15th century located. With the birth of humanism, the "international style" of about 1920-60 is also a modern style, which is often regarded as the modern style in itself, but this is due to a shift in meaning - it should better be called modernist. Modernism is, in simplified form, the dogmatic, moral, so to speak mandatory application of a language which is not only new, but also independent of all previously produced. "
As a typical example of modern or as just hinted modernist architecture can apply the so called the Bauhaus. Walter Gropius in Weimar School of Design (later Dessau), founded in 1919, represented the exponent that direction (especially alongside Gropius famous Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky and Ludwig Mies) agree that functionality and material justice, beauty and style of the building require .
Clear geometric forms, usually kept in cool and calm tones, characterize the appearance of many modern buildings. Aware they have a formal point of no relation to past styles. The building therefore has no historical reminiscences, but refers to itself a construction has meaning in itself ("self-contained"). The design is not based on imitation. The result is realism in the name of industrial production, says Papadakis.
Typical are the hallmarks of modern architecture (especially New York and Chicago), clearly structured building suburban developments strictly geometrical glass and steel skyscrapers of American cities with their monotonous facades and an embossed from socialism notion of equality and simple factory. They all testify to the sobriety and rationality of the modern era, coupled with the unwavering belief in you, the reason and the progressive victory of technology. Representing many postmodern architects Richard Meier Does this: "Thank went into the cold light of the rational sense of the emotional loss, based on our aesthetic being. The excessive love for the machine leads to a profound alienation of man from his environment. The Masters of Modern identify too much with the idea and the possibilities of mass production of an industrial society. For me, the technology is no longer the subject of architecture, but only one of its agents ... ".
Characteristic of post-modern currents therefore, the goal is to change the reduced to mere expediency Building (formalism) with a new combination of functional and the aesthetic, often a playful and partly ironic dealing with elements of traditional or trivial architectural styles and the relation to the respective environment is apparent.
Also provide splashes of color, preferably pastel colors in the style of Art Deco of the 20s for refreshment and diversion. Through the media, contemporary architects have been elevated to the illustrious circle of artists. You are no longer simple round draw builder, but enjoy a status similar to other stars of the international art scene. The Visit of significant "monuments architecture" has become in the postmodern era to a trendy lifestyle (see the hype and the crowds at the new Guggenheim Museum by Frank. O. Gehry in Bilbao, Spain, which sought mainly because of its extravagant architecture and is only secondarily, to see the works of art exhibited there).
Its design is owed â€‹â€‹the towers the architects Cesar Pelli & Associates Architects. The office processed here his experiences they have had with other very similar towers, such as the Miglin-Beitler Skyneedle in Chicago, which was never built. Both towers have the same characteristics. The architect of the towers is Cesar Antonio Pelli, who designed the towers in a modernistic composition of steel, aluminum, concrete and glass with a borrowed from Islamic architecture polygonal structure. The layout of each tower corresponds to the shape of an eight-pointed star, whose edges are again arched outward. In 1991, Petronas decided to develop and build a new building, which should be the highest in the world after its completion. In January 1992, we began planning the new skyscraper in March 1993 began with the foundation work and initially dug a 30-meter deep pit, 500 trucks full of soil were removed every night. In April 1994, could then be started with the above-ground construction of the two towers. To attract attention even before the completion of the construction work and to advance as quickly as possible, it was decided here to make two construction teams are working around the bet.
One should try as quickly as possible to pull up tower 1 and was led by Bob prett. The other, the second team was responsible for the tower 2 and later for the heaving of the Sky bridge and was led by Jon Dunsford. It also got 30 days starting residue. And so worked up to 2,000 people working to construct the new landmark of Malaysia. Here they tried to reach the pillars on the top floor ready to put on the floor then the next floor always first. Then the exterior walls came off the last interior. Building a floor thus took four days, which is relatively short. During construction, some problems occurred. So the wrong concrete was used for example in a floor that was not holding the required 15,000 Newtons per square centimeter. The entire floor had to be torn down and then re-erected, located below floors and the other tower is not affected by this problem. Additionally in Tower 1 at the 72 Floor determined that the tower was slightly askew and in 72 Floor 25 millimeters from the perpendicular straight line diverged. This one tried to compensate by each built above it, yet to be built floor on one side of 2 millimeters higher. Mid-1995 was begun on the interior; in July 1995 we mounted the sky bridge.
Here it was decided to completely assemble the first bridge on the ground and then move up by 16 hydraulic jacks between the towers. This process took 36 hours and was interrupted three times by lightning, broke off all power. In December of the same year was the 88th finished floor of both towers. To build the betting to make between the two construction teams once again exciting, a decision was made that the installation of the tips should begin at the same time. However, the team of the tower 2 did not keep it, it built inside "his" tower, the top secret together and pushed it at the end of the building up and out, like the Chrysler Building. As a result, the team won 2, Tower 1 followed by reaching the final level a week later, but still in March 1996. On 31 August 1999 was officially opened the double-skyscraper.
Auditorio de Tenerife
The idea to build a concert hall in Tenerife dates back to the year 1970. Besides the question of financing the question of location was unclear for a long time. 1979 as the architect Antonio Fernández Alba was commissioned to design, which was not implemented a suitable building. Having been to the south of the town of Santa Cruz, located oil refinery had dominated the district of Los Llanos, began here in the 1980s, a total urban redevelopment. Next to skyscrapers and shopping malls in this area was also a Santiago Calatrava-designed exhibition hall. Between this newly designed district and the port you finally found the site for the auditorium. 1989 Santiago Calatrava was awarded the contract to build the new congress and concert house. The initial estimated construction cost 30 million Euros to 72 million Euros to complete. On 26 September 2003, the inauguration of the building and was attended by Queen Sofia and Crown Prince Felipe.
The opening concert Fanfarria Real for seven trumpets and orchestra was given a specially commissioned piece for the opening, which conducted the Polish composer Krzysztof Penderecki for the occasion itself. The Auditorio de Tenerife by Santiago Calatrava, was different from the previous planning architects, from the beginning concert and congress hall meant to be. It is the home of the Orquesta Sinfónica de Tenerife, one of Spain's best symphony orchestras. Place annually in January and February events here at the Festival de Música de Canarias instead. Occasional guest performances by opera and the architectural resemblance to the Sydney Opera House, the auditorium is also sometimes called "Opera House of Tenerife". 2008 dedicated the Spanish post in its series of stamps Arquitectura the building a brand to 0.31 Euros. Since 28 January 2011, the building bears the official name of the Auditorio de Tenerife "Adán Martín" and thus honors the Canarian politician Adán Martín Menis.
Museum "Abbey mountain"
The museum building was built in the dialogue between the architect Hans Hollein and the former museum director John Cladders. In 1972, the Viennese architect was commissioned to draft and an urban planning study. When building an orphaned property was reported on the hillside in the medieval city of Monchengladbach core. The realized architectural design for its implementation in 1976, the first sod in 1977 and the foundation stone was laid, takes into account three key parameters: the topographical situation, some historically traditional buildings of the area and the curatorial concept, which was developed by John Cladders. On the topographical situation reacts Hans Hollein's design of the building complex on several levels, with Southeast Asian rice terraces forms borrowed from the transition to the park? The surrounding buildings will be taken up by the choice of cladding on the one hand (sandstone based on the Romanesque-Gothic cathedral and the Gothic main Catholic church) and the division into synthetically connected individual structural members on the other hand (the harmonious act to the surrounding building structures).
The curatorial concept can be formed by communicating with each other spatial units, some with variable walls inside. Contrary to the classical art museum waived Hans Hollein, in coordination with John Cladders, the traditional monolithic bulk form in outdoor construction and regular layout inside. Rather, the construction appears open and yet functionally designed. The building is rich in semantic allusions, in which, an awareness of history can be read beyond an immediately readable tradition system, which plays a major role in free artistic work Hans Hollein. The administration tower of the museum is an echo of the towers of the cathedral and the main parish church, shed roofs of the top showrooms speak at the factory architecture Rheydts Monchengladbach, in the 19th Century was known for its many buildings of the textile industry as the "Rhenish Manchester" and the entrance to the so-called "board level" refers to the Propylaea of the Acropolis. Apart from the purely architectural elements that have their relation to the architecture of the early Viennese modernism, Hans Hollein has also designed all aspects of interior design - from the paneling to lighting to furniture.