Regional Structure Of The American Urban System Cultural Studies Essay

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The rank size regularity of the whole urban system

A primate city distribution has one very large city with many much smaller cities and towns, and no intermediate-sized urban centres, in contrast to the linear 'rank-size distribution'.

_____________________________: large size and population, income equality between regions, internal interdependence, long history of urbanism, complex economy, the "usual" outcome of growth and maturity of the urban system; a statistical steady state

In the case of city populations, the resulting distribution in a country, region or the world will be characterized by a largest city, with other cities decreasing in size respective to it, initially at a rapid rate and then more slowly

Ex. ___________________

Diffusion of ideas and information in a urban system

Torsten ___________________ (1916-2004) geographic diffusion of ideas, innovations, artifacts, disease, information

Contagious/Proximity/_____________________diffusion- picture with the dots effecting one dot after the next not skipping a single dot, starting at one corner. Urban system with few big spaces and lot of little spaces- things spread out in geographic space

City-size effect/ ___________________________diffusion- going to certain dots on the field then effecting certain others ones, going from one specific dot to the next. Goes to big centers first, then trickles down to smaller centers

Land Surveying and Settlement: shaping a landscape in 6 mile squares:

__________________ Ordinance Act 1785- the immediate goal of the ordinance was to raise money through the sale of land in the largely unmapped territory west of the original colonies acquired from Britain at the end of the Revolutionary War.

___________________ Ordinance 1787- it established the precedent by which the United States would expand westward across North America by the admission of new states, rather than by the expansion of existing states.

Homestead Act 1862- The new law required three steps: file an application, improve the land, and file for ________________________ of title. Anyone who had never taken up arms against the U.S. government, including freed slaves, could file an application and improvements to a local land office.

Crossing the Barrier

1790- the largest cities were coastal and their functions were basically commercial. Urban fortunes depended on agricultural hinterland and deep-water ports; biggest problems was _________________________ distance

_____________________ Gallatin (1761-1849), secretary of the treasury for Jefferson, born in Switzerland, lived in Pennsylvania, Gallatin Plan 1808 "Public Roads and Canals"

The National Road- "___________________ Road" first federal highway project

Stretched from Cumberland MD to Vandalia, IL; facilitated movement of pioneers West into Ohio River territory and the Old Northwest

It declined rapidly in importance after the development of railroads

John August Roebling (1806-1869) Manufacture of wire ropes used in ______________ and suspension of bridges

Pennsylvania Public Works and the "____________ _______________"

Series of canals, portages, and inclined planes, between Philadelphia and Pittsburgh.

_____________________ as "Gateway to the West"

The Allegheny Portage Railroad- linked the eastern and western sections of Pennsylvania's Main Line of Public works, a system of canals, slack water, inclined planes, and railroad levels

_______ Clinton (1769-1828) US Senator, Mayor of NYC, made the canal a political issue

Erie Canal

Varied canal projects to link _____ with Great Lakes (Lake Erie). DeWitt Clinton passed canal law to create 363 mile canal from Buffalo to Albany

Buffalo's "Infected District." Live and let live: dance halls, bars, "concert halls," Jacksonian democracy. ______________________ ate seriously into canal traffic after about 1850

Albany end: social and ethnic change (filtering) in Arbor Hill and Sheridan Hollow; park plans of Bishop __________________

Predominantly _________________ workforce

Evidence of prosperity and new immigrants in Albany

Appalachian barrier was penetrated, the first significant urban growth occurred in the Ohio River valley and Midwest

Canal and railroad expansion (ex. _____________ v. Charleston,______ v. New Orleans)

Intense civil boosterism and aggressive growth

The Principle of Comparative advantage (prompted by the Erie Canal and other transportation developments)

From local self-sufficiency to regional economic integration and _____________

David _____________________

Production possibilities differ from place to place for a multitude of reasons such as variations in fertility, climate and labor costs

__________________________- in essence, had a winner and a loser

Ex. specialize in wheat or coal because for one unit of labor A can produce 6 coal and B can produce 6 wheat

Inside the Walking City (1820-1860)

Urban form and social structure under "____________-_______________________ is a phase in the development of modern industrial economies that preceded, and created conditions for, the establishment of fully industrial societies

Compact form, constraints of horse and pedestrian movement; vertical constraints of masonry construction (is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar)

Urban population densities peak, rapid decrease in land values away from city center

Intensive mixed land uses; little large-scale socio-spatial segregation; status gradient generally declining from center

Commerce and mercantile activity still the norm; continuing social and political dominance of commercial and mercantile interests

Beginnings of suburbanization in adjacent areas with "___________________ economy" processing goods for urban use, milk, produce, bricks, glass

Emergence of free black urban communities

Growth of varied local politics

Emerging commitment to self-reliance, self-improvement, and upward social mobility

Beginnings regular police forces supported by ___________; fire, water and sanitation programs

Emergence of new institutions and beginning of associated professionalization: reform movements, creation of schools and jails

**The decades before the __________ War - the most intense periods of urban growth in US history

The Industrial City

Industrialization: Revolutionary Changes in Organization of Production and Society

__________________________: banking, finance, insurance, limited liability, joint stock company; capitalism, accumulation; shift from mercantile/commercial to industrial capital, from individual to corporate capital

___________________________: entrepreneurship, competitive individualism, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (Max Weber).

Technological: harnessing of fossil fuels, steam power, engineering , series of inventions associated with the textile industry, possibility of mass production and mass consumption  "________________________"

Henry Ford- 1914 Henry Ford introduces $5 8-hr day in new plant in Dearborn, Mass productions entails mass consumption

_____________________ sites (waterfalls, gristmills, sawmills, "homespun")


Larger cities attract larger potential workforce with less "traditional" resistance to space-time discipline


Mills develop cities of their own (walking constraint on workforce). Thus Slater developed houses and stores near the mill. Pawtucket and Waltham evolved from rural site of waterfalls to industrial cities.

The "factory in a forest" model- gives way to explicit cultural recognition and that cities and industry "_______________________________"

Timothy __________________- praised mills as elite projects and as sites of social discipline

General David Humphreys- merino sheep into U.S. set up first successful U.S. ______________ mill, founded of Humphreysville, near New Haven. Poem- arguing for domestic manufacture of textiles

Ex. Pawtucket (The Slater System) Samuel Slater- was an early American industrialist popularly known as the "______________________________________" or the "Father of the American Factory System" because he brought British textile technology to America

Slater and Pawtucket, RI

Samuel Slater developed houses and stores near his cotton textile mill in Pawtucket and elsewhere. Pawtucket (like Waltham) evolves from a rural waterfalls to an industrial city

"Slater System" - work for whole families with gender divisions of labor; men, women, and children, organized in the mills and in adjacent production __________________; child labor in mills

Samuel Slater- water powered spinning machine, 1790s

Ex. Waltham and Lowell (The Lowell system")- Made possible by inventions such as the ________________________, spinning mule, and water frame in England around the time of the American Revolution, the textile industry was among the earliest mechanized industries, and models of production and labor sources were first explored here.

Waltham, MA 1813 move to Lowell, 1822- The Waltham-Lowell system based on power loom (Francis Cabot Lowell and Waltham, MA)

"________________System"- large scale mechanized and standardized mill work, with young women in the mill; high discipline, ethnic and gender selection of workforce, and

paternalism; in-house boarding arrangements

"Mill girls" Irish labor force planned, but increasing prejudice

_________________ "girls" from all over New England, aged 15-25

Lived in boarding houses built by the company with supervision by matrons. In the 1830-40's the work week was 73 hrs. + compulsory church attendance

Shift to immigrant Labor (Percentage of Lowell mill labor immigrant):

1845- 8%, 1850- 33%, 1860- 60%

Horace _________________"The Age of Homespun" nostalgia in 1851

1810 census revealed that 24 out of every 25 yards of wool was produced at home

"Mother power"

Head of household- mom

Educated, food, managed household, clothing

Lost power through ________________________

Jobs moved out of house, men more power

Still lots of work for women to do

Clothing from wool and linen (flax) (cotton popularized later)

By 1840 home- versus factory - produced cloth roughly at parity

Lena Dancy ______________________- picture with homespun dress and cloth sample

Lawsuit surveys in 1859

Patroon S. van Rensselaer builds dam and canal system 1834

Harmony Mills complex begun 1837 to make cotton cloth

Cohoes becomes- ______________________City

Henry Burden (1791-1871)- Inventor, iron manufacturer, largest _______________________in the world (1852) mass production of horseshoes

60 shoes per minute, 51 million per year patent: 1857


Link between cities and industry today

Urbanization economies and startups

Product maturity model

Sliding down the urban-rural gradient

Scale and Agglomeration Economies: (convergence of urbanization and industrialization)

___________________ economies (Reduction in cost per unit resulting from increased production, realized through operational efficiencies. Economies of scale can be accomplished because as production increases, the cost of producing each additional unit falls.):

Massing of reserves; principle of ___________________- when your doing more output, you can fine tune machinery, so they run on time

Shape of cost curves: bakeries vs. steel mills (is a graph of the costs of production as a function of total quantity produced. In a free market economy, productively efficient firms use these curves to find the optimal point of production, where they make the most profits.)

Resulting in:

Much larger plants

Specialization in labor: ______________ Whitney

1793 cotton gin (removes cottonseed from fiber had the effect of making cotton much more profitable

1798- Whitney contracted by US to make 10,000 _____________. Did away with hand-crafting, instituted machine tools and interchangeable parts in his factory in New Haven

****Beginning of mass production with its associated specialization of labor******

_____________________ economies: is used in urban economics to describe the benefits that firms obtain when locating near each other ('agglomerating'). This concept relates to the idea of economies of scale and network effects. Simply put, as more firms in related industries cluster together, costs of production may decline significantly (firms have competing multiple suppliers, greater specialization and division of labor result). Even when multiple firms in the same sector (competitors) cluster, there may be advantages because that cluster attracts more suppliers and customers than a single firm could alone. Cities form and grow to exploit economies of agglomeration.:

_____________________ integration (output of a process is input of another process),______________________integration (types of business that don't have a particular connection with each other

Urbanization economies: "incubation," startups, out-sourcing

Changes in position on the rural-urban gradient as firms grow larger and processes become more routinized (product ______________ theory)

Resulting in:


_______________________(Patrick Geddes)- is a region comprising a number of cities, large towns and, other urban areas that, through population growth and physical expansion, have merged to form one continuous urban and industrially developed area

____________ economies- savings of money that occur to businesses by virtue of being in cities

Cities are great places to start a business- because of urbanization economics

But then product maturity

1st year things are difficult, as time goes by, easier, cheaper, routinized, as products mature- slide down rural gradient

Rapid growth in the scale of manufacturing activity in cities was one important factor in acceleration migration to cities, fed by:

Rural-urban migration within the United States

Growing overseas migration; shift from "___ Migration" to "____Migration" about 1880

Sociospatial Changes

More refined economic division of labor:_______________ of task, Employer/Employee

More refined social stratification/ separation of middle class from working class

_______ class- rising incomes, expectations, living standards, aspiration for edu.

Changes in family structure: sift from extended family to nuclear, singles migrant 2 cities

Increased upward (and downward) social mobility: status achieved rather than ascribed

Separation of place of home and work (spheres of production and reproduction)

Increased "________-__________ disciplining" - the time clock and schedule

Emerging separation by class, occupation, age, race and ethnicity

Beginnings of suburbanization and development of suburban middle class structure

Inversion of status gradients

Gender Implications: Home, Work, and Place

Decline in women's informal power (as full participant, and perhaps head, of the household economy, as home educator, clothes-maker, food produces etc.)

Emergence of middle class family life; separation of spheres of ________________ and reproduction

Selling labor was the only means of subsistence, first division of classes

Self awareness of middle class, rural cemeteries and ________________ also self awareness of middle class

"breadwinner"- from baking bread by women to selling labor

For men- bring home the bacon

Women 2 roles

"working girl"- works at mill before marriage- __________________Mills

"____________________Goddesses"- Victorian middle-class

Mrs. Isabella Beeton's book of household Management

Catherine _________________- Women's Profession as Mother and Educator, 1872

**Reproduction- more than having children, continuation through socialization, education, through exposure to practices and symbol systems in home, street, school, church etc.

___________________ Bushnell- The Age of Homespun his childhood, nostalgia in 1851

Urban Transportation Technologies: The Great Dispersal

__________________ City- compact, dense, multi-use, steep gradients of density and status away from center non-pedestrian movement by elites: litters, sedan chairs, etc.

Horse Power (riding habits):

First horse-drawn omnibus in NYC 1829

___________ _________- more efficient, ran on rails. Began in NYC (Bowery) in 1832, and rapidly followed adoption in New Orleans, Chicago, Baltimore.

Horses expensive and vulnerable to disease (ex. _______________, respiratory disease)

Horse car company needed roughly 5 to 8 times as many horses as cars. And one horse consumed 30 lb. of hay and grain a day, plus vet. And blacksmith services

Slow- people could walk as fast

Working day of a horse 4-5 hours, so each car had 2 or 3 teams

Snow interference with traction. "Scenes of brutality"

3 gallons of urine and twenty pounds of manure

Albany- first (railed) horse cars in _______________

Robert __________________(1839-1915)- From slavery to five terms in Congress, with a streetcar interlude in Philadelphia

He was removed from a Philadelphia streetcar in 1864, while he was a "free black" delegate to the Republican National Convention

Led a mass______________________ and Philadelphia integrated streetcars in 1867

Mechanical Power

Steam in the city: There were attempts to use horse-car style rails for steam-driven engines in the inner city. First "elevated" in NYC in 1871 (steam). Technical problems of turning circles "___________ _____________." 73 ft. above 110th St. in NYC

_____________________ Railroads: because of momentum/inertia considerations, and matters of track, grade, turning circles, etc. Locomotives cannot stop too often. Commuter railroads like LIRR (1834) and Chicago and Northwestern (Evanston depot, 1854) therefore promoted "bead-like" exurb systems. Because of the expense, the first significant movement out of the city comprised the wealthy and some upper middle class groups

Cable Cars: stationary engines. First operated in San Francisco in 1873 on slopes too __________________ for horses; restricted speed, have to disengage car from moving cable, and underground cable lying was expensive. Between 1877 and about 1895, 47 cable car systems installed in US cities, most extensive in Chicago (82 miles)

Andrew Smith ________________ (1836-1900)- created a steel cable with six strands of nineteen wires each, it was able to bend over itself with a round turn, straightening out and repeating at the same spot without fracture

Electric Street Car (______________________): Breakthrough cheap overhead lines provide electricity. Richmond (VA) Union Passenger Railway in 1887-1888, the first large-scale electric trolley line in the world. In 1907 94% of all passenger trips were by streetcar. First significant and rapid urban sprawl

Frank ____________________: Father of Electric Traction

Aunt Kitty Lansing- started a war on the Albany Railway

Sam Warner Bass- Street Car Suburbs (1962)- looks at Roxbury, West Roxbury and Dorchester, all south of central Boston. The Street car allowed the towns to grow from 60,000 to 227,000.

James _________- "It is hard to say whether the trolley produced the metropolis or vice-versa."

Spatial and Social effects of streetcars (Sam Warner Bass, Maurice Yeates):

Speculative suburban land development: close collision between developer- speculators and transit companies: lines strategically placed through pre-platted subdivisions, with lot-size calculated for the expected clientele

House structure: the decline of the urban row- or town- house. The beginning of the free standing ___________________-frame structure covering most of its lot, laid out in simple grids

Mass produced _________________ and ______________. New wood-frame architectural styles: ex. three-deckers of Mass., and the Queen Anne and spindle styles. This was NOT a time of universal middle-class home ownership

There was an unregulated mortgage market, and only one-quarter of Boston families owned their home in 1900.

Spatial differentiation by class: fine-graded differentiations of status in different developments. Evenness of wealth and aspirations, conformity, development of churches and educations systems separate from the city reproducing middle class values

Typically increasing social status with increasing distance from city center, with the most wealthy being served not by streetcars but by _________________________ railroads

Land use controlled by_______________________ in deeds:

"no business, no manufacturing, no saloon's" (ex. no commerce or liquor sales)

Developer paid, planted trees, installed drains, water and sewers

Rising health and sanitation standards: provision of public services, water, sanitation, lighting, gas fittings, fire-safety etc. New suburbs planned with these provisions in mind, regulation of plumbing, etc. by building codes

Increasing political separation of suburbs from ___ center. Middle class premise of the freedom of the nuclear family unit to pursue its own aspirations without responsibility for the city.

**NET effect of the electric streetcar was the first large-scale ___________________ of the middle class

Rail-based rapid transit: a hybrid of streetcar and railroad with an isolated right-of-way, making it both faster and also safer than the streetcar. Heavy capital investment therefore rigid with a strong inertial effect on the urban form once it is built. Relatively few lines, not dense network like streetcars. Strongly promoted more disciplined, radial and sectoral urban growth.

Shift to electric (everywhere) and underground (some places)

Davis correlated the El with _____________________ development and land value growth in Chicago. Business grow up around El stops

________________ ___________________ engine: the biggest impact of all

New Arrivals

City of Immigrants


Race (__________________)- biological elements, but also a social construction

Ex. false stereotypes: hard-working, athletic

Nationality (__________________)- usually a legal concept, relating an individual to a sovereign nation-state

Ethnicity (_____________________)- a social construction, shared history, language, religion, customs, values, etc.

Ethnicity is continually redefined

Ethnic identity is durable

It is reinforced by:

Stereotypes and prejudice (ex. internal colonialism, split labor markets, vertical segregation, horizontal segregation

It may be replenished by continuous _______________________

It may be seen as advantageous:

Ex. politically ("ethnic points")

Ex. culturally (preservation of _______________ and institutions)

Ex. economic (informal employment and help networks)

N._____________ and D. _________________ argued that ethnicity might be becoming more important than "class"

Stages of U.S. Immigration: (5 periods of Immigration History)

_______ (pre-1790)- 90% pop. Of British descent, African slave trade was significant

Old Migration (1790-1880)- ___ and N Europe. Britain, Ireland, Germany, and Scandinavia

New Migration (1880-1920) S and _____ Europe- Austria, Hungary, Russia, Poland, Italy, Greece

_____________________ Exclusion Act (1882) first major exclusion

____________________ Period (1920-1965)- Quota Act of 1921 and National Origin Act of 1924 limited legal immigrants to specified small proportions (2 or 3%) of foreign-born residents from the same origin preceding period.

Period of Black movement out of the south to the north and west

Recent Period (1965- 20??)- Kennedy- Johnson Immigration Act of 1965 modified and ultimately abolished quotas. 1986: Immigration Reform and Control Act-legalized many illegals

Census 2000 revealed the following:

28.4 M foreign-born live in the U.S.

Foreign born represent 10.4% of the U.S. population

51% of foreign born in the U.S. were born in Latin America

Percent distribution of foreign born in 2000 by world region was:

_______ _________ 51% Asia 25.5% Europe 15.3% other regions 8 %

***Foreign born are more likely than native born to live in ____________________ cities

Assimilation/Pluralism Debate

Israel _________________, The Melting Pot, 1909- "America is God's crucible"

Robert E. Park - The "______________ ________________"

Social model:





______________________ and upward social mobility

Geographic Implication: Assimilation = ___________________________

Urban forms of assimilation: The city as a geographic machine for assimilating immigrants.

The Burgess concentric ring model. (Ernest Burgess)

Central business district

Zone in _________________________

Zone of workingmen's homes

Zone of better ______________________

Zone of commuters

The city as a "_____________ machine for assimilation"

Assimilation= Decentralization implies that:

Locational measures of centralization measure "progress" in assimilation

Speed of decentralization measures "assimilability"

Decentralization, in a city with an inverse status gradient, indicates ___________ social mobility

Also, decentralization is not the same as dispersion (A suburban ethnic cluster is possible)

These theorists really had in mind white of ___________________________ ancestry

Ex. Germans of Ridgewood, Queens and Albany's old "__________ ______________"

Some functions of spatial clustering

_________________: reduction of isolation and vulnerability

_________________: buffer for new arrivals language and acculturation

_________________: of culture, language; critical mass

_________________: political representation, neighborhood associations

Taxonomy of clusters: dispersal, ___________, enclave, _______________

(__ concentration) based upon degree/duration of spatial concentration ___________/Long-term

Colony: social distance small; point of entry, socialization, and dispersal; persistence depends on new arrivals

_______________: more social distance, more discrimination and/or more cohesion: persist over time; voluntary clustering

_______________: more discrimination and/or cohesion, particularly the former; typically preserved by external forces, (ex. discriminatory housing market)

Models of immigrant/ethnicity

Assimilation- the idea of convergence to some universally accepted norm in which national and ethnic differences will ultimately become invisible. At the end of the 19th C the "default" identity was assumed to be white and ___________________

___________________ Perspective- A condition in which numerous distinct ethnic, religious, or cultural groups are present and tolerated within a society.

Translational, multicultural perspective.

Mixing, syncretism, interpenetration, living in two (or more worlds)

Richard ____________ and Victor ____________ (Remaking the American Mainstream, 2003)- the continuing importance of assimilation in American life, because it continues to benefit new arrivals and their children. Also argue that the "mainstream" itself is being changed by immigrant influences

They reformulate the causal mechanisms of assimilation:

"____________________" factors: personal motivations, individuals' social networks, "human capital" (ex. education of immigrants

"____________________" (structural factors): values and prejudices of the host culture, legislation, education, welfare

Conclude assimilation offers advantages

Leonie Sandercock's vision of "cosmopolitan urbanism" her three imaginings"

Cosmopolitan Urbanism (Urbanism of the feature) ______________ of the universe/world

Has become a negative concept-superficial

"__________ _______________"- inauthentic, no real engagement in the surroundings

She wants to change this conception

Richard _______________ - "together in difference"

Ex. Larkfest (encounters with ethnic otherness)

Ex. Greenwich Village, difference always provokes mutual withdrawal and at best passive tolerance.

Moral challenge of meaningful _______________________interaction

James Donald (Imagining the ___________ City, 1999) and Iris Young (Justice and the Politics…)

James - need to avoid phobic utopianism, communitarian nostalgia, and urban paranoia

Move toward "broad social participation in the never complete process of making ____________________."

Iris Young

Denials of difference (Individual vs. Community)

___________________- a social construct of the enlightenment, atomized, "autonomous," making rational "choices," in elections and in markets; self-regarding "interest group" politics as the only way to pluralism; prey to bureaucratic and corporate domination, consumerism and instrumental politics

__________________- traditional, nostalgic, seeking freedom from domination of larger world in the group; fusion of individual with like-minded others

She poses "City life" as a normative ideal:

Social differentiation without exclusion


"Eroticism" (ex. pleasure

______________________- site of expression, physical places, relationship with others, forms of expression

Ash ______________ (writes about British racial experience, Burnley race riots, summer 2001)

Being together in public space, passive tolerance, are enough, public spheres tend to be either

Places of transit, temporary little interaction


"__________________" by marking, graffiti, dominant presence, intimidation, etc.

Need "_________________________" where dialog and prosaic negotiation are compulsory and unthreatening: schools, workplaces, libraries, community centers, etc.

Modernist ideas of order

Two ideas of order

Natural order (no ____________________ planning of how things happen)


Neo Classical economic

Planned Order

Natural Order Perspective

Catherine "Kitty" Genovese (1935-1964)

Murdered, stabbed

Murderer still in prison

Icon of urban disorder, "_______________ ___________________"

Promoted social research of natural order

"Genovese Syndrome"- Michael ____________________

The ___________________ effect- if you know you're not the only one watching something, you don't feel bad not doing something

Cited as indication that cities are disorderly place

The "Natural Order" of Urban Space

A. Urban Disorder and the Chicago School

Ideas made to describe rapidly growing cities during 19th and early 20th centuries

Chicago- "____________ ________________"

Ferdinand Tonnies

________________________("community")- traditional community based on personal knowledge of others and subordination of individual concerns to social relationships and communal life

________________________("society")- individual self interests and goals, along with rationality and efficiency come to predominate over social and community ties

City as a place of social disorder (actual or potential) Civil and Civic war in the 1860s

_______________ P. Ryan- "Civic Wars"

"A world of manageable differences" begins to come undone

Immigration- burgeoning difference of ethnicity, race and culture

_____________________- new organization of space-time, a new working class

Social Changes- new classes, beginning of horizontal segregation, "refinement" and middle class identity

_______________ _______________- wider franchise, political parties with socioeconomic identities, political machines

Incendiary issues in the mid-19th C:

Stresses of property-less waged labor

_______________ _______________

Immigration-nativist backlash

Labor relations, economic crisis



______________ Place Riots, Draft Riots- Volunteer firefighters who though they should be exempt from the lottery for the Civil War, so they set the Marshal's office on fire. Much violence against African-Americans

Georg _______________(Metropolis and Mental Life 1903)- psychological and social impact of cities: cities characterized by:


Division of labor


Formal control rather than direct interaction in groups; assault on individuality

Jacob ______________- How the Other Half lives

Two elements of Chicago School of thought

Urbanism as a way of life- tendency to stress the impersonal and disorderly nature of the city: anomie (_______________________), alienation

______________________ perspective- a biological analogy, focusing on adaptation of communities to their environment, succession (invasion, succession, dominance)

L. Wirth (Urbanism as a Way of Life, 1938)-

Essence of Urban living found in:

_____________- leads to specialization, differentiation, segmentalization, interactions are superficial, impossible to know everyone-stereotyping

_____________- close physical contact with varied others leads to psychological distancing, separation of work and home, greater social distance  lonliness

_____________________- people have different standing in different groups which heightens acceptance of insecurity and instability, people are physically and socially footloose and mobile


Individual- ____________________

Aggregate (structural level): anomie or normlessness

Herbert J.________________(5 types of urbanites):

Three groups are "in" but not "of" the city

"cosmopolites" (attracted by cultural facilities, Professionals, artists, writers, students)

The unmarried or _____________(attracted by work and cultural opportunities)

"_____________Villagers" (close-knit ethnic villages) ex. West Enders of Boston

Two groups are "truly disadvantaged"

The "deprived" (________________, underclass debate)

The "________________" and downwardly mobile (older, immobile, addicted)

Claude _________________________ (sub cultural theory of urbanism)

_____________________of city tends to increase and reinforce diversity

Subcultural variety in cities tends to be reinforced and amplified can be negative and positive

Structural Differentiation (three sided triangle with Size going to both)

Size ______________ _______________  Variety

Size ___________ _______________  Intensification

Variety culture clash  Intensification

Density/Crowding ideas

__________________ B. Calhoun animal experiments (4 theories of crowding)

_____________ overload- Elevator, bunch up and stay silent until they leave

Over "________________"- settings, too many people for roles in the setting (ex. class size)

______________________ interference- density is only a problem if people interfere with goal oriented problems (Ex. Freshmen, when to turn-off light, when people leave the room)

Defensible space

3 basic models of urban form

Concentric ring (____________________)- city is focal point, in the middle, monocentric city

_____ (Hoyt)- major highways and railroads divide the city into pie slices and effect property values, functionally differentiated sectors of the city (high rent sector or low rent sector)

Multiple nuclei (_______________ and ________________)- many different centers depending on what the people wanted

Competition for space

Invasion  _____________________  Dominance  ____________ _______________ (when enough of group X move into a neighborhood then group Y would want to move out ) Ex. black or irish move in and older middle class that was there would want to move out

Natural areas/ ordering- china town, neighborhood for black people and etc…

God given division of areas -- ____________________

Filtering Concepts

Downward filtering (the _____________): occupation of aging housing by successively lower status groups, punctuated by such transitions as purchase and family- rearing (Arbor Hill)

Upward filtering: occupation of older units by higher status households, often accompanied by reversion from rental to owner occupancy by reversion from rental to owner occupancy (Local Square), gentrification scenario, Ex. (__________ ________ neighborhood of Albany)

Social Area Analysis (_________________ ecology) Shevsky, Bell, Brian Berry and Peter Rees

Computation  Census data

Hundreds of variables

Factor analysis

Social Status- factoral

____________ ______________ (Single, Married, Widowed) concentric

Ethnic Status- ________________

Physical Structure

Communities in urban space differentiate themselves, as economic development and urban growth proceed, along the three dimensions of:

______________ (measured by criteria such as income, occupation, housing values)

Urbanization (sometimes called familism) measured by the prevalence or otherwise of traditional households in the family formation and child-bearing years

__________________(measured by various indices of ethnic and racial separation)

William ______________________ (1933-1999) neoclassical model of economies metaphor

Monocentric city

flat and featureless land

transportation costs ________________________ to distance

Puts premium on competition for central land- competitive bidding for land

Someone working in city and living further away makes an ________________ trade-off

Principle criticisms of the model in its simplest form focus on market imperfections(concentric ring model, monocentric city) use of urban land

______________________ transportation costs- (transportation is not equally easy at all places/directions)

______________________- the built environment lasts a long time

Non-individualistic action- growth coalitions, orchestration of the land market

"Planned Order" in the Urban Landscape

"Planning" Urban order- 2 types of mid 19th century visions of planning

Rural cemetery-

________________________ Park-


New York City

Concerns for disease (exp. Yellow fever) focus on __________Churchyard in early 1820's

The Rural Cemetery Movement (C & S p. 94)

Overcrowding, demand for urban land

Health concerns, "_____________________"

Romantic discovery of nature and "healthy" effects of scenery

Educational and memorial worth of monuments

Demand for recreational space for "______________________" middle class

Very strong version of ____________________- protected from any kind of tax assessment and also against alienation for debt

"Anxiety closet of the Federalist- Whig urban imagination"

Whig concerns: social harmony, social control, urbanism, elite leadership with deference from below; Whig Party formed in 1833-34 as a reaction against _____________ Democrats

"deference deficit," avenues for leadership

Economic instability of freehold (exchange over use value)

Social geography and the family confronting "others"

____________________ versus ____________________ lots

Reproducing property based-franchise

"____________-____________" from the city, and strong control of access and deportment


Rural cemeteries constituted themselves

Outside frame of traditional ________________________

Very strong version of freehold

"_____________________" bulletproof, no one can take it away from you

Greenwood Cemetery Brooklyn

Private (family or _________________________) lots- turn around and see

Public lots

Much smaller

Single graves

1st come, 1st serve

Rules strict about what plots could look like (__________________, fenced)

"Thanksgiving Problem"- families divorce, where do you go for thanksgiving?- common problem for family burial plots

"______________"- have to be so far away from city that you have to take a carriage, can't walk

"________"- tickets. In theory strict regulations of admittance, some rules only apply on Sunday

Modeling of social behavior- great anxiety on how to behave

Very strict rules concerning visitors

No horseback

Speed limits

No food/picnics or smoking

Sundays only proprietors and people with tickets are allowed in

_______________________ cemetery, Troy NY, 1847

Albany Rural Cemetery, 1841

Mount Auburn Cemetery, _____________________, MA, 1831

Symbols on gravestones:

Palm- victory over death

______________- honor, permanence

Lily- innocence, mourning

______________- immortality

The Park Movement

Frederick Law Olmsted and The Park Movement

Wants to draw distinction between rural cemeteries and parks

Responsible for _____________ __________________, NY

Olmstedian park is like the rural cemeteries just without graves

Romantic Nature in Parks- early 19th century

Wilderness described in ________________________ terms previously

Nature gets discovered late 18th century, early 19th century

Olmsted saw parks as being much more _____________________- don't need a ticket to get in

Frederick Law Olmsted (1822-1902)

Concerned for ________________________

Immigration bringing all these foreigners

Parks as "______________ __________________" between the "two great classifications of commercial and domestic

Very much for non-coercive social control

Landscapes to tranquilize and ________________________ a population


City beautiful movement

Aesthetic battle take to entire city

Naturalistic scenery- to impressive architecture

Olmstedian principles

Professional expertise, precise vocabulary, fine distinctions

Artistic vocabulary and aspirations

English trilogy:

__________________ (turf, streams, open groves; indistinct boundary)

__________(wilder, rougher, complexity of light, shadow and plant life)

__________________ (cataracts, mountains; a surge of emotions)

Olmsted favored pastoral

Distinction between ______________________ and landscape architecture

Eli ______________ (mayor)- violent strike of longshoremen and in the New York Central Yards

Paid draft commutations and beefed up the police force

_______________________ Park Albany, Thurlow Weed and David Murray's competing visions

Thurlow Weed:

Stresses the public health, _____________ and inspirational aspects of the park

Urges Albany to emulate other cities, Albany, by virtue of its growing importance, merits a "___________________" park

"beauties of nature and the virtues of the dead might vie with each instructing and elevating all classes all our citizens"

David Murray (principal of the Albany Academy)

His argument rests very strongly on the ________________ and health effects of natural scenery; it is more "___________________" than Weed's view

It does more than criminal courts or policemen to suppress crime

The ________________________ powers of nature are quite remarkable

William _______________________, Central Park

___________________ Bellows, A day in June, 1913

John Sloane, _______________ _________________, Union Square

3. Department Stores

Developed from old "______ _____________" business influenced by specialized areas of Parisian shopping arcades

Teaching consumption and consumer spectacle

"safe spaces" for middle class women or "ladies" "ladies ______________," "lunch rooms"

____________________ of retail work

Fixed prices, no expert haggling required new employment, niches for "shop girls"

Advertising, brand names, fashion, electric lighting, plate-glass windows, "magic" and "glamor" of consumption

4. Model Industrial Communities

____________ Pullman (1831-1897)- Cabinet maker, moved to Chicago in 1859, restored old railroad cars. Mission to "civilize" long-distance rail travel with dining and sleeping facilities.

Founded a "model" factory town, Pullman IL, near Chicago. Living, working, shopping, education, cultural events. He was progressive on many social issues but was strongly anti-_____________________

Greatest strike in history- Pullman boycott will involve scores of industries

Comment for the _____________________:

"Alas, socialist agitators and unionists inevitably complained about "coercion" and exorbitant prices, ignoring the fact that the housing and schools were the best in the city and that those who chose could find employment elsewhere. While Pullman had a generally good reputation as an employer, he fought potential unionizers at every "opportunity."

Comment from the _____________________:

The industrial town of Pullman, IL, as a constitutive rhetoric aimed at developing a tractable employee who would resist labor-organizing efforts

Reform and Progressivism in early Twentieth Century

Early 19th century- _____________-____________, natural order would bring equilibrium and government should not interfere with natural order

Moral reform

____________ _____________- Protestant attempt to "seek salvation by attempting to realize the Kingdom of God on earth, rather than by worrying about an afterlife"

Washington Gladden- "Our cities are the arena upon which our greatest conflicts for liberty and order and ________________ are to be waged"

Women's Christian ___________________ Union (WCTU)- was organized in 1874 by women who were concerned about the problems alcohol was causing their families and society. The members chose total abstinence from all alcohol as their life style and protection of the home and their watchword

Lincoln ___________________ criticizes political corruption- The Shame of the Cities

Settlement House Movement

Hull House, Chicago- Jane Addams and Starr

Jane Adams- American social worker, leader in movement for women's ____________________, founded Hull House in Chicago to care for poor and as center for social reform. Won Nobel Peace Prize

Fixed "___________ __________________" in 19th ward, she becomes garbage inspector

___________________ ________________- to save immigrants from themselves and integrate them into city life. Hull house was located in an area of immigrant communities and staffed by idealistic, well educated people, mostly women, and all highly religious

Clientele mainly women, men did stop by.

New York City settlements:

Mary _________________________ (Greenwich House)- her thought evolved from settlement housing to direct confrontation with "______________________" and housing reform

__________________ Wald- (The House on Henry Street)