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Elizabeth I was born on September 7th 1533 and died on March 24th 1603. She was Queen regnant of England and Queen regnant of Ireland from 17 November 1558, at her early 25 years, until her death, at the age of 70. She is called by various names, some of them are the Virgin Queen, Gloriana, Oriana, or Good Queen Bess. Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. She was the daughter of Henry VIII, she was born a princess, but her mother, Anne Boleyn, was executed two and a half years after her birth due to trumped up charges to adultery, and Elizabeth was declared illegitimate. Her brother, Edward VI, bequeathed the crown to Lady Jane Grey, cutting his sisters out of the succession. After his death his will was set aside, and in 1558 Elizabeth succeeded the Catholic Mary I, during whose reign she had been imprisoned for nearly a year after being suspected of supporting Protestant rebels.
When Elizabeth's half sister died in November 1558, Elizabeth inherited the throne. England was heavily in debt, with a standstill trade and epidemics raging all over the territory, and to deteriorate things even farther, it found itself at war. As a queen Elizabeth was received with keenness and joy, which was due to the contentment of a passive and rightful succession and not to an awareness of her skills and plans. Mary I was a Catholic, as her parents, thus she spent much of her reign undoing the reforms that her Protestant half-brother, Edward VI, had executed. Though Elizabeth was, too, a Protestant, she didn't share the same fervency as Edward had.
The first Queen Elizabeth, whose name has become a synonym for the era which she dominated (1558-1603), was called "Gloriana" by Edmund Spenser in "The Faerie Queene", Elizabeth's nimble political expertise and powerful persona were directly accountable for putting England (when she became queen in 1558 a frail, irregular in the middle of nowhere outside the typical authority and refined development of the rest of Europe) on the road to turning into an authentic superpower and political control and reestablish the nation's abandoned self love. Even though Elizabeth flirted ceaselessly and was proposed many times, she never married, nor had children. Her closest confrontation with marriage was with the earl of Leicester, Robert Dudley.
In history The Golden Age refers to the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. In her time Elizabeth was colossally admired and, after almost 400 years, still is. She continues to be one of the most worshipped sovereigns and one of the most revered leaders all time. She became a legend in her own lifetime, recognized for her extraordinary competence and success. Even though she was well-known, and we know a lot about Queen Elizabeth, we barely know about Elizabeth the woman. She was a conundrum to everyone, even her own people, and today she continues to be a conundrum, as she will always be.
From 1533 to 1536 the second wife of King Henry VIII, Anne Boleyn, was the Queen of England and 1st Marquess of Pembroke in her own right for herself and her progenitors. Anne was a powerful figure in the religious and political cataclysm that preceded the English Reformation, due to her marriage to Henry and his betrayal and show of untrustworthiness when he commanded her death. Due to Lady Elizabeth Howard and Sir Thomas Boleyn being her parents, Anne was of noble birth, less noble than Catherine of Aragon, Henry's first wife, but much more noble than Catherine Parr, Henry VIII's subsequent wife. She was blessed with an honorable education, between Netherlands and France, where, in the latter, she was principally a maid of honor to Queen Claude of France. In 1522 she returned to England.
'Proud and haughty, as although she knows she was born of such a mother, she nevertheless does not consider herself of inferior degree to the Queen, whom she equals in self-esteem; nor does she believe herself less legitimate than her Majesty, alleging in her own favor that her mother would never cohabit with the King unless by way of marriage, with the authority of the Church....
She prides herself on her father and glories in him; everybody saying that she also resembles him more than the Queen does and he therefore always liked her and had her brought up in the same way as the Queen.' the Venetian ambassador Giovanni Michiel describes Elizabeth; spring 1557.
Due to a lot of doubts during her early life the probabilities of Elizabeth becoming Queen Elizabeth were insignificant and even slimmer when, in 1537, Edward, her half-brother, was born. Between him and his sister, her half-sister Princess Mary I, she was the third in line of succession. She was always viewed as illegitimate by the Roman Catholics, and after her futile revolt again Queen Mary, in 1554, who was a fellow and proud Roman Catholic, she scarcely eluded dying by execution.
King Henry VIII of the Tudor dynasty had an illegitimate son, but he needed a legatee from a proper Queen to appropriately maintain the dynasty. The English Reformation was triggered by Henry after he ended his marriage to Catherine of Aragon upon learning the fatal news that after Mary, his first child to subsist, she couldn't have more children. The already pregnant Anne Boleyn wedded Henry, then gave birth to Elizabeth the 7th September 1533. In 1535, when Elizabeth was barely 2, she lost her mother who was executed after Henry accused her of adultery, which she did not commit. When Henry married Jane Seymour, his third wife, Elizabeth got a little brother, Edward, who would later become the King of England. No one anticipated Elizabeth to be relevant, since she had two older siblings. Little did they know that Elizabeth would spectacularly and permanently transform the history of England.
In 1533 England was in disastrous straits, between the divided territory, the war, and the almost empty treasury, the halted business, the diseases circulating all over the nation. Spain and France, both, wanted to take advantage of the opportunity and conquer England. As a result the population of England hoped and expected the Queen to marry someone powerful and fervent, who could assist her into saving their beloved kingdom.
Yet, unexpectedly but successfully, Elizabeth instantly captured the reins of the government of her country. She gained the name 'Virgin Queen' thanks to her determination in her decision not to marry, despite being proposed to several times, despite all of the flirting that she did freely, and regardless to her numerous close man friends and suitors.
After her half sister's death in 1558, Elizabeth became the Queen. When she got the throne one of her most important worries was religion. Elizabeth was a Protestant, while Mary as a Roman Catholic had reinstated the communion using the instrument of Royal Supremacy, which was, again, severed by Elizabeth. Sir William Cecil, her Secretary of State, and Sir Nicholas Bacon, the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal, were her chief advisors. She relied fervently on them for guidance over the matter.
The Elizabethan era was romanticized by the Victorian era and the early twentieth century. The Encyclopedia Britannica continues claiming that "The long reign of Elizabeth I, 1558-1603, was England's Golden Age...'Merry England,' in love with life, expressed itself in music and literature, in architecture, and in adventurous seafaring." Brittan and an Anglophonic America shared this optimistic tendency. Errold Flynn's movies made the adventurous seaman of the Elizabethan era come to life in popular culture.
Mary's reign was miserable and dishonorable, and ended the 17th of November 1558. When Elizabeth heard the news of Mary's death, ending a miserable and dishonorable reign, the 17th of November 1558, and of her attainment at Hatfield, she fell down on her knees bellowing: A Domino factum est istud, et est mirabile oculis nostris-" It is the Lords' doing, it is marvelous in our eyes"-later she ordered those words to be imprinted on a gold coin, engraving on her silver coin another pious motto-"I have chosen God for my helper." Finally all her exposures were finalized. The population celebrated all over the country, church bells were rung, bonfires blazed, tables were spread on the street, Protestants gloated with joy and pride, as Elizabeth was acknowledged with endless joy and eagerness.
Some people believe that Elizabeth was excessively proud since if she disliked one of her painting she would have it destroyed, even though there are tons of painting of Elizabeth, she posed for very little of them. Robert Cecil, an astute diplomat, and her Secretary of State expressed it meticulously: ...."Many painters have done portraits of the Queen but none has sufficiently shown her looks or charms. Therefore Her Majesty commands all manner of persons to stop doing portraits of her until a clever painter has finished one which all other painters can copy. Her Majesty, in the meantime, forbids the showing of any portraits which are ugly until they are improved."
When, in the early hours of Thursday 24 March 1603, Elizabeth passed away, Carey instantaneously set off for Scotland to deliver the news to King James VI armed with a ring. He announced him the following Saturday evening when he arrived in Edinburgh that he was now King James I of England.
From Richmond to Whitehall, by the river, the queen's last movements were made, where she lay splendidly for 30 days beforehand being submerged at Westminster Abbey in Henry VII's Chapel the 18 of April.
Eric XIV became irrational and started slaying people for the foolish act of "annoying the king". His subjects became tired of him and poisoned him pouring some poison in the crazy king's pea soup.
The Queen was declared the Supreme Governor of the Church in England by the Act of Supremacy; all other influences were eliminated; a figure of representative was to be selected to perform the oath of supremacy and to continue the clerical functions under the authority of the Queen; consequences wavering from execution to fines were applied to the few people reluctant to accept the law and some officials were dispossessed if they refused to take the oath.
September 7, 1533: ·Elizabeth born at Greenwich Palace.
May 9, 1536: ·Ann Boleyn beheaded
January 1547: ·Henry VIII dies
July 6, 1553: ·The sixteen-year-old Edward VI dies after a six-year reign; Mary I takes the throne.
November 17, 1558: ·Mary I dies, Elizabeth succeeds
January 15, 1559: ·Elizabeth's coronation ceremony
1559: ·Elizabeth's Protestant/Catholic religious settlement
1561: ·The French king Francis II dies, and Mary Queen of Scots returns to Scotland.
1568: ·Elizabeth imprisons Mary Queen of Scots
1571: ·Elizabeth names William Cecil Lord Treasurer and gives him the new title of Lord Burleigh. She brings in Francis Walsingham to replace him as Secretary of State.
1575: ·Leicester entertains Elizabeth at Kenilworth Castle
1579: ·Leicester secretly marries Lettice Knollys, Elizabeth's cousin
1579: ·Elizabeth's marriage negotiations with the French King's brother (Anjou) dissolve
1583: ·Marriage negotiations with the Duke de Alencon
March 24, 1603: ·death of Queen Elizabeth
Elizabeth was dispossessed as a child, when the was sent to one of the negligible royal properties and omitted for a long period of time after her mother's, Anne's, death, where she barely received any clothes, and that may be the cause her adult fixation with possessions, and her immense collection of accessory and clothes, as well as her economic carefulness.
Elizabeth's ingeniousness and astuteness served enormously as a Queen, and years earlier, when she knew of Mary's fear of her, as she pretended to be sick when her sister invited her to London she displayed some traits that would define her as a ruler. People believe that that lie saved her from execution, as the time apart from her helped Mary cool down and almost forget the wrath she experienced after Wyatt's Rebellion.
Elizabeth's climb into the throne was a reason for festivity after Mary's furious discrimination of Protestants. So on January 15, 1559, among displays and shows, Elizabeth's recognition procession and coronation occurred. Elizabeth saved the people, who, in return, treated her with all the respect a hero merits.
The patience Elizabeth showed frequently bestowed England a benefit over other European nations lead by more volatile sovereigns. She had an innate enthusiasm and gift to premedit and explore. She was constantly alert during foreign affairs, walking thoroughly and carefully through them, having a preference in waiting and observing and deciding just when she absolutely had to, than arriving bluntly and immediately and irresponsibly deciding what to do. The Queen Elizabeth was not just for show.
Elizabeth incarcerated Lady Catherine Grey because of fear. When Catherine got married in secret Elizabeth commenced to find problems. A lot of people considered Grey the bona fide recipient to the throne, and Elizabeth dreaded the thought that they may prefer Lady Catherine, a woman with the incorporated help of a man and the possibility of an heir, to her, and try to upheaval her reign.
Elizabeth said of Burleigh that "No Prince in Europe had such a counselor.", but they did not always get along. She occasionally abused his noble nature and relentlessly disagreed with him. Even though Elizabeth had cosigned Mary Queen of Scots' final blow, when Burleigh decide to "spare" his Queen some emotional suffering and changed the date of execution in advance, she became livid and banished him from her presence.
The Bond of Association was in 1584, and the parliament requested all English man to sign it, in it they promised to support the track down the killer of Elizabeth, if she was ever killed. The Act for the Preservation of the Queen's safety. Mary Queen of Scots was established culpable of collaboration in the Babington Plot to revolute against the Queen, in October of 1586
After 30 years of fortune Elizabeth obtained acceptance even from her religious opponents. So when Catholic Spain's Armada invaded England the huge number of Catholics maintained their loyalty to Elizabeth.
One of the originals blank verse plays, Gorboduc, was impersonated for the Queen. She had, from the start of her reign, encouraged, flourished, and supported the stage and drama. In the 1560s the first blank verse tragedy occurred, eventually giving birth to an art form that is still thoroughly studied now a day. The Queen Elizabeth was a major patron of the stage.
In 1598 Elizabeth chose Essex to direct the force that would attack Ireland and correct the rebellious ear upon learning of an Irish earl showing deviance against an English deputy. But when Essex arrived in Ireland his disregarded his direct orders and decided to wait. Essex refused to follow the orders to attack immediately, instead choosing to wait. Eventually, he was defeated.
The Queen that changed everything.
We barely know about Elizabeth, the woman, but we know plenty about Queen Elizabeth, about her reigns, about the way she changed England, and indirectly, our lives.
Elizabeth I of England.
The Queen's Advisors
Elizabeth and Mary
Coin of the Realm
The Changes she Made
Elizabeth's Love Life
Her Love Interests
Philip of Spain
King Eric XIV of Sweden
The Duke of Anjou
Lord Robert Dudley
Elizabethan Religious Settlement
Act of Supremacy
Act of Uniformity
Road to the Civil War
Romance and reality
Science, technology, exploration
Plots, intrigues and conspiracies
Sports and entertainment
Elizabethan festivals, holidays and celebrations
Barbary States, Ottoman Empire, Japan
Her Late Years