In some places the segregation is associated primarily with racial groups, in other places, ethnicity or religion, while in still other places, income and status(Greenstein, Rosalind; Sabatini, Francisco and Smolka, Martim, 2000). In Us and Europe, mostly it occours as ethnic and racial and religious, on the other hand, in developping countries it is related with socio-economic issues. Also in Europe and Us, the segerated people exist in socio-ecominically disadvantages groups.
As Musterd states that Europe is highly fragmented in different states, with different welfare regimes, different economies, and different histories. There are big differences within Europe. Various explanations were suggested varying from the impact of the welfare state, via the specific historical paths that have been followed in different cities, to differences in the cultural realm (2005). But in this paper, using public art as a urban design tool in public spaces is seemed a common tool to solve the problems which are formed by segregation such as, poverty, inequality in urban life, seperation, polarization, crime and etc. is suggested for integration of segregated citizens and for all citizens to build a collective consciousness and common solaridity.
Background of the Problem
Get your grade
or your money back
using our Essay Writing Service!
Segregation is a feature of metropolises from all over the world.The dynamics of producing social and spatial segregation are discussed in terms of the urban poor and disadvantage sub-classes. Jürgen suggested a model, which has three layer, for explaining the process of social segregation. Macro level, micro level ,and another level (contex-effect) which correlate between two level (1998). Main thesis for macro level is that there is a print which consist of social inequality and segregation in residential area. For micro level, it is a personal level, it can describe with income, life style, ethnicity and religion. The relation between micro and macro level, contex-effect is discribed that the cities serves big opportunity to people, such as in business and residential areas. He stated that with the deindustrialization, while the jobs require high qualifications with high-wage and low-wage unskilled job are increasing, qualifield jobs are revealed, and opportunities are unequally disributed in residential areas. As we consider Hamlet thesis that there is a close relationship between segregation and walfare state policies (1998), it can be said that levels and effects of segrgation are changed between the countries.
We collect it in under two part, ethnicity and religous, income and status.
Statemant of the Problem
In Europe, segregation and integration have received ample attention in recent years. The literature on segregation has point out that the roots of segregation, racial, ethnic, religion, income status are relevant with eachother, and they include socio-economic components.
Segregation shows it self in cities as clustering, in other word it takes a form of spatial segregation.It creates isolated areas from the other population in cities. The big problems that is "What are the consequences? Does spatial segregation reproduce inequality and separation? (Sako Musterd, 2005)."
"American Aparheid" argues that segregation has created ghettos; it increases the problems of social and economic isolation from the rest of society by limiting the educational and employment opportunities for the segregated residents (Massey & Denton, 1993). This situation leads isolated spaces and lifestyles, social integration problems of a massive urban organism divided into various subsystems functioning in a fragmented manner, loss of collective urban memory and citizen sensitivity, lacking integration, vanishing of collective public area concept, security problems etc.
Public spaces play a wide range of roles, which can be classified as physical, ecological, psychological, social, political, economic, symbolic, and aesthetic roles.If we consider city made up of public and private spaces such as; streets, squares, plazas, market places and parks are the public spaces of the cities.These areas porvide variety and diversity of activities.
Public spaces ideally play a significant role in cities by bringing diffrent groups of people regardless of their class, ethnic origin, gender and age and thus performing as a common grounds for social interaction, interminigling and communication. However, Within some of the new city regeneration policies, public spaces has been stresed by its symbolic and economic roles and seemed as the means for economic value generation, which attract more affulent groups than the older ones, which enchances gentrification, social exlusion and statification to a certain degree. It is seemed that some regenration project have undernined the social role of the public spaces. Calthorpe and Fulton (2001) state that "usable public space and civic facilities have decayed, resulting in loss of community and loss of a sense of place" (p. 39). The lack of public gathering places can stifle spontaneous socializing and thus adversely affect density of interpersonal networks. Loss of opportunities for people to interact with each other can deteriorate mutual understanding, trust, and reciprocity, which has been described as a decline in social capital (Bourdieu, 1986; Coleman, 1988; Putnam, 1995).
Always on Time
Marked to Standard
One of the tools of urban design in public spaces is public art to enhance to problems of the social problems which are formed by social spatial segregation in city and in public spaces. As Ã-zsoy & Bayram examined the effects of art works and artistic activities on the quality of public space under the following topics; identity, public communication, cultural continuity, aesthetic experience and economic benefits (2007) in the forms of, Installation, Painting Wall(Murals-Graffiti) - Building Façades - Ground, Public Place Exhibitions, Urban Furniture, Interactive Art.
Miles describe the public art as a practice in a critical vacuum, from that which relates it to social issues and might act to re-focus the practice in ways which are more likely to engender social benefits on lead to social change (1997).
"The value of new genre public art is, then, in its ability to initiate a continuing process of social criticism, and to engage defined publics on issues from homelessness to the survival of the rain forests, domestic violence and AIDS, whilst its purpose is not to fill museums, even with dadaist anti-art, 1 but to resist the structures of power and money which have caused abjection, and in so
doing create imaginative spaces in which to construct, or enable others to construct, diverse possible futures."(Miles, 1997)
Some of the communities use public art for different proposes. While some of the use it as a tool of economic capital such as "GT City center regeneration project" finished in 2000, in Newcastle, "Luci D'Artista" in Torino has been started in 1998 and continuingâ€¦ Others use it for social interaction such as "Community-Initiated Urban Art Projects" in Portland in 2003, "Dialogue" in several cities of USA in 2006â€¦
In the most of the art projects in public spaces which are created on participatory modes, significant improvement in social communication, integration, and economic value for local residents, were observed.
On the other hand, there is a common output that is to encourage people to becoming in the public spaces which serve cohesion, in all the participatory projects which are different target.
In this reserch subject It will be a literature and comperative. Diffirent Public art case studies in Europe and in USA, will be examined and comparated. If it is possibble, there will be a survey on segregated areas where public art is used in Europe or in Turkey.
A field work would be in several areas in Tours or in Paris for evaluate the users of art in public spaces.
In addition, interview is thought with urban designers, planners, public artists, architects, non-govermental organizations and etc, and for servey with the stakeholders in the case study area, also Delphi method would be used to understand the participants of projects clearly.
-Ã-zsoy & Bayram. The Role of Public Art for Improving the Quality of Public Places in the Residential Environment, ENHR International Conferance 2007.
-Jan C. Semenza and Tanya L. March. (2008). ï»¿An Urban Community-Based Intervention to Advance Social Interactions. Environment and Behavior 2009 41: 22. http://eab.sagepub.com/content/41/1/22
-Ajay M. Garde. Innovations in Urban Design and Urban Form : The Making of Paradigms and the Implications for Public. Journal of Planning Education and Research 2008 28: 61. http://jpe.sagepub.com/content/28/1/615
-Z. Müge AKKAR ERCAN.(2007). Public Spaces of Post-Industrial Cities and their Changing Roles (1). METU JFA 2007/1 (24:1) 115-137
-Habermas, J. (1987). The Theory of Communicative Action, trans. T. McCarthy, Beacon Press, Boston.
-Habermas, J. (1997). The public sphere, Twentieth Century Political Theory: A Reader, ed. S.E. Bronner, Routledge, London, New York; 21-26.
-MOUGHTIN, C. (1999). Urban Design: Street and Square, 2nd edition, Architectural Press, Oxford, Auckland, Boston, Johannesburg, Melbourne, New Delhi.
-Jenkins, B. (2006). The Dialectics of Design. Space and Culture 2006 9: 195 http://sac.sagepub.com/content/9/2/195
-SAHIN, A. (2001). Delphi Technique and its Uses in Educational Research. Hacettepe Üniversitesi EÄŸitim Fakültesi Dergisi 20: 215 - 220 (2oo1)
-Jurgen, F. (1998). "Social Inequality, Segregation and Urban Conflict: the case of Hamburg", Urban Segregation and Welfare State, ed.s. Sako Musterd ve Wim Ostendorf, Routledge, London
-Musterd Sako, Wim Ostendorf. (1998). Urban Segregation and the Welfare State: Inequality and Exclusion in Western Cities, Routledge, London
This Essay is
a Student's Work
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.Examples of our work
-Knox ve Pinch (2000). Urban Social Geography, Routledge, 4th ed., New York
-Ewing R., Handy S., Ross C. Brownson, Clemente O., Winston E.(2006). Identifying and Measuring Urban Design Qualities Related to Walkability. Journal of Physical Activity and Health 2006, 3, Suppl 1, S223-S240
-Li, M. (2003). Urban Regeneration Through Public Space: A Case Study in Squares in Dalian, China. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2003
-Lang, C. (2009). Practical research processes towards Public Art in the City. The example of new art projects for Hardau area in Zurich. Institute for Contemporary Arts Research 2009
-Robert J. Sampson and Stephen W. Raudenbush. Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods, The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 105, No. 3 (November 1999), pp. 603-651, http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/210356.
-Thomas F. Gieryn. A Space for Place in Sociology, Annual Review of Sociology, Vol. 26 (2000) pp. 463-496, http://www.jstor.org/stable/223453
-Gregg M. Horowitz. Public Art/Public Space: The Spectacle of the Tilted Arc Controversy, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, Vol. 54, No. 1 (Winter, 1996), pp. 8-14, http://www.jstor.org/stable/431676
-Rosalyn Deutsche. Art and Public Space: Questions of Democracy, Social Text, No. 33 (1992), pp. 34-53 http://www.jstor.org/stable/466433
-Susan J. Smith. Society, Space and Citizenship: A Human Geography for the 'New Times'?, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, New Series, Vol. 14, No. 2 (1989), pp. 144-156, http://www.jstor.org/stable/622809
-Caroline Hodges Persell. Taking Society Seriously, Sociological Forum, Vol. 9, No. 4, Special Issue: Multiculturalism and Diversity (Dec., 1994), pp. 641-657 http://www.jstor.org/stable/685005
-Jacqueline Adams, Art in Social Movements: Shantytown Women's Protest in Pinochet's Chile, Sociological Forum, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Mar., 2002), pp. 21-56, http://www.jstor.org/stable/685086
-Andrea Blum, Houston Conwill, Patricia Johanson, Joyce Kozloff, Alan Sonfist, George Sugarman, Athena Tacha, John Pitman Weber, Elyn Zimmerman. From the Other Side: Public Artists on Public Art, Art Journal, Vol. 48, No. 4, Critical Issues in Public Art (Winter, 1989), pp. 336-346, http://www.jstor.org/stable/777019
-Francisco Sabatini. The Social Spatial Segregation in the Cities of Latin America, Inter-American Development Bank Sustainable Development Department Social Programs Division, 2003
-Massey, Douglas & Denton, Nancy. (1993). American Apartheid; Segregation and the Making of the Underclass, Harvard University Press
-Helen A. Harrison, Subway Art and the Public Use of Arts Committee, Archives of American Art Journal, Vol. 30, No. 1/4, A Retrospective Selection of Articles (1990), pp. 61-70, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1557642
-Anna Couey, Art Works as Organic Communications Systems, Leonardo, Vol. 24, No. 2, Connectivity: Art and Interactive Telecommunications (1991), pp. 127-130, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1575280
-Stephen Wilson, Interactive Art and Cultural Change, Leonardo, Vol. 23, No. 2/3, New Foundations: Classroom Lessons in Art/Science/Technology for the 1990s (1990), pp. 255-262, http://www.jstor.org/stable/1578617
-William H. Frey and Reynolds Farley, Latino, Asian, and Black Segregation in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Are Multi-ethnic Metros Different?, Demography, Vol. 33, No. 1 (Feb., 1996), pp. 35-50, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2061712
-Dudley Cocke, Art in a Democracy, TDR (1988-), Vol. 48, No. 3 (Autumn, 2004), pp. 165-173, http://www.jstor.org/stable/4488578
-Rubén Kaztman and Alejandro Retamoso, Spatial segregation, employment and poverty in Montevideo, C E P A L R E V I E W 8 5 â€¢ A P R I L 2 0 0 5 pp.125-141
-Sako Musterd, Social and Ethnic Segregation in Europe: Levels, Causes, and Effects, Journal of Urban Affairs, Volume 27, Number 3 (2005), pages 331-348.
ï»¿-Christopher Day, Rosie Parnell. (2003). Consensus Design, Socially Inclusive Process, Architectural Press
ï»¿-David Garland. (2001). Mass Imprisonment: Social Causes and Consequences, ï»¿Sage Publication, London
-John Gastil. (1993). Democracy In Small Groups; Participation, Decision Making, and Communication. New Society Publisher, Philadelphia
-Assaad E. Azzi, Xenia Chryssochoou, Bert Klandermans, and Bernd Simon. (2011). Blackwell Publishing
-Gary M. Feinman, T. Douglas Price. (2010). Pathways to Power: New Perspectives on the Emergence of Social Inequality, Springer, London
- John Eade and Christopher Mele. (2002). Understanding the City, Blackwell
- Kevin Keim, (2001). You have to pay for the public life: selected essays of Charles W. Moore, The MIT Press
-J.Barry Cullingworth. (2005). The political culture of planning: American land use planning in comparative perspective, Taylor & Francis, http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/
-Michael O'Neill. (2005). The Politics of European Integration, ROUTLEDGE, New York and London
-Ettore Recchi, Adrian Favell. (2009). Pioneers of European Integration Citizenship and Mobility in the EU, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham and Massachusetts
- Anthony Pagden. (2002). The Idea of Europe From Antiquity to the European Union, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York
-Malcolm Miles. (2004). Urban Avant-Gardes Art, Architecture and Change, Taylor & Francis, http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/
-Chris van Uffelen. (2010). Street Furniture, Braun Publishing AG, Berlin
- Nicholas R.Fyfe. (2006). Images of the Street; Planning, Identity and Control in Public Space, Taylor & Francis, http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/
-Henry Shaftoe. (2008). Convivial Urban Spaces Creating Effective Public Places, Earthscan, London
-Ali Madanipour. (1996). Design of Urban Space; An Inquiry into a Socio-Spatial Process, JOHN WILEY & SONS, West Sussex
- John Casti, Anders Karlqvist. (2003). Art and Complexity, Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam
-Malcolm Miles. (1997). Art, Space and the City;Public art and urban futures, Taylor & Francis, http://www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk/
-Public Art & Urban Design Interdisciplinary and Social Perspectives, WATERFRONTS OF ART III E-Book Edition: ISBN: 84-475-2767-0
-Ceri Peach, Vaughan Robinson, Susan Smith. (1981). Ethnic segregation in cities, Taylor & Francis
-David Harvey. (2009). Social Justice and the City, University of Georgia Press, Georgia
- Cameron Cartiere. (2008). The Practice of Public Art, Routledge, New York
- Tom Finkelpearl. (2001). Dialogues in Public Art, MIT Press
-Kevin Lynch. (1960). The image of the City, MIT Press
-Universidad de Barcelona. Urban regeneration: a challenge for public art, Barcelona
-By Paul L. Knox, Steven Pinch. (2006). Urban social geography: an introduction, Pearson Education,
-Michael Dobbins. (2009). Urban Design and People, Wiley
- Jan W. van Deth. (2005). Private Groups and Public life: Social Participation, Voluntary Associations and Politic Involvement in Representative Democracies, Taylor & Francis, http://www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk/
- Council of Europe, Directorate of Social and Economic Affairs. (1999). Political and Social Participation of Immigrants-through Consultative Bodies, Council of Europe, Strasburg
- Paul Dekker,Eric M. Uslaner. (2001). Social Capital and Participation in Everyday Life, Taylor & Francis, http://www.eBookstore.tandf.co.uk/
- Birgit Geissler. (2005). Care and social integration in European societies, The Policy Press, Bristol
- Rosemarie Sackmann, Bernhard Peters, Thomas Faist. (2003). Identity and Integration: Migrants in Western Europe, Ashgate Publishing
- John P.Â McCormick. ().Weber, Habermas, and Transformation of the European state: Constitutional, Social and Supernational Democracy, Cambridge
- Ariane Chebel d'Appollonia Simon Reich. (2008). Immigration, integration, and security: America and Europe in Comparative Perspective, Pittsburgh Press
- Friedrich Heckmann, Dominique Schnapper. (2003). The Integration of Immigrants in European Societies: National Differences and Trends of Convergence, Lucius & Lucius, Stuttgart
- Hans Vermeulen, Rinus Penninx. (2000). Immigrant Integration: The Dutch Case, Het Spinhuis, Amsterdam