Project success a cultural framework

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Abstract:-

This report define the powerful strategies, initiation of economic value and advantages. It define that the new strategic leader is the project manager which take the responsibility for make the successful project and give his best output. For the project success project manager use various knowledge areas like integration, scope, time cost, quality, human resources, communication and procurement. Another important concept to understand is that projects involve five process are:- Initiating, Planning, Executing, monitoring and controlling. In the starting phase of the project, project-manager make the schedule of survey in which they gather data about the project and the project success factor that have contribute to project being on time, on budget and high quality.

Article Outlines:

Introduction

A large software project involve hundreds of people. Dimensions of project can easily turn into chaos if proper management control are not imposed. To complete the successful project, the large workforces has to be properly organized. Proper management controls and checkpoints are required for effective project monitoring.

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     A recent Standish Group survey (2000) reported an overall project failure rate of 72 percent. Of the remaining 28 percent of IS projects that reportedly were successful, the study found that 797 percent of those projects had the advantages of an assigned project manager, that 58 percent used a defined methodology.

     The success of project depend on the project manager. A project manager has to possess a set of skills, in order to be distinguished as an excellent professional. Communication skills come always at the top of the list because the role of project manager is much connected with communication and he is responsible to understand the ideas of sponsors and to translate these ideas to every team member of the company.

     “A project manger needs the ability to question without alienating- to listen and watch people's body language are really see what' happening”. (Dennis Johnson, an assistant vice president at USAA)

Planning is the most important management activity. Without a proper plan, no real monitoring or controlling of project is possible.

In a 2003 article Julia King report “ at companies that aren't among the top 25% of technology users, three out of 10 It projects fail on average”. It means that 30% out of 100 project are unsuccessfully complete. Only the 16.2% project completed on time with the specific budget and all features.

An extraordinary project manager must be able to inspire the people and get respect, not only among the project team members but also among the sponsors and representatives from the user community. This requires the project manager to manage the expectations of his/her direct report which helps to create responsibility for everyone involved. The project manager must build a team of individuals that possess different skills.

Methods

First conduct the interviews with the clients to explore the design of elements of an organisation that is social and technical structure. This discussion mainly focus on the culture of organisation, structural measurement of an organisation, performance measurement system of an organisation. These interviews reflected the past, current and future change effort to adopt project management. The data which is collected through this case study was analyzed by using the raw data. Raw data converted in the information. During analysis a massive amount of information is collected in the form of answer to questions, questionnaires, information from documentation and ideas. The important to complete set of requirements, it is essential that this gathered data or information be organized so that it can be evaluated for completeness. Some problems are occurred while analyzing the data like how to organize the information obtained so the information can be effectively evaluated for completeness and consistency.

Second main problem during analysis is resolving the contradiction that may exist in the information from different parties. The contradiction is occurred because the perceived goals of system may be quite different for the end user and client. The third major problem is avoiding internal design. The reason for temptation to do design during analysis.

Critique

After gathering the data and analyse the data some other member who perform the task with the project manager and the rest of project team member will discuss the matter about the project success. They discuss field like designing, coding, cost, quality etc. But the main role play by the project manager in the meeting.

Skills And competencies

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A project manager is the leader of the team. He/she should have the ability to understand the ideas of sponsors and translate them to every member of the team. He/she should have the ability to clearly communicate the project objectives, project problems, and scope changes. Sometimes communication skills even become more critical, if project have a lack of clear communication which poses major risk to the success of project. To be an effective leader, an individual must be a great communicator. Lack of communication skills could fail a project manager and the project even if she/he possesses all other qualities.

project managers retain some qualities and characteristics to achieve the goals but the ability to do the things differently make the project manager different or successful. A successful project manager always focused on the three dimensions of the project success-deliverable on time, within the budget and level of quality.

To understand the principles of project, a project manager must be knowledgeable about the business and technical aspects of the project. Risk occurred in an organization when an individual who is not knowledgeable about the technologies of the project. If a project manager does not have knowledge cannot manage the team and will be unable to achieve the goals. A project team will suffer from the lack of proper guidance.

Cost, Schedule and quality

Project management is driven by the three major factors that is cost, schedule and quality. Sometimes cost and quality are considered the primary independent variable whose values is more or less fixed for given cost. The cost of developing system is the cost of resources used for the system, which is in the case of software, are the hardware, software and other resources. Manpower is predominant, as software development largely labour intensive and the cost of computing system. The cost of software project is measured in term of person-month, e.g. the cost is considered to the total number of person-month spent in the project.

     Schedule is an important factor in many projects. Business trends are dictating that the time to market of a product should be reduced, the cycle time from concept to delivery should be small. E.g. in the financial sector, where the window of opportunity will have to done within small cycle time. Due to these types of application, where reduced cycle time is highly desirable even if the cost become higher, there is a growing interest in rapid application development (RAD)

The major factors driving nay production is quality. In IT Project strategies are designed around quality, clearly, developing methods that can produce high-quality software is another fundamental goal of software engineering. In the quality of software product having three dimensions like Product Operation, product transition, and Product revision. Where the product operation is deal with the quality factor such as correctness, reliability and efficiency. Product transition deal with quality factor like portability and interoperability. Product revision is deal with those aspect related to modification of program, including factors such as maintainability and testability.

Communication

Information technology field is changing time to time and these changes bring with them a great deal of technical jargon. Computer professional have to communicate with the non computer professional or the people who are related with the business or other various fields. If they continually communicate with the non computer professional then they easily know about the requirements or demands in the software or the project.

Corporate culture

With the various subculture and cultural values that exist in the organization level it is important that the organization recognize these different values:-

Integrity:- The integrity with other project team member implies being honest with them and clear about your expectations, intension and opinion of the work.

Clear Responsibility and accountability of team member:- This requires that all team members have a clear understanding of their roles and duties in the project. They must understand how expectations vs. achievements will be measured and graded. It is left to the project manager to properly implement the communication of these responsibilities, to provide feedback, and to assure all understand that for which they will be held accountable

References:-

  1. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6V6K-4508R6V-1&_user=10&_coverDate=12%2F31%2F2001&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1263153136&_rerunOrigin=scholar.google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=db7b9de9bfd841fa8ca66463d2cee78a
  2. Anil, Iyer and Thomasson, David (1991). “An Empirical Investigation of the Use of Content Analysis to Define the Variables Most Prevalent in Project Successes and Failures”, Proceedings of the 1991 PMI Annual Seminar/Symposium, Sept 27 - October 2, 1991.
  3. Pankaj Jalote (2003) “ An integration Approach to software Engineering”
  4. THE CHAOS Report (1994), The Standish Group, http://www.standishgroup.com/sample_research
  5. Kathy Schwalbe (2010) Information Technology Project Management 6e.
  6. http://moodle.whitireia.ac.nz/course/view.php?id=570
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