Postmodernism In Main Architectural Ideologies Cultural Studies Essay

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Mid-20th century, Modernism became the main architectural ideology of the world. However modernism is more about the architecture which reflects the industrial revolution, the industrialization development and the society issue during the world war. Later, modernism has exposed some shortcomings gradually: the simplification of the architecture style, indifferent, lack of humanism, too much on functionism… 1960s, architects started to pursue a new architecture style which reference and ornament have returned to the facade, replacing the aggressively unornamented modern styles.

1966s, Robert Venteri published the book <Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture>, in the book he proposed the idea which is much different from Modernism. First, He had admitted the progressive contribution of Modernism, simultaneously he also proposed that Functional Modernism had already completed its mission in the specific time of history, He explains his criticism of Modernism in his by saying that: "Architects can bemoan or try to ignore them (referring to the ornamental and decorative elements in buildings) or even try to abolish them, but they will not go away. Or they will not go away for a long time, because architects do not have the power to replace them (nor do they know what to replace them with)." 1969 Venturi's adaptation of Mies van der Rohe's famous maxim "Less is more" to "Less is a bore" to express his idea-moving away from modernism's functionalism. Venteri's idea of architecture which is quite opposite with the modernism has caused vibration and response in architects. To the 1970s, the opposing and departing from the modernism tendency has become more intense.

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Venturi's second book <Learning from Las Vegas> (1972) further developed his opinion modernism. In the book he argued that ornamental and decorative elements "accommodate existing needs for variety and communication". Here Venturi stresses the importance of the building communicating a meaning to the public, a value shared by postmodernists in general.

July 15, 1972, Pruitt -Igoe located at Missouri which is an advanced construction according to C.I.A.M concept was blown down by government. One of the most influential architects of postmodernism: Charles Jencks announced Modernism died in the afternoon 3:32 July 15, in his book < The language of Post-Mordern Architecture> published in 1977. This book showed various analogies architecture shares with language he reflects about the semiotic rules of architecture and wants to communicate architecture to a broader public. Moreover, Charles Jencks was the architect who first used the word Post-Modernism. In his opinion post-modernism architecture should be double-coding which means combination of architect's personal idea with architecture itself.

Another postmodernism architect Robert A.M.Stern, he concluded the three main features of postmodernism:Contextualism, Allusionism, Arnamentation. He emphasized on the historical culture, the relationship between architecture and the surroundings, the symbolism of architecture. In his opinion, decoration was an inalienable part of building.

1976s, a famous, representative architecture of Post-Modernism-Allen Memorial Art Museum modern addition, Oberlin College; (Oberlin, Ohio) built. The building itself is a box-like form with flat surfaces of varying materials which recede into space with 'jogs' in its plan. The presence of the asymmetrical strip windows and low overhang of the roof help provide overall unity with the old building, while the recession back into space lessens the effect of the duality between old and new, diminishing the bulk of the addition compared to the old building. Likewise, the use of similarly colored pink granite and sandstone serves as a visual cue to associate the two structures synthetically. Venturi wanted to unify the physical actualities of site and situation to the design of the building, creating structures which reflect their function in a playful and harmonious way. This project represented what Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown have identified as a 'decorated shed.' This insistence on applied meaning stood in contrast to the program of the Modernist architects- who Venturi labeled as creating "ducks."

Another famous project was: The exuberant, postmodern archetype Palazzo Ragione Padua (1978), an urban public plaza in New Orleans, Louisiana by Charles Moore. The plaza was made of various pieces of historical classicism architecture, use eclecticism method to combine the different language of architecture together.

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60s of the 20th century is the bud of post-modernism then 1970s would be the growth time of post-modernism. A lot of architects like: Robert venture, Charles Moore,Michael Graves,Charies Jencks, Robert Stern, Robert Krier , Philip Johnson, Aratalsozaki… accepted the idea of post-modernism began to explore the new language of architecture. The major works of that time: 》),<Post Modernism>, <Architecture Today>, < The language of Post- Mordern Architecture> by Charies Jencks, < Modern Classicism> by Robert A . M . Stern, < Ur - ban space> by Robert Krier, < The Architecture of the city> by Aldo Rossi…

Postmodernism is an architecture style which stressed in initiated historical the style, using eclecticism method to strongly express the ornamental and decorative elements. Although Postmodernism acclaimed the opposition with Modernism, however, there is no way to completely distinguish from modernism. Postmodernism should not be a completely opposition against modernism, but based on modernism add more innovation, eliminated the shortcomings of modernism (the simplification, no-variety, lack of humanism…) let architecture combine architecture with the cultural custom, realize diversity of architecture, fully play the creation of architects.

Postmodernism also emphasized the personal expression of architects- architecture not only take responsibility to the public but also take the responsibility the designers themselves. Services of the design changed from one-way to two-way, designers' personal requirements have been taken to the table. Since the "Arts and Crafts" Movement, "New Art" movement, Art Deco movement, after more than half a century break, the designer's individual performance has been taken to consideration again. The decoration of postmodernism is using a wide variety of historical style,: from Gothic to Baroque, from Classical to Renaissance. However, the approach of decoration is not copy but an exaggerated description, a symbolic expression.

However, the main concerns of Postmodernism are the symbol, metaphor, traditional and historical style. It neglects of the many practical social problems. Postmodernism just like the new eclecticism, they are the superficial revolution but not the essential, intrinsical reform. If the mordernism is a complete revolution from the old ideology, then the Postmodernism can only described as a popular style of architecture which is not deep into the Nature of things.