Post Colonialism As Political Theory Cultural Studies Essay

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Post-colonialism is a political and literary theory and conscious reaction that the consequences and effects of colonialism on the culture and identity from the past camps counter. Post-colonialism is a branch of postmodernism and represent the cultural and political independence of the exposed persons. The theory decolonise the challenges of the future and heritage, trends and typical weather of the mind in the context of colonialism and professionally through actions. The process of decolonization has taken place after colonization colonization mark (Nealon, Girux, 2003, p. 141). Post-colonialism analyze unfortunate consequences and effects of Western Europe, the places, people and cultures (Sharp, 2008). 

       To understand the concept of post-colonialism, it is very important to understand the idea of disorder, of colonialism. Colonialism refers to expansion, imperialism and interventionism. It implies hegemonic and expansionist tendencies and political environment in which one country rules other nations and development of proprietary trading and interest. India is a colony of England and many African countries, the colonies of European countries. "Colonialism is racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance." (Nagel 2003 Ferguson, Introduction). 

     Post-colonialism meeting colonialism in all its forms and manifestations, as they specifically hegemonic mentality in relation to human nature, which is omnipresent.Neo-colonialism is a new form of imperialism and colonialism. As aptly said Kwame Nkrumah, in the form of neo-colonialism in order to use resources in the underdeveloped countries. (1965, Introduction). Developed countries continue to neo-colonialism in one form or another from exercising the support of the popular and beloved non-democratic and 

dictatorial regimes in the Third World countries and gives them the international institutions for support. After Nealon and Giroux neo expression correctly describes the status of developing countries in the New World Order, because the political sovereignty of the miserable economic situation (2003, 141) is in danger. 

       Postal colonial literature plays a decisive role in the revival of culture and identity of the redesign in the history of colonization lost. In an era of post-colonialism, formerly colonized people claim their own identity, and produce their own history, literature and philosophy at the lower identities to them (2003, p 145) imposed challenge. 

      Finally, post-colonialism, political and literary theory that the counter effects and consequences of colonialism in all its forms and manifestations. It is against the trends and the legacy of colonialism, arguing that culture and identity through literature.

Social memory 

     Social memory means memories or historical information based on the past memories of the social groups from one generation to another generation. Tosh includes "Tradition, nostalgia and progress in social memory" (2002, p. 20). 

        

     Social memory precisely depict the logic of popular knowledge about the past based on previous experience justifies the current, often at the expense historical authenticity. (Tosh, 2002, p. 3). Crumley describes social memory and information between groups, individuals, passed down from generation to generation, unconsciously. Individuals, their attitudes, characteristics and peculiarities transferred through their feelings and relationships in connection with the generations (2002). 

      Social memory is also in a sense, synonymous with collective and cultural memory. The social memory of a nation is often portrayed by some monuments or memorials it chooses to build. This type of memory is called the cultural memory of a nation. Social memory is also partly related to the historical consciousness. About the past is necessary to social events in this way all societies have memories to understand. (Tosh, 2002, p. 2). 

        

      The conclusion is that social memory embodied in a society alternate views on the past. These beliefs are formed by both the communication between the generations, and insufficient evidence of the past. 

                                                      

                                    Author (HED) 

     Authority simply refers to authenticity, recognition, acceptance and correction of the statement or the work of an author considered fixed, authentic and authoritative, which can be used as a credible source. It is very important to establish that the author of a work is permitted, competent and canonized writing about the topic.Establishment of the authorities as a writer to be canonized and recognized as a master and an expert in his or her workplace. The legitimacy of the authentic work of great and credible to think about fundamental issues, the human mind can return to the origins of knowledge can be traced. (Nealon, Giroux. The 2003rd p. 9). 

     "Someone who has written something a writer," but the authority of a writer lies in the recognition, intensity, credibility and general acceptance by all sections of society, because any knowledge produced by an author is a suspect until proven authentic and legitimate by the established rules and standards for the "canonization" is proved by the list of great works. Another produces not only produce literature, but also creates other disciplines such as history, philosophy and sociology, etc. (Nealon, 2003 p. 10 -.. Giroux 11). 

     The main question about the origin of the author "Who says this". "Can the spoken or written is said to be accurate, useful and true" (Everman. 1998). To determine the authority of a writer, there are several criteria are assessed on touchstone for sainthood. For example, identity, credentials, educational background, specialization, or specialization in particular subject by the author, the creation of an exchange of the authorship rule, institutional affiliations, publications work, quotes, intentions, is objectivity and accuracy is also taken into account The authenticity of the authority in a writer (evaluation of what is encountered. 2004). Meaning and intent author also considered canonical rules an agency job (Nealon, Giroux. The 2003rd S. 16). 

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The conclusion is that the authority of one author assessed the canonization, which not only provides the authority by applying the provisions of the "brilliant" and "greatness", but also contains a special relationship with the authenticity built on the "honor" and "respect" (Nealon, Giroux. the 2003rd p. 11). 

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                                                    Discourse 

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      Discourse in the study of language means conversation, communication, speech patterns, use of language, especially the use of the language employed in a specific context or topic. In the social sciences, the discourse of the established way of expressing or communicating specific language about a particular subject in a social world. The term 'discourse' is versatile and has become commonplace in many disciplines of social sciences: linguistics, humanities, philosophy, ethics and history and many other areas. It is used by linguistic analysts, philosophers, that theorists such as post-structuralist or post-modernists, historians, etc., the analysis of literary and non-literary texts to complex theoretical and philosophical concepts and narrative development. 

     According to John Tosh, discourse refers creative approach to the interpretation of texts to explain, he goes on to describe discourse as "At one point in a world of the text consists of different kinds of production, each with its own cultural background, conceptual categories and patterns .. Each piece belongs to a discourse or a body of linguistic practice (Tosh, 2002, p.187) Tosh summarizes the concept of discourse in the French theorist and philosopher Michel Foucault --- is the perception of the discourse comes mostly from Foucault - -.. discourse was not only a pattern of language use, but a form of power or knowledge (cited in Tosh, 2002, 187) Discourse as' ideas, beliefs, attitudes and practices in social issues formalize processes,emphasizes the production and construction of power and truth. Foucault also gave the principle that discourse is a method of power relations of the speaker (Foucault, 1972). Roger Fowler states discourse is a speech or write existing values, beliefs, to look at the organization or the representation of Experience (cited in Mills, 2004, p. 14). 

      Discourse analysis refers to examining the characteristics of the language that goes beyond the boundaries of a sentence. According to Tosh, the crucial process of modern linguistics on the basis of relativism (Tosh, 2002, 187th texts contain more than one level of meaning and the undercurrent of power (Tosh, 2002.193). Historians recognize that they can not penetrate in all layers of meanings in their documents. Each text is socially situated in specific historical circumstances (Tosh, 2002.195). 

          Discourse construction marks the difference between things, for example, people are not born criminals, but the discourse of the law to distinguish between criminals and law abiding people. (Nealon, Girux, 2003, p 169) There is a social logic text, open to historical demonstration study (Gabrielle Spiegel, cited in Tosh, 2002, 196). The Tosh language is power to the new forms of political and social initiatives to formalize this connection, for example the French revolution is justified by the "Freedom, equality and fraternity" (Tosh, 2002, 281). Another example is two separate discourses on the various guerrilla movements describing them, one as freedom fighters and other terrorists. Dr. Judith Butler, a post-structuralist feminist researcher, describes the boundaries of acceptable speech or possible truth "(quoted in Richards 2004, p. 309). 

    

. In conclusion. Discourse influences our view of things because of its indispensable and ubiquitous nature concept refers to the linguistic usage in connection with a particular type of social context, for example, cultural discourse, political discourse, legal discourse, religious discourse. It is an institutionalized form of expression or communication of specific language on a particular subject in a social practice. 

                                                 Territorial identity 

  Territorial identity is a historical process, based on common cultural characteristics of groups of people "defined by regional parameters. Understanding the territorial identity, it is extremely important to the philosophical notions of identity and identification to understand. Identity refers to the common features or "attributes" of a group of persons formed by the typical "thinking and behavior" and is built on a common culture, language and religion. While identification and empathy, the respective like-mind in a group distinct from others say. "Distinction made by us and them. "This is the identification of crucial importance for the political and territorial identities (the Johansson. 2001 S. 17 th). 

  In Europe, the concept of territorial identity in the spotlight emphatically with the rising nationalism in the nineteenth century. Territorial identity is determined by human nature and relationships, and has always played a decisive role in achieving the objectives for the nation. The concept of territorial identity should be discussed in light of the concept of the region (the Johansson. 2001 S. 14 th). It is also correlated with the geography specific regions (Grasso, 1998, p. 617). Institutionization is also a part of the territorial identity, but ethnicity is not required a particular area, but some groups claim the territory as well and hence they are called ethno-territorial groups.(Johansson. the 2001 S. 13 th, 14). 

        

          Finally, territorial identity, an integral part of the nation-state. Territorial identity and identification processes are correlated with State building and nation-building (the Johansson. 2001 S. 18 th). "Territory is a developer of identity". ... Just as we think of as a cultural space that belongs to (and Cambrezy Bonne Maison, 1996, p. 17). It is an indispensable factor in human behavior and the relationship between a group with other groups outside the region, correlated with time and space. 

                                                  Central Europe 

        

     Central Europe, the German term that refers to the political and geographical distribution of central Europe into East and West by the Iron Curtain. This is the term used to define the division of Europe into two separate areas until the end of the Cold War in 1989. It refers to central Europe. Central Europe between certain areas of Eastern and Western Europe. The idea of Central Europe are linked to the concept of civil society and the opposition of communism during the Cold War. 

      The concept of Central Europe began in earnest in 1889, was in the name of Central Europe, East Europeans against the Communist regime and embraced democracy. The idea was popular in 1915 by Friedrich Naumann. Disagreements between the Soviet Union and the Allies caused the division of Germany and the failure of the German nation to conquer Central Europe has led to the two German states and divided Europe (Delanty, 1995. P 123). According to Delanty, Central Europe is a normative concept "(1995, P 138) because it was seen as an alternative to Western hegemony and expansionist nationalism as a concept and then in Eastern Europe. 

     Finally, Central Europe, originally used as anti-Soviet concept, but after 1989, shows the differentiation of Central and Eastern Europe from Western Europe. In reality, the historical and cultural idea that was different from Soviet times collectivism and Western consumerism. 

                                            Nation State 

Nation-state refers to the convergence between the different ethnic groups within a nation by the transformation of the different specific cultural features and characteristics in the formation of national identity and identification within the State "(the 2,001 th Johansson. p. 20-21). 

      It is significant complex issues that come first, Sat or nation. In some cases, creating a nation state. According to Johansson, against France is a "State-Nation-State" because it was the nation is built (the 2,001 th Johansson. p. 185). Hobsbawm also discussed this idea. He also claimed that the state made the French nation.(Hobsbawm.1991). For example, the French government French language greatly compulsory for people to unite for a common language and a common identity constructed on the French language (Johansson. 2001, p. 204). France is "the prototype nation state", formed of national unity. 

  Two types of nation-states are "ethnic" nation-state developed by the process of "nation-state building", such as Germany, and "civic" nation-states by the state-nation building "process in France (2004 Seymour., S.. 3). It is very likely the concepts of "nation" and "state" to discuss the concept of "nation-state" understanding. "Nation" refers to a specific group of individuals area, which a common culture and shared history and identity, and sovereign, while "state" is built on the specific field and political institutions, which controls the area. (Johansson. the 2001 S. 186 th, 187) . nation-state is also considered a new phenomenon, especially in the case of foreign countries like the U.S. and Australia, since it is only possible by "overarching national identification" (the Johansson. 2001 S. 21 th). 

     The conclusion is that state-nation, a country that creates a nation, and not vice versa. The state is building the nation by generating all conditions for integration, identity and unity of the nation. 

       

                                             

                                        Regions 

The term "region" refers to the geographic unit based on physical and human characteristics. The concept of the region is discussed in relation to the concept of territory. Apart from the physical geography, the region has a political, economic and cultural dimension (the Johansson. 2001 S. 14 th). Territorial identity is built on a geographical entity in a given region. (Grasso, 1998, p. 617). Institutionalization is another essential element in the region. Institutionalization is indispensable in creating "a common regional identity" (the Johansson. 2001 S. 14 th). 

     In Western Europe, the continuous process of modernization of the functions of a state transformed with respect to regional and local perspective, because rapid economic process affects the regional and territorial functions. For example, a State is responsible for organizing and managing its citizens in a particular area, the management of the economy and material resources complicated tasks in a territorial state. (Johansson. the 2001 th S. 23). 

     In recent Europe, the emerging phenomenon of centralization motivated regional groups to "decentralize decision-making" (the Johansson. 2001 S. 23 th). According to Johansson, the Michael Hechter concept offered ethno regional conflicts. Hechter describes the relationship between center and periphery of a colony, and the recent separatist movements are seen in this context. ((Johansson. the 2001 th S. 23). 

   The conclusion is that the regional identity political factor in the formation of a state and facilitates the process of supranational integration. 

                                      Ethnic identity 

     Ethnic and cultural identity refers to the common culture of an ethnic group defined by having decent territorial identity or not. Ethnicity is a social group designed as a shared culture inherited. Ethnicity does not need a specific area, but certain ethnic groups claim the territory as well and therefore they are called ethno-territorial groups."A nation is a group of people who identify with a particular state, whether this state is in fact a reality or exist only in the perception of the group. (Johansson. the 2001 th S. 17). This statement aptly applies the current situation in the burning issue of Israel and Palestine, because Israel a de facto state in which a particular ethnic group, that Jews have their own cultural identity. While the Palestinians have their own cultural identity and ethnic struggle for territorial identity, but They have a state in their perception that they are fighting. 

      Cultures and societies are defined by the individuality of ethnicity and race. " But many cultures have multiethnic and multiracial and it is very difficult to define ethnicity in cultural contexts, because it is different in different places. For example, identity refers "Jewish" to "ethnicity or nationality, religion or race, or all four (Nealon, Giroux, 2003, p. 52). 

     In short, it means ethno-cultural identity of the common culture, language, characteristic of an ethnic group that has the same decent, their cultural awareness. 

                                                Subjectivity 

         Subjectivity refers to the particular interpretations are based on personal opinions, beliefs and feelings rather than external documentation. It is only through the subjectivity that we experience the world, because every philosophy, theory or experiment is based on personal or individual observations. 

. It refers to the knowledge or experience is assumed by personal mental characteristics. Subjectivity is the antithesis of objectivity, which refers to the actual existence of something without personal impressions or ideas and the ability to make things not influenced by personal bias, emotions and human social and cultural influences to define. According to Nealon and Giroux, the subjectivity or her particular view or interpretation of anything until it's proven fact (2003, 1936). Subjectivity is the opposite of objectivity, there is a fact (2003, p. 35). Additional Nealon and Giroux subjectivity should be interpreted as "self" and "subject" and the person itself, and without reference to social characteristics unaffected by social factors and cultural influences. (2003, p. 38). 

     Subjectivity may refer to some reality, but is influenced by personal experience of the viewers of reality, and it can not be proved by concrete figures, while objectivity is controlled by a number of concrete evidence and not influenced by past experience or your personal taste. Objectivity is very important if we have some sensible and informed decisions or to rely on one source, because we now we have to focus on our ultimate destination is not influenced by our subjective feelings. 

       The conclusion is that the subjective perception or interpretation of a certain reality untouched by social factors and cultural influences, while objectivity is a fact verifiable by any evidence or proof. 

"The assessment of what is encountered." The 2004th University of Tennessee Libraries. 

<http://www.lib.utk.edu/instruction/learnhow/evaluating3.html> 

 Foucault, 1972, Archaeology of Knowledge, New York, Pantheon. 

Ferguson, N. 2003, Introduction, Empire, London, Penguin. 

Grasso A., 1998, "Note sul Concetto di Identita territorial", Bollettino della co- 

ta Geografica Italiana. 

Hobsbawm, Eric. Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, myth, reality.Cambridge University Press. 

Johansson, Rune. 2001a "A crisis of the territorial state." The return of history, Tagil (eds.), Lund, Nordic Academic Press. 

Kwame Nkrumah. 1965, Introduction to neo-colonialism, the last stage of imperialism, London. 

S.2004 Mills, Discourse, 2nd edition, London, Routledge. 

Nealon, Jeffrey T. Giroux, S. the 2003rd Theory Toolbox, Maryland, Rowman and Littlefield. 

Richard, H.2004, Understanding the global economy, the second New York, peace education. 

Seymour, Michel. The 2004th Lot nation-state. Mc Gill-Queen's University Press. 

Sharp, J. (2008). Locations of post-colonialism, Chapter 6, sub-Speak?. 

Sage Publications. 

Tosh, J. 2002, The Pursuit of History, 2nd edition, Harlow, Pearson. 

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                                MISSION PART 2 

              Idea of Europe by Delanty and Johansson 

     The idea of Europe is an important aspect of modern political culture. Only the idea of Europe is the entity of the European countries on the basis of collective identity, cultural, territorial, political identity and majorly on Christianity ---- an idea realized in the form of spectacular success of the European Union in modern times .The European idea is developed with the decline of Greek civilization (Delanty, 1995, p. 19) and in Roman times it referred to the geographical region in order to avert threats Eastern. The European idea grew rapidly after the fall of Constantinople in 1453 AD, when European countries had a strong sense of insecurity and is believed to be the progress of Islam to Europe during the Middle Ages gradually. George of Podebrady was the first who gave the idea of Europe based on Christianity to the common interests of European Christian countries to defend and made it binding to a common enemy. 

     Bo Strath developed the idea of Europe in the same manner as Delanty had offered. The Muslim expansion changed the whole scenario around the Mediterranean and the Greek concept of Europe disappeared. A draft of the UN-European countries is based on Christianity originated and supported the Crusades.After the Crusades, a serious conflict between church and new centralized and geographically organized forces broke out and the new idea of Europe underwent metamorphosis and "emerged as referring to universal values." Discourse of information as a European idea to fill the gap, the church has left (Strath, 2006. S. 4). 

     Gerard Delanty the famous socialist, developed the idea of Europe in detail in his book "Inventing Europe". According to Delanty, the three levels of discourse in Europe based on the historic structure concept, identity and reality (Delanty, 1995, p. 13). "It is an idea as much as reality" (Delanty, 1995c, p. 2). In a historical perspective, Delanty tried to describe the transformation to which Europe was the first of the "cultural ideas" and "self-conscious political identity" (Delanty, 1995, p. 4). European thought is primarily attributed to ethno- culturalism, which have significant impact on collective identity. 

        

     Collective identity is an important and thought-forming unit in European identity based on citizenship. The idea of Europe is ambiguous with respect to policy and collective identity and ambiguity lies in two factors: one is in exclusion, identity, political and otherwise in the participation and solidarity (Delanty, 1995, p. 2) nationalism and ethnic- culturalism threatened the idea of identity as racism and the civil war in Bosnia was a major threat to European identity. 

       

      Christianity played a decisive role in uniting Europe, and there are ongoing fighting between Christians and geographical concept. Unity is a favorite target based on the perception of exclusion and centralization (Delanty, 1995, p. 2). Another important unit in forming the European ideal is culture. European idea was originally based on culture and then it became a political entity. 

      As a socialist, Delanty describes social idea of social theory rather than the state system and discusses citizenship as a normative basis of group identity. He linked the European idea of five major discourses: Christianity, culture, Cold War, Fortress Europe and finally the social Europe (Delanty, 1995, p. 13). 

       According to Johansson, power-political, economic and cultural factors play a crucial role in the development of the idea of Europe "(Johansson, 2001, p. 44).Cultural factors had an indelible impression on the European idea. Three factors have a major influence on the formation of the European idea: the rise of Islam, Christianity and Latin Frankish Empire in Western Europe. Europe will evolve as a federation or confederation idea of European integration and cooperation between the dates from the Middle Ages (Johansson, 2001, p. 43). 

The formative unit in Europe is the formation and transformation of the cooperation between states (Johansson, 2001, p. 44). There was a collaboration of two reasons, firstly, the efforts towards unity and the interests of states. In the 18th and 19th century universalism was nationalism and Europeanism great influence on the European idea is based on identity and different in the 18th century superior complexity has led to pan-Europeanism helped the idea of Europe (Johansson, 2001, p. 58 ) develop. 

                                                                      

                                                       Comparison 

         The similarity of views between Delanty and Johansson on the idea of Europe. 

          Johansson Delanty and both emphasize the concept of Christianity the binding force of the European idea that combines the roles of these Latin Christianity and the Frankish Empire as the basis for a united Europe. 

        

      Both writers mentioned idea roots from Europe to the Middle Ages, when European countries felt the insecurity outside. They also discussed the idea of Europe in its historical context, how European idea arose from time to time. 

       

      Nationalism and fascism are also common problems between them and both discussed the implications for the European idea. 

                                         

                             Different perceptions of Delanty and Johnsson 

     There are many points where Delanty and Johnsson different, for example, Delanty has dealt with the idea of Europe as a socialist and historian not to see. As he himself pointed out this in the foreword Delanty, 1995). Although he admitted role in the genesis of the idea. While Johansson has discussed the idea of Europe only in a historical context. 

        

     Delanty pointed out that the European idea was born from the idea of cultural identity resulting in the collective political identity (Delanty, 1995, p. 4). Although Johansson described for the first time, the geographical unit into the political identity.(Delanty, 1995, p. 48). 

     Johansson specifically the issue of economic factor in the idea, while Delanty has stressed the cultural factor, but not on economic factors in the development of the idea. , Johansson also discuss the idea of federal and confederal union cooperation between states (Johansson, 2001, p. 43), while such a discussion not to be found in the work of Delanty's. 

   Johansson is a discussion of European unity and cooperation among the states of futuristic perspective and Johansson have used both primary and secondary sources, while Delanty have used only primary sources. 

      The conclusion is that there are both similarities and differences between the positions Delanty and Johansson in the development and evolution of the idea over time. Delanty treated more like a socialist and Johansson discussed as a historian.But Johansson's approach to the idea of Europe is more extensive in some aspects.Delanty discussed the five aspects of the discourse of the European idea and three levels of ideas, identity and reality, while Johansson describes three factors that rise of Islam, Christianity and Frankish Latin basis of the European idea.

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