Phenomenon Of Values In Music Cultural Studies Essay

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The aim of this work is an attempt to study the phenomenon of values in the music and influence of music on the person's identity, description of perspective and analysis of some research on this topic. Defining the role and place of music in contemporary society in the context of its socio-economic transformation. 

There will also be considered certain cultural phenomena that are characteristic of the modern music world. In particular, this phenomenon is the merger of certain genres of music with each other, such as an underground cultural phenomenon from the standpoint of the social dimension of culture. 

There will also be made an attempt to solve some problems related to finding the mechanisms of perception of musical genres and identify factors that affect it. This will be implemented synchronous and diachronic analysis of data obtained from studies conducted on a larger time interval, and involving a total of more than 220 people. 

 Unfortunately, we could not cover in these studies all genres of music, in particular, has not been studied perception of such musical genre as jazz. This can be explained by the complexity of jazz to differentiate as a separate genre, as it is considered to be the foundation of many modern genres of music and almost each of these genres today, elements of jazz.  It should also be mentioned that for a more complete study of changes in the perception of various musical genres over time, multiple measurements need to be carried out in intervals of several years. 

However, it is hoped that this work will be continued and become one of the links in the chain of a large study. And yet, this work gives some idea of the problem of finding the mechanisms of perception of the value of music and its content.

Background

In modern society music takes a special place, though it plays an important and positive role in life of every person. But even the ancient philosophers described the positive therapeutic effect of music on people. Plato argued that it was sent to us by heaven ally in our request to bring order and harmony of mind. Followers of Pythagoras developed a technique of musical psychotherapy, which included a daily program of songs and musical pieces for the lira, which gave people courage in the mornings, and then relaxing during the day,  preparing people to peaceful sleep with pleasant and prophetic dreams. (Kivy 2002)

 Music had a representation of ancient tonic and restorative effect, because it was able to reunite the alienated individual in harmony with the Cosmos. Later, the problem of connection of music and the universe was worked by Newton, who saw in it the closest analogue of the ordered cosmos ( Kivy 2002)

Thus it is possible to determine the historical doctrine of the perception of music as a teaching about the relationship with the universe, but not it's connection with person's social life. This is primarily due to the fact that while the music still didn't take such a place in society as now, there wasn't such a variety of genres as we are seeing today. Nowadays any music critic can name at least half a dozen of different styles, trends and genres that exist today.

Thus, there is a question of finding patterns in perception. However, it should be noted that the mere perception of music has several aspects: socio-psychological aspect and the aspect relating to the impact on perception. Consequently, all studies on this topic see these two aspects, finding in each their own mechanisms and laws.

Any work of art can not be seen from the perspective of "pure" art, because when this product comes into the light, it becomes an integral part of the world around it and should be considered only in the context of this world, the reality of the times in which it is located. To do this you must define the place that music occupies in contemporary society, and analyze the perception of music in the context of its position in the outside world. Music has become an integral part of everyday human life, and now there is probably not a lot of people who during the day would not feel it's effect. As mentioned above, music nowadays has so many different genres and styles, each of which has a huge army of fans who give their sympathy to it, often completely rejecting all others. So how can we explain the popularity of a certain genre? What patterns of differences can be found in perception of, for example, rock music and pop? 

Unlike the majority of modern publications on the subject that mainly evaluative positive or negative effects of music on the audience, the purpose of this work is to draw attention to the factors of perception associated with the personality and personal meaning which the listener finds in a  musical work.

How can we trace the transfer of music perception in the perception of the world? In the perception of listeners all depends on the problem of unique individuality, because we have to deal with individuals, and hence the same genre of music can be perceived by different people quite differently. However, despite the fact that such a multiplicity of perceptions, not removable, however it is not infinite and if the totality of associations generated by a single genre, estimates that it receives, it is possible to trace the perspective of some general trends. (Adorno 2002)

The aim in this case is an attempt to trace the link between attitudes preferred genre and attitude to life, and not finding the installation mechanisms through which the listener and performer. How music can affect the formation of the a priori grid of values of dimension, which will influence the adoption of choice?

Methodology

Objective: Identify the relationship of values to the various musical genres and the factors affecting this relationship. 

Objectives: 

1) Compare features of the value content of various genres of music to different audiences. 

2) To trace the changes of the value content of various musical genres in different classrooms. 

Hypothesis 1 - Music in the minds of the audience has a peculiar's value range, which overlaps and varies depending on the musical genre. 

Hypothesis 2 - value range will vary depending on the audience. 

The study was conducted in various constituencies (by genres of music), affecting both men and women (50/50), the average age of all respondents is 27 years.

We used a technique known as "The method of the value spectrum". This technique was modeled on repertory grids and presents a list of 18 values with which people attribute to them a number of defined objects, follow these instructions: "Before you list of values. In the column on which is written LIFE place a check next to the values that you think are inherent in life, in the column on which written music place a check next to the values that are inherent in music, etc.

This technique is perfectly suited for studies of perception of different musical genres, and by drawing on previous work, we can try to hold a study to examine how and goal of this work is the identification of values related to a variety of musical genres and factors affecting it attitude. To achieve this goal it is necessary to solve some problems, such as: a comparison of features of the value content of various music genres in various classrooms; trace the change of the value content of certain genres have different audiences in a time warp. 

 Were interviewed audience about following genres: pop, art song, rock music and classical music. Subjects werre proposed a method of the value of the spectrum, where the objects were evaluated: a pop song, art song, rock music, classical music, life and music (as a phenomenon in general). 

Based on the survey results were compiled summary matrix for each respondent group. (Appendix 1).

Without a detailed qualitative analysis of these matrices can be noted similarities in the perception by audience of art song and rock music of the object "pop song". None of the interviewees acknowledged the presence of truth, perfection, completeness, units found a meaning in it, the need for uniqueness, self-sufficiency, beauty. But the majority noted the presence in pop music simplicity and ease. This similarity in estimates said about a certain parallel to the perception of this genre. 

The results of these matrices were subjected to quantitative analysis. As a result, we obtained the following materials. (Appendix 2)

Results of the research

The data can be interpreted as follows: 

- In the audience of art song the concept of "art song" and "rock music" correlate with the concept of "life", as well as among themselves, which can be interpreted as the perception of these two concepts are not as entertaining events, as well as directly related to real life on its value characteristics, and a similar attitude to both genres. This can be explained by some dissolution at the present time the author's songs in rock music - rock musicians, many perceived themselves are the authors of their songs, and do not sing songs by other composers, both vocal and istrumental bands in the 70-80th years.

 It should be noted negative correlation of rock music with the concept of "classical music". This can be explained by way of rock music as a non-academic genre that emerged in the present. 

In pop music audience's concept of "pop song" correlates with the concept of "music", that is the best stage shows the ratio of students to perceive music as such. For fans of this genre of music is first and foremost entertainment, and is particularly associated with light pop songs, had nothing to do with this notion of a life. It is also interesting to note the correlation of art song with the word "variety", which can be interpreted as the perception of art song as a certain element of modern pop music. This can be explained as a way of art song on the big stage, associated with the commercialization of the genre. 

The audience's concept of "rock music" is correlated with such concepts as "life", which again confirms the special attitude to the very rock as a genre has the same value characteristics as the real, life around. 

Correlation of the concept of "music" and "life" suggests a particular perception of music as a kind associated with life events, in a fairly fully displays the value of existing life. Relation to music with the audience very seriously, it is not a consumer-based leisure moments. Correlation of the same rock with the author's song once again confirms the assertion merging of genres, which happened on our stage. 

In classical music the term "rock music" also correlates with the concept of "art song", but it is worth noting a negative correlation of rock with the concept of "music". This suggests that listeners of classical music do not perceive the rock as a musical genre, but rather give it a few other unmusical sense, perhaps related to modern rock music venue at the scene, its shape and sound.

The immutability of the same assessment of the term "classical music" in all audiences (beauty, perfection, the lack of ease and simplicity) can be attributed to academic quality of this genre, it's slight change in the past time period, which is primarily due to non-profit nature of most mass of classical music.

Conclusion

In the work was made an attempt to understand the scantily studied the problem of finding mechanisms for perception of musical genres. The results indicate that a purely psychological approach to studying this problem is clearly not enough - you want a more thorough analysis that takes into account cultural studies, aesthetic and socio-economic aspects of this problem. Nevertheless, analysis of the results lead to the following conclusions: 

Musical genres have different value spectra, which determine their perceptions of audiences, both phenomena associated not only with art but with real life. For example, the audience of rock music and art song genres tend to think of these as directly reflecting the surrounding reality, and the audience pop song refers to it as a purely entertainment. 

Each audience has its own range's value for every musical genre, the life and music in general. Depending on the audience the value characteristics of genres changed, but also the concepts of "life" and "music". However, it should be noted virtually the same assessment of the audiences of art song and the rock music in the genre of pop music. Given also the similar ratio of these audiences to life, we can conclude a partial fusion of these genres on the modern stage. 

Invariance relationship to the genre of classical music is connected with academic and fairly stable situation classics in a changing music world. 

We can say that the assumption of dependence of the stability of the value content of a musical genre on the stability of the genre was confirmed.

Bibliography annotation

1. Bicknell, Jeanette, 2009, Why music moves us, Palgrave Macmillan

This book is a research in psychology, philosophy and anthropology about the influence of music. The author shows that different music can arise different feelings: sadness and tears in the years, smile and satisfaction, great euphoria. The music has the power to move people, to influence them. With the help of music people can express feelings and thoughts, show it to other people, despite the age or nationality. It is because music is a language that all people speak and understand. The author explains what listener can feel emotionally, physically and cognitively when listening to the music. And the conclusion of the author is that music is a social experience, that has a great power of influence on people.

2. Perret, Danielle, 2005, Roots of Musicality: Music Therapy and Personal Development, Kingsley Publishers

D. Perret writes and the close connection between music and human spirit. He tells readers about the music therapy, which is based on the power of music, that can energise and harmonise, and also can balance human spirit. Music can be considered as an expression of a person, so the author studies a certain connection between neuroscience and psychology and musical expression. He showed a therapeutic effect of music during the work with children with autism disorders. Also the author considers the close connection between life and music, as music is a mean of the expression and development of person's spirit.

3.   Wigram, Tony; Pedersen, Inge Nygaard; Bonde , Lars; 2002, A Comprehensive Guide to Music Therapy: Theory, Clinical Practice, Research and Training, Kingsley Publishers

This book is an overview of the field of music therapy, that can be useful for both professional doctors and general public. This book has a wide range of methods of research about the clinical outcomes of certain influence of music. It shows all theory, facts and ideas necessary to access and understand the field of music therapy. It also provides a detailed insight in the world of music therapy from an international perspective, to make the topic more multifaceted.

Crafts, Susan D,  Cavicchi, D,  Keil, C, 1993, My music: Explorations of music in daily life, Wesleyan

The book "My music: Explorations of music in daily life" explores the place and roles that music can play in lives of people. This book is a part of a project "Music in Daily Life Project", due to which a 150 people were asked to speak about the music in their life, about all the feelings, thoughts and emotions that it brings. The authors have collected a large number of interviews to show how people enjoy, experience, and use music. The book does not provide simple theoretical models, but the real examples and people's thoughts on the diverse role about the place of music in daily life.

DeNora, Tia, 2000, Music in everyday life, Cambridge University Press,

The book is a sociological study, based on conceptions and research of the music concept. It offers an original and new point on the social theory about the music as an influence on characters, social lives of people and their actions. Tia DeNora provides a cultural analysis of consumption of music, and also provides a series of ethnographic studies about the music as a constitutive feature of humans. The book provides theoretical concepts of psychological, sociological and sociolinguistic aspects of music's active role of social life of people.

DeNora, Tia, 2003, After Adorno: Rethinking Music Sociology, Cambridge University Press 

The book focuses on the theoretical studies that were raised by Theodor W. Adorno about the role of music in modern society, that is concept of musicology and sociology. Adorno argued about the music as a mean of influence on consciousness and a measurement of social influence and control. Tia DeNora continues these studies in musicology and sociology, showing their close connection. So the book is a study in music sociology, showing music as part of social life and a device of social influence of people.

Juslin, Patrik N,   Sloboda, John A, 2001, Music and emotion: Theory and research, Oxford University Press, USA

This book is a study of a link between emotions and music, that is considered from various perspectives and points of view. The position of emotional perception of music can be viewed a considerable one, and emotional aspects of music plays great role in musical and psychological studies. "Music and emotion: Theory and research" provides some new points in these studies, new interpretations and integrative views. It has a lot of aspects of the study: sociological and psychological, points in musicology, and also some biological and anthropological points of studies. The authors focuses on the emotional perception and consumption of music, show that place does emotions play in musicology, and how people are influenced by different emotions while listening to music.

Thompson, William Forde, 2008, Music, Thought, and Feeling: Understanding the Psychology of Music, Oxford University Press, USA

"Music, Thought, and Feeling: Understanding the Psychology of Music" is a pedagogical work in musical studies. It provides a wide research materials of the last 30 years about the music cognition, and an analytical materials on it. It explores the topics of psychology and neuroscience in intersection with music. It covers the most interesting questions of human perception of music, music and emotions. Also it has a scientific study about the effect of music on human brain with the help of neuroimaging techniques. This book has an important information on psychology of music, like psychological processes of composing and performing music, that are considerable from the psychological point of view.

Adorno, Theodor, 2002, Essays on music, University of Carolina Press

Th. Adorno provides essays on music, the principal aspects of music and musical life. The author's analysis and commentary of scholarship about the music, showing author's thinking on this topic. The author covers cultural and aesthetical questions of music, and also some literature aspects of music - that is an important study in musical sociology.

Kivy, Peter, 2002, Introduction to a philosophy of music, Oxford University Press, USA

"Introduction to a philosophy of music" is on a philosophy of music. It covers musical aesthetical views of all times, beginning from Plato thoughts and concepts, and up to modern view points on it. The book as well provides Peter Kivy's own influential views on the philosophy of music, his analytical analysis of the topic. It provides sophisticated and argumentative philosophical points of music, that makes this book one of the most well-argumentative one. The author clearly shows his own position on the most interesting and important issues, offers his personal introduction to the philosophy of music, showing really interesting and fascinating ideas.

Appendix 1

Author's song

Life

Music

Pop

Author's song

Classical music

Rock music

Good

11

4

1

13

3

8

Unity of opposites

6

3

2

7

2

10

Vitality

5

3

2

13

1

7

Maturity

1

4

2

0

7

0

Game

8

8

10

2

2

4

Truth

2

4

0

11

4

7

Beauty

6

6

2

4

10

3

Lightness

4

7

14

0

3

3

Necessity

16

4

1

15

4

10

Complitness

2

4

0

5

3

3

Order

1

2

0

2

5

2

Simplicity

1

2

18

5

1

4

Self-sufficiency

3

5

3

3

5

1

Meaning

5

3

0

12

8

9

Perfection

2

1

0

0

12

0

Justice

3

3

0

10

0

7

Uniqueness

8

3

0

9

4

4

Integrity

4

7

1

3

8

2

Pop music

Life

Music

Pop

Author's song

Classical music

Rock music

Good

14

10

10

10

10

2

Unity of opposites

9

5

2

2

4

7

Vitality

9

11

11

8

2

1

Maturity

4

8

5

5

4

1

Game

12

9

9

4

5

8

Truth

7

9

5

7

6

5

Beauty

10

11

12

5

12

2

Lightness

3

6

15

3

4

4

Necessity

16

8

5

3

5

0

Complitness

8

5

3

5

5

2

Order

4

3

2

3

7

4

Simplicity

4

6

14

7

0

2

Self-sufficiency

4

3

4

3

4

2

Meaning

12

7

9

13

8

9

Perfection

5

8

3

1

9

2

Justice

13

1

2

5

2

0

Uniqueness

9

5

4

9

8

7

Integrity

8

4

1

2

4

1

Rock music

Life

Music

Pop

Author's song

Classical music

Rock music

Good

13

6

4

11

6

12

Unity of opposites

11

3

0

4

1

12

Vitality

7

5

0

12

2

12

Maturity

0

4

1

3

11

1

Game

14

8

7

5

3

6

Truth

5

5

0

11

5

12

Beauty

7

6

0

2

13

7

Lightness

3

2

15

2

3

5

Necessity

14

7

2

8

5

11

Complitness

4

5

0

3

4

7

Order

5

2

3

5

7

4

Simplicity

4

1

15

4

0

5

Self-sufficiency

0

5

1

4

7

5

Meaning

12

6

1

12

4

14

Perfection

4

3

0

4

13

1

Justice

5

3

0

6

1

7

Uniqueness

9

8

1

11

7

13

Integrity

6

11

2

1

8

4

Classical music

Life

Music

Pop

Author's song

Classical music

Rock music

Good

8

9

6

6

7

3

Unity of opposites

8

3

1

1

1

8

Vitality

5

3

4

10

4

5

Maturity

1

5

1

4

2

2

Game

6

5

9

2

3

4

Truth

5

2

3

8

5

3

Beauty

5

10

1

3

10

2

Lightness

1

6

10

1

4

1

Necessity

8

9

2

6

3

4

Complitness

7

9

0

3

3

3

Order

2

3

2

2

4

4

Simplicity

4

5

14

5

2

3

Self-sufficiency

2

4

0

6

6

4

Meaning

10

2

2

9

6

9

Perfection

3

6

0

1

8

1

Justice

4

3

1

9

3

6

Uniqueness

8

4

2

7

6

3

Integrity

7

5

1

2

5

2

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