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The main objective of this report is to define and analyze the changes to the nature of work in Ningbo and Singapore. It explains management approaches which have occurred in Ningbo at past 50 years(from 1960s to 2010s) in section 2. The report also provides detail analysis in the areas of Leadership, organization structure and quality of life in Ningbo in section 3. The 4th section examines the situation in Singapore in the respective areas. In 5th section, it provides comparative analysis between Ningbo and Singapore. In 6th section, it is predicts the potential changes in Ningbo in the next 10 years, and followed by a summary of the project.
The Evolution of Management Approaches in Ningbo
Ningbo is a seaport city in the northeast of Zhejiang province, which land area is 9,816 square kilometers. The total population is 5.7102 million. The history of Ningbo can be traced back to 7,000 years ago. At present, Ningbo with unique advantage of its port, is achieving new progress in the process of the construction of a modern international port city(Ningbo China,2009).
In 1960s , People's Republic of China has established more than a decade. 1956-1966, was comprehensive building the period of socialism. This improved the relationship between China and USA, and beneficial to the exchange and development of all aspects of the economy, trade, science and technology, culture, financial of both countries. There is an imbalance in regional economic development in China, the southeastern coastal cities are more developed than inland cities. After Reform and opening up in 1978 (Evolution after Reform and Opening up, 2008). Ningbo was one of the first coastal open cities in 1984(Ningbo: China coastal open cities,2003). This promoted rapid economic development, and formed a relatively complete industrial system initially. Ningbo Port, an ancient port of the 1200 years of history, since the reform and opening up, a big step from the ancient to the modern, to the world. This is because of the Excellent port conditions is the country's precious resources. In 1989, the state for the port of Ningbo Beilun Port become one of the mainland China, focusing on the development and construction of the four international deepwater transshipment port.
With the rise of industrial competitiveness and the basic conclusion of the WTO transition period, China entered a new stage of opening up. These created an appropriate external environment, absorbing foreign advanced technology and management experience. The government also strongly support the hospitality industry this encouraged many international brand hotel enter into China market. Managers began to pay more attention on innovation in order to conform with the dramatic changes of market.
Situational Analysis of Ningbo
This report discuss the following 3 major areas in the study of people, organization and society:
Quality of lifestyle
Leadership is not only about the leader, it is personal quality of leader, a way of thinking, practical experience and leading method. Leadership is a relationship through which one person influences the behaviour or actions of ither people( Laurie J., 2007).
Leadership is an important factor to management, which helps to improve the work efficiency and to achieve organizational goals by motivates the employees with rewards. For example, give employee a holiday, who done well in his job situation and made profit for company, or money award for outstanding staff. And also Creating subordinates' confidence, build good work environment to improve the work quality. Reconciling personal interests with organizational goals are important to a good leader as well.
There are four main types of leadership style by the manager: tell, sells consults, joins(Laurie J.Mullins,2007). Last year, Ningbo government was focused on some new aspects, including expansion the demand of consumer, adjust the industrial structure, promote the urban and rural development, strength the infrastructure, improve the government's own construction and others. For example, actually in China, it is difficulty and high cost of getting medical treatment and receiving an education. Therefore, the goal and task of the health work is continue to achieve the "not too expensive to see a doctor". Ningbo Municipal Health Bureau announced the eight municipal hospital in the aspect of use of medical on their website in the fourth of 2012.
In order to control the costs unreasonable growth effectively, the medical institutions to continue to improve the management, standardize the diagnosis and treatment behavior and reduce the cost of medical. ã€
The collection of traditions, values, policies, beliefs, and attitudes that constitute a pervasive context for everything we do and think in an organization(McLean and Marshall,1993 ).
Ningbo as a coastal port city, its cultural characteristics is diversify. The city culture is consist of many different parts, the port culture is one of the most necessary part. The port culture dredges up history and memory, it needs people to gather, to pay attention, to find and taste. In this way, the unique cultural style of Ningbo will not be flooded by the wave of modernization of international. And the city recoupment in Ningbo earlier, "Ningbo Bang" is famous at home and abroad(Mining and remodeling of the cultural connotation of the port city,2008). Ningbo has a long history, as early as 7,000 years ago, the ancestors
multiplied on this land, and created a brilliant Hemudu culture. As early as the
4th century BC, Ningbo was the fortress of Ancient Yue State Water barracks ,
which is the oldest port in the country. In the Tang Dynasty, Ningbo was the nation's major foreign trade port. In Song Dynasty, Ningbo Port and Guangzhou, Quanzhou was the three major trading port in China. Ningbo was the starting point and channel of "Marine Silk Road" and "Porcelain Road" . Ningbo was also the one of the five treaty ports after Opium War.
In modern history, the emerging industrial and commercial economy
The development of the port city of Ningbo has left a rich cultural relics. The characteristics of culture were spread from generation to generation. "Integrity, pragmatic, open, innovation" are concentrated expression of Port cultural connotation, this is effect local people deeply. The 21st century is the century of the city, as urban development, the competition between cities and urban globalization of competition is increasing. The city's core competitiveness is based on the economic strength of the city.
3.3) Quality of lifestyle
Quality of lifestyle¼ˆQOL) refers to the general well-being of individuals and societies. This is different from standard living, which is based on income. QOL include not only wealth and employment, but also the built environment, physical and mental health, education, recreation and leisure time, and social belonging. (Quality of life.2013).
According to the Chinese City Life Quality Report released on June 16 in 2012, the top 10 cities where residents are most satisfied with their quality of life are: Changchun, Hangzhou, Shijiazhuang, Jinan, Hefei, Fuzhou, Ningbo, Qingdao, Xiamen, and Yinchuan (Beijing, Guangzhou lack quality of life,2013). From this survey shows that Ningbo is the NO. 7 in the total 35 cities. The quality of lifestyle is measured from many aspects, including residents' income, consumption structure, the quality of living, traffic environment, the quality of the population, social security, health care, life and health, public safety, human living environment, culture and leisure, employment opportunities.
Quality became the core content of development strategies in Ningbo, the government is strict on Product quality, quality, quality of service and Environmental Quality( paint quality city,2012).
Most people think the living condition has improved in the past five years, the citizens all agree with the opinion that the city is overall harmony, people's happiness index up to 98.8%. This is a socio-economic survey Ningbo Center in the city's 11 cities or states, 2200 valid samples organizations to carry out the "harmonious Ningbo masses, perception survey concluded.
This is because of in terms of economic income, the working environment, the level of consumption, health care, living conditions, living conditions, welfare status have changed to a better degree. On the other hand, the degree of social civilization is improving all as well. There is only 5% think that the social civilization is not that good. Although the city is more safe than other cities, there still have some "theft" problem, and it is becoming the most important and the most urgent need.
Situational Analysis of Singapore
Singapore is a Southeast Asian island city-state which made up of 63 islands. By end of June 2012, the island's population stood at 5.31 million, The country is highly urbanised with more land is being created for development through land reclamation.
Singapore government is system of parliamentary. It adopted the Westminster model after it gained independence on 9 August 1965(government,2012).
The major governmental bodies are the president, it has three branches: the executive, the legislature, elections and the judiciary. Each parliament has 5 years 'life' from the date of its first sitting after a General Election. General Elections must be held within 3 months of the dissolution of Parliament (Singapore government, 2011). The People's Action Party is the largest political party in Singapore, Singapore Parliament has been controlled since 1957. The power of the state is centralized. However, in daily life, people can not feel the exist of the party. That is to say, the People's Action Party is the elite party, it is called the "visible hand", because it is recessive. The party is integrated into the society.
Singapore has won the praise that come from different countries and different people around the world. Because of its high level economic development, a clean and efficient government, and clean environment for living. What's more, sometimes, the leader of Singapore will referred to the East Asian values and Confucian culture that comes from China. It is undoubted that its Asian neighbors, such as China, feel close to Singapore.
The culture of Singapore is diversity,to a certain context, it is because of its special history and racial diversification.
In 1963, Singapore and Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak built up Federation of Malaysia. This only lasted two years. In the year 1965, Singapore became the independent Republic of Singapore. Singapore was once a popular free trading port in the 18th century which attracted many Chinese immigrant from China, Indian from India sub-continent, Malay from the Malay peninsular and Eurasian from the various part of Europe who came to trade in Singapore or work in Singapore and later settle down at this cosmopolitan island(Singapore culture, 2012). Therefore, 74.2% of the resident population are Chinese, 13.2% are Malay and 9.2% are Indian, and other minorities, such as Arab, Armenian and Jewish descendants. Because of multicultural and multiracial society, Singapore celebrates various of festivals. Such as Hari Raya Haji, Chinese New Year, Qing Ming Festival , Mid-Autumn Festival , Deepavali and Christmas ,etc. That is to say, once you live in Singapore, you would experience different culture that comes from different countries and religions.
Singapore is a religious nation of immigrants, and the civil beliefs of Buddhism, Christianity and Islam, the government attaches great importance to the different religious and personal beliefs. There is a large number of of Hinduism temples, Christian churches and Islamic mosques, some of them has historical value.
Singapore food can also be a good indication of the cultural differences in Singapore. For example, the Hawker Centre in Singapore, some stalls selling Chinese food, but a mix of Malaysian ingredients. Singapore cuisine has a unique attraction. What's more, there have delicious food come from other countries. For example, you can enjoy various Chinese food in Chinatown, there are many style of Chinese food that come from different areas in China.
4.3 Quality of lifestyle
According to the Mercer Quality of Living Survey, it ranks 221 cities in total. The evaluated factors including political, economic, environmental, personal safety, health, education, transportation and other public service factors. Singapore was placed at number 25. And the urban infrastructure construction Singapore was placed at number 1 in total 221 cities in global. In 2010, Singapore was ranked as the " Happiest country in Asia", 95% of resident in Singapore appropriate the clean, safe and efficient society. From this, the quality of lifestyle in Singapore is very high.
The political is stable in Singapore, the highest goal of the government is the culture: authoritarian, pragmatic, rational and legalistic(Introduction to Singapore's political system,2013). Under the People's Action Party (PAP), which is the most successful political party in Singapore. It possesses a distinct political. The power structure is highly centralized. Although Singapore has the multi-racial and multi-religious character, they are under fair treatment in education and health.
Singapore is the second most competitive economy in the world according to the World Economic Forum's 'Global Competitiveness Report 2011-2012. According to the Heritage Foundation's '2012 Index of Economic Freedom' Singapore is the second freest economy in the world. The business environment in Singapore is competitive and corruption-free. Singapore port is one of the busiest port in the world. The imports and exports trade is prosperous. All in all, Singapore is a modern, westernized country, which is highly safety and has low crime rates. This creates a good environment for living, and it is easy to adjust to when relocating from elsewhere. The other impact is the high quality of transport, infrastructure and health facilities. This make it more convenience for people to go around. The clean, green and healthy environment is really good for people to live in.
Comparative analysis between Singapore vs Ningbo
From the above, it is clear that Singapore and Ningbo are different in many areas. Not only the population, and area, economy, the pace of development ,but also the leadership, the culture and the life style. The table below shows some details of the differences between Singapore and Ningbo.
710 square kilometers
9,816 square kilometers
GDP per capita(2011)
Strait of Malacca
Table 1: the comparison between Singapore ans Ningbo
Strait of Malacca is the no.3 port in the world, Singapore is the hub of the Straits of Malacca, it is the world's third-largest cargo throughput port. While, in Ningbo, the Zhoushan port is the world's second-largest cargo throughput port. Wha;s more, the Ningbo port is the number six in the world. In 2010. The throughput of Zhoushan port is 100 million tons more than Singapore. As for the pace of development of Ningbo, the average growth rate of development is 12%, by forecast, it may keep growth in the next ten years.
From the leadership, the leadership of Singapore, as a country, it has a relatively complete management system. There are some positive points that should be adopted and improved in Ningbo government management system. For example, the law system, the fiscal system and personnel training.
In culture, Singapore is a multicultural country, it has various festival because of its various race and different religion. It is deeply influenced by Chinese culture, however, it is also a western country since it was colony of British. In this area, Ningbo attract many foreigners with its developed tourism industry. And it is getting international and modern.
The quality of lifestyle in Singapore and Ningbo are both good. Ningbo is the top 10 cities where residents are most satisfied with their quality of life in China. Singapore was placed at number 25 in global countries. The infrastructure in Singapore is the best in global, which should be learned and adopted by Ningbo and other countries.
Predictive changes in Ningbo for the next 10 years.
According to the past ten years developing situation, which developing growth rate is 12%, the developing in next 10 years may keep growth. Ningbo has a huge potential of development.
In 2010, The Ningbo government proposed to building "smart city", after proposing this idea, it has made a good start. In 2011, Ningbo awarded the "2011 China City Information Technology Excellence".
As a port city, with the start of Ningbo - Zhoushan Port integration process, it will accelerate enhance the comprehensive strength and competitiveness of Ningbo Port, expand the space for future growth. It is important to strengthen the construction of culture and the rule of law, to enhance the level of development of urban and rural and regional, to enhance the overall competitiveness of the industry, to enhance the Harbour Bridge and driving functions, enhance the degree of internationalization of the city, and to enhance the capacity for sustainable development, improve the quality of life of the people, and strive to modern international porturban construction to a new stage.
Ningbo government is planning to build a smart city, which construction total investment of 407 billion RMB, the construction of 30 projects 87 items, covering the applications of smart logistics, smart manufacturing system and software research and development to promote industrial base, the wisdom of equipment and product R & D and manufacturing base in six major industrial base-construction, as well as the wisdom of infrastructure construction, residents information application capacity-building and others. The smart infrastructure are changing gradually. For example, The city has basically completed the transformation of fiber, of which 1.17 million of family have succeed used fiber , the rate is 52%.
It is predicted that in the next 10 years, Ningbo could become a modern international port city. Its comprehensive competitiveness is increasing, the income of family also increased, especially the lower income family.
The report defined and analyzed the changes to the nature of work in Ningbo from three aspects: leadership, culture and lifestyle. And also analyze Singapore in these three aspects. After comparing, it is clear that Singapore and Ningbo are both better developed, they have good prospects for development. However, every coin has two sides, there still have shortages for both two cities to improve. Such as the leadership of Ningbo government, the government officials have to be more probity and the management system should be more comprehensive. The culture of Ningbo is becoming international and various, this is similar to Singapore. As for the lifestyle, Singapore's lifestyle is the best in Asia, Ningbo is the top ten in China. This means that both city have better environment and people live a happy life than the cities which have lower quality of lifestyle.