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At the beginning of the 21st century it becomes clear that humanity is evolving toward an expansion of the linkages and interdependence among nations, peoples and their cultures. This process involved various spheres of public life all over the world. Today it is impossible to find the ethnic communities that have not experienced the effects of both on the part of other cultures, and the broader social environment prevailing in the various regions and the world. This is reflected in the rapid growth of cultural exchanges and direct contacts between public institutions, social groups, social movements and individual choices of different countries and cultures.
An increased interaction of cultures and people makes it particularly urgent question of cultural identity and cultural differences. The cultural diversity of contemporary humanity is increasing, and its constituent nations are finding more money to maintain and develop their integrity and cultural character. This tendency to preserve the cultural identity confirms a common pattern, consisting in the fact that humanity is becoming increasingly interconnected and unified, does not lose its cultural diversity.
In the context of these trends of social development is very important to be able to determine the cultural characteristics of peoples to understand each other and achieve mutual recognition.
When becoming parties of any kind of cross-cultural contacts, people interact with other cultures that are often significantly different from each other. Differences in language, cuisine, dress, social norms, attitudes towards their work often make these contacts difficult and even impossible. But this is only a private problem of intercultural contacts. The main causes of their failures are beyond the obvious difference, they are the differences in the perception of the world, relationship to the world and to other people.
The main obstacle to the successful solution of this problem lies in the fact that we perceive other cultures through the prism of own culture, so our observations and conclusions are limited. With great difficulty we understand the meaning of words, acts, actions that are not typical for us.
It is considered that the overcoming of ethnocentrism - is the main task of intercultural communication learning. Solution of this problem can only be a result of preparation to the dialogue of cultures. Dialogue of Cultures - a way of understanding another culture, which is only at the presence of another culture takes on an individuality and identity. Dialogue gives true meaning to the existence of cultures that lose individuality in a vacuum.
Dialogue of Cultures - is primarily a desire of people to better know and understand each other, regardless of whether they live in the opposite parts of the world or on the same street. This is such a communication in which diversity is not perceived as a threat but as a positive factor in the development and existence of their own culture, enriching
his spiritual world.
This is also a rejection of negative stereotypes about members of other cultures. Perceptions of the typical features of other nations depend on both their characteristics and the diversity of forms and contacts with them. In this case the result of contacts are not only the stereotypes, but also prejudices. Psychology examines the prejudice as the installation of prejudice and hostility to anything without sufficient grounds for such an attitude or knowledge. With regard to ethnic groups or cultures, prejudice appears in the form set bias or hostility to the representatives of these groups, their cultures and to any facts connected with their activities, behavior and social status. A major factor in the occurrence of prejudice is the inequality in social, economic and cultural conditions of different ethnic communities.
Thus, we can conclude that the individual cultures of the people refers to the stereotype:
- Verbal behavior
- Non-verbal behavior (body language, gestures, body movements)
- National character and ideas about it by other nations
- Social situations, behavior in social situations
- Features of life and everyday life of the nation
- National cuisine
- Religious and national ceremonies.
So, the behavior of each person is individual in various ways, but despite this, we can confidently assert that human behavior in any society are typed, that is, it obeys the rules, worked out in the community.
Stereotypes exist in any society but especially important to emphasize that a set of stereotypes in each of them is specific. The regulation of human behavior, in the limits of their native cultural and linguistic space, is strongly affected by cultural stereotypes, which are beginning to assimilate it from the time when a person becomes aware of a certain part of the ethnic group, part of a particular culture.
Intercultural communication experience
Those for whom the term "culture of communication" and "speech etiquette" are not empty words, it would be interesting to get acquainted with the peculiarities of verbal and nonverbal behavior of residents of different countries without the knowledge of which it is impossible to fully understand and appreciate their own culture. Language and speech formulas - an important part of national culture, they represent a storehouse of folk practices, customs, traditions, lifestyles and living conditions. So before you start talking about the features of manifestations of linguistic etiquette in international communication, must be at least a glimpse of habits, rituals and conventions of different peoples.
Being in a foreign country, you need to know the inconsistencies of verbal and nonverbal behavior of different cultures. The differences begin with the very first moment of communication - greeting. For example, when meeting with a lady Pole automatically kisses her hand, and the Austrian only says: "kiss your hand." But even if the inhabitants of a united Europe can not always understand each other, what can we say about cases where there are two great civilizations - western and eastern.
Chinese, Japanese and Indian, of course, shake the outstretched hand when greeting a European, but for them it is unusual.
When a Chinese sees for the first time a European, strolling arm in arm with a lady and even kissing her, he will have a cultural shock from the obscenity of such behavior.
In Chinese hotels, furnished with modern European furniture at the entrance is certainly a traditional screen, through which allegedly can not enter hell, always going straight.
In Japan, there is no screens at the entrances, but going into the house and even a restaurant, it is necessary to leave shoes at the door.
Chinese laws of hospitality ordain owner to bring a gift to his guest the thing that caused his admiration; Europeans are not burdened with such obligations, and simply enjoy the interest of the guest.
European man who was visiting and wanting to show how tasty the dishes were, enjoy food and try not to leave on a plate a single piece. Chinese, to show that he was hungry, never touches the bowl of dry rice, filed in late afternoon.
There are number of differences associated with religious beliefs: for example, at the entrance to the temple of Christian takes a hat, and a Jew puts on it. The Chinese, being in mourning dress up in white clothes, the Europeans - in the black.
As for me, over the past months I had a lot to communicate with students from Eastern countries, especially from China. While attending various cultural events, I came to the team of students. I have held many discussions with representatives of various representatives of Chinese society. I met with the Chinese in different circumstances - in hotels, official receptions, the streets, on public transport, discotheques, or simply in a relaxed, cozy atmosphere at home.
As students in any other country, the Chinese students do not live only studies: they are interested in sports, discos, they try to keep abreast of new works of literature and the arts, fashion.
The Chinese are taking foreigners such as we are, showing kindness, openness, respect and hospitality. First, they always face with a dislike of Europeans and Americans, but behave very openly, frankly. For example, I just met the person in the subway, and he tells the details of his personal life, said something intimate, may complain, ask for advice.
I must say that Chinese have no tradition of Western 'secular communication'. Speaking on the general topic is not accepted, because conversation is perceived as vapid as the reluctance of the interlocutors to be frank, as a waste of time. The ceremony dating is not important for the Chinese, they immediately seek to pass the barrier of sincerity, talk 'from the heart' and expect the same from a partner. Therefore, an informal dialogue with the Chinese has a very personal nature: they show sincerity by other means: ask questions, which, in their view, appropriate to the situation in terms of their socio-cultural norms.
Conversation in Chinese culture - is a means of expression. Person a lot of talks about himself, about his children, always expresses his opinion and his own assessments, wants to be heard and understood. As a rule, the Chinese does not want to be seen to be in the center of conversation, flashes knowledge, competence, wit, answer all questions. In the dispute the Chinese shows the desire to know the views of the interlocutor, the desire for consensus, to compromise. Chinese man shows his understanding, listening attentively to his companion, shows attention and interest of supporting cues with facial expressions and gestures (eg nodding or shaking his head, raises eyebrows, widely opened eyes, shrugs, etc).
Human communication - is the product of millions of years of evolution, it is incorporated both genetic and due to our affiliation to any group, sex, age, personal experience, education and many other factors. Despite these differences, people in all cultures come together in a variety of relationships in the context of which they meet, exchange ideas, make some actions, etc. The meaning of each act is often important to understand because it does not always lie on the surface, but often hidden in traditional notions of what is normal, that in different cultures and socio-cultural groups also vary.
Increased interest in the problems of intercultural communication in the modern world is obvious. Differences in culture should not be exaggerated, but it remains an important factor in communicating. Therefore, the creation of optimal conditions for learning cross-cultural and linguistic competence and awareness of national cultural differences is important for everyone.