National and organizational culture

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National culture is standing for the values, attitudes, and religions believes that people has in a territory. This particular territory has his national culture to identify its self from other territories.

When we talk about organizational culture we said that is a group of people that is part of an organization and held same attitudes, values and beliefs. This organization has to coordinate his cultural issue with the principal subject of the organization. In a company, the organizational culture has to be coherent with the course of the business to coordinate all believes and behavior of the company employees to guaranty the success of the company. As equal than national culture, the organizational culture is used to created an identity of the organization, this help to remark his differences from other group that maybe have the same cultural structure.

Knowing the organizational culture of a group can be very useful, it gives to the people real motivation and commitment with the group and most important build a focus goal.

In other words culture is about how the organization work to organizes all its labor force; starting with its actions, beliefs, and rules to make up the culture of a company.

There is six types of organizational culture and they are:

  • Power culture: control by one person, the key of the organization and who roles it.
  • Role culture: is coordinated by roles, each person has a role in the organization and it has to deal with it. This is the most popular in the organization.
  • Task culture: is a separate team organized to complete a determinant task or issue.
  • Person culture: it's commonly found in charities and non profits organization. The focus of the organization is a particular individual.
  • Forward and backwards looking culture: forward looking culture is welling to receive the perspective of all of its employees and costumer with propose to change and move its cultural attitudes. The backward looking culture are slow and don't like the risky changes.

Do you think there is a corporate culture in every organization?

No, I think that only the well established company has a corporate culture, for example there are some organization that are not identify globally as a unique corporative culture and it modify depending in where is established the organization.

infiormation gathered from: in theory about organizational culture.

Expatriate Assignment And Over Sea Experiences.

The expatriate assignment is when a individual is assignment to work with the company in another country. These activities or requirement are done when a new branch is arriving to a new territory and needs direction from someone who knows the company methodology.

For this methodology there are different reasons to go in an expatriate assignment, they are for career development, for transference of cultural skills, to see new competencies to take back to the company or for industrial proposes.

When someone is selected to go as an expatriate, the company has to think about the economic implication to start with the project; they most see very clear the benefits of doing an expatriate assignment. But not only the company is observing its benefits, the person most understand the consequences of taking the assignment. For example if the person is well living in its country, and when he say the “go head” with the assignment, he might not realize that with the salary that he is going to earn it is not enough to live as well as he use to.

Another problem can be that possibility of a reject by the family of the person, who might not go if their family disagrees with it.

And additional issue will be to understand the law of the new country, language, in order to minimized the risk

To avoid problems with the family, the company usually gives more benefits than just economic ones. They can offer studies for children's, health insurances, rent paid, furniture, etc.

But in order to complete the cycle process adequate the company has to build a plant to repatriate the person who finish the assignment. This issue can be another problem that company cannot controlee, even thinking in the possibility of losing his employee who might not want to go back

Migrants Workers

What a migrant worker is? A person working as a foreign, in another nation.

Staring with this statement we can discover some problems or the most frequent problem that a migrant worker might have at trying to do its job.

The first and most common problem is the adaptation to the new country; this issue is mostly to see because they are treating as illegal so most of them are rejected for work, for friendship, and for behaviors. For this reason is that most migrant workers are likely to seem with other migrant workers from the same country, or region or even language.

Another big problem will be the family or the concept of family, because most of the migrant workers has to leave their families behind. Another common problem is the treatment of the nation to these workers, they don't have the same benefits as the real citizens but they have to pay the same taxes, and this is because without a legal status in the foreign country they are exposed to the abuse of work.

with abuse of work convection are likely to appear fighting for the human right, especially the ones who care most about the family. But even this convection can stop the big migration of workers to a big city. This issue won't help the UN organization for international rights to improve in the searching for the implementation of the human rights on the migrant worker.

But everything is not just bad information about migrant workers. For example in a country la UK, the inflation could be very big because the earning average of the British borne are very high what will make inflation growth very quickly; migrants make the inflation sustainable with lower salaries that measure the economy in a flat way.

Most of the reason for people to migrate to another country to work is for economies issue, but security and political reason are been reasonable as well. For example most of the Mexican going to USA is for economic problems, but a lot of people from Venezuela are leaving it country for political reasons.

¿Do you think the Points System in Canada is meant to protect the country's sovereignity?, or ¿is it just a deliberated form of discrimination? ¿why?

I think the Point System is a way to protect the sovereign of Canada. This is because the natal born rate is decressing and a nation without people will desapear. But even moer worst than that is to lose the identity of the country. So the Canadians want to survive with new people but with their cultural history, behavior, belives, etc; that is way this filter to shoes a person to give these benefits to live in Canada are so mesure and for mi isn't descriminatin at all. It is an intelligent way to preserv a part of history of the canedians, and most important to preserve the country.

Exploring Diversity.

In these days, the world is growing fast and globalization is more notable in our society, and the diversity has showing that is a fact that are welling to stay in our lives. This tendency is not only for the developed countries, now a day is for every country in the world from the most developed one to the poorest country who need new ideas to emerge at globalization.

For countries like USA, England, Spain, Canada, and others the diversity is more useful in the common workers, like the guy owner of the liquor store, and the women talking to you on the phone offering now products. And for undeveloped countries the diversity it's most likely to seem in chief executives, students, and companies of foreign investment. But it is not a fact that this statement is useful in each country, the diversity can be show in a company, most of them multinational company whose all ready understand the importance of diversity in the companies.

One of the facts that might helped this diversity growth faster was the technology and the communication around the world that make it easier to interact humans been from different countries in different places.

This diversity issue has made companies to understand the helpful of the diversification in the company staff, the new ideas, more solution to different problems, and quickly to understand the words needs not only the people needs.

This tendency will never change and in a future very soon we all are going to be together as blood brother with no diffraction on colors, religion, and believes, we will be the earth citizens.

¿Do you think the entry and integration of new members to the European Union are processes that promote diversity? Or, on the contrary, ¿strive to homogenize the European Society?

Yes, the integration of countries in a specific region or group or countries helps to develop more the diversity of the community. The new entry of a different culture in the organization helps to growth even more the diversity of the country region. There will be more traveling between these countries, and more foreign students in de European Union, the jobs will transfer state thou state and more specially the culture will travel with the citizens.

The companies that are located in Europe will have to force to hired new employees to the companies in other to understand quickly the need of the new regions.

In the other hand the person who thinks that this process of the European Union is to homogenize the community are wrong. The successful of the integration of this particularly community is to understand the difference between them, between the governments, religions, believes economic issue, and behaviors; with this pillar they already had billed a great relation between Europeans.

The facts that show this statement is good are the people who live in other Europeans countries different from their born states. They are living in other places but their cultural needs travel with them.

Publicado por Sebastian Hinestroza en 23


China is one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations. It is viewed as the source of many major inventions and it is the most populous country in the world.It has a very rich culture and it is very important to understand it when you are going to deal with them.

There are 4 important topics to take into account at the moment of dealing with a Chinese person:

1. Agrarism: They still leave in the rural areas working with agriculture. They always work as a group trying to help each other. For Chinese people is very important to live in harmony.

2. Confucianism: it is not a religion but more a doctrine than belief it maintained that a society organized under a benevolent moral code would be always successful, stable and safe of danger.

3. Pictographic language: Chinese people learn to memorize thousands of pictorial characters since they are children due to their alphabet that has pictures instead of letters. This makes them have a holistic processing of information.

4. Wariness of foreigners: Due to the violent history of attacks.

There are also 8 elements that characterized the Chinese negotiation and if you take them into account at the moment of a negotiation it will make things easier :

1. Guanxi : personal connections are vey important.

2. Zhongiian ren: distrust characterize meetings with strangers.

3. Shehui Dengji: social status is very important.

4. Renji hexie: it is very important the harmonious relations in business.

5. Zhengti guannian: they think as a group not as an indiviual.

6. Jiejian: Focus on saving results.

7. Mianzi: A person reputation and social standing rest on saving face.

8. Chiku nailao: They care a lot about ethic.

Chinese people negotiate and run organizations with a blend of three elements: A Maoist bureaucrat, a Confucian gentleman and a Sun Tzu- like strategy

1. Maoist bureaucrat: gives first priority to China's national interests and never separates business from politics.

2. Confucian gentleman: Behaves on the basis of mutual trust and benefit and seeks cooperation and win-win solutions.

3. Sun Tzu-like strategy: “the Art of War” what he says in his book can be applied to the business. Competitive orientation.

Finally it is important to highlight that it is very important to have a good relation when you are having business with Chinese people because it makes them trust you which is the most important think for them in a negotiation. Chinese people have a long term orientation which means they care in long term relations. So if you have a good relation from the begging you start your negotiation winning something.

Ethnography Research

Ethnography is social science research methodology that use personal experiences and include the participation to have a better studies techniques. Its main objectives is to understand the cultural and language in a specific organization, looking for historical behaviors, observation, a lot of interview, documentation; all this with the point to understand the society.

The most relevant proceed of this science its o introduce them to the study, to see different aspects such as knowledge in a organization, behavior and believes of regular persons and human experiences in a very close method.

The ethnography has to focus on the inherent cultural distinction that has the identity of the particular group that are been study. The representation of a native person in the cultural group its important to predetermine whish are the changes, the establish values and the projection to the future.

If we can think to compare an easy way to identify the ethnography studies, we can see that is just the approach of every one to new people that can be done every day in our lives. If we want to know or meet someone we try to understand their need, values, cultural behavior and his presentation. These are the methods they use to research on the ethnography of a organization.

But the proposes of the ethnography research in the business industry is to take advantage of it, by use it for more efficient work in the organization, more ideas to creates products, problem solution looking from different point of view. If a company match to handle the ethnographic diversity it could be a wonderful job in the industry.

Managing Diversity

As we had talked about diversity, its components like age, religion, gender, etc; argue about its pro and cont, we might talk about how to manage the diversity in our organization.

The principal concept of managing diversity is to recognize that there are differences and they have between the person who integrates the organization, and these differences might cause problems that can be resolves. if the manage is very useful and effective you can take advantage of it by selecting the most capable person to work with you, tray to find the better place to get the lowest cost, manage time most specific in period of short time, you can use diversity to see different way to solve problems inside the organization; all these statement are focusing in market issue, if the organization can focus on managing it own diversity they can see the diversity of the market very easy, and apply different solution to the market problems, seeing from different points of view.

If put ourselves in a cosmopolitan city, like New York, London, Paris, Sao Pablo, L.A, etc, we will see that these cities are full of foreign people and have to deal with managing diversity every day of their lives; this is because the term of manage diversity isn't only for the companies. If you are a citizen of one of these cities you have to understand that different cultures are around you neighborhood, the skin of the people is different, problems are solve in several way and you have to give some space to the new inquilines to try to mange you live in you own country in a easy way. But in the other hand they took a lot of benefits from these cases, they have growth in cultural behavior, and has the possibility to taste the world without leaving its own city, and most important is that they all ready learn to deal with the problems in a million different ways.

In merchandise it can work to use these diversity ideas of the employees to project and idea for the entire world.

¿Is diversity management at IBM a source of competitive advantage? ¿why?

I think that IBM is a perfect sample of what managing diversity it's about. They has focus to understand that they market are divided by different groups who has different needs, and the treat them like each one is special and to reach this point of treatment the company has to look what their costumer need. So the hardest way but most efficient was to crated different assignment to their employees from their differences. This attitude make the more advantage from the competition, just because they have all ready specialist working in different jobs, who knows the need of the special group of customer. But all this is useful if at the end all the differences com only one team who fight for the very good of the company.

Do you think the IBM case reflects a strong organizational commitment to diversity? ¿why?

According to the reading we can say that IBM it's compromise to introduce a manage diversity in its company. Since they apply the diversity focus on the company the organization and cultural manage has been more effective to help IBM to growth and be successful as it is right now. They believe that there were not equals opportunities for everyone, just special opportunities to each group. Even do this is not an easy process the deal with it and now they want it to stay as long as the diversity is still around them.

The “Korean Miracle”.

There are some factors that made Korea become a better country with stronger economy; One of the most important (Personally, I think is the key one) is that they changed from poor country to industrialized one, and then it let improve the quality of the products offered. Another factor was the increasing of the international market share, this because the government changed international politics. And the other factors came because of the mix of the above ones: The economy had an accelerated growth and then they could offer more qualified jobs.

It is good to remember that Korean liberated from Japan in 1945, after 35 years of being a colony; in 1950, after the war they started the reconstruction with United States help; but finally they got economically auto sufficient with an occidental influence.

To grow, Korea develop a long term strategies; passing from an agricultural economy to an industrialized one; trading with other countries helped a lot to diversified and expand markets; and finally the creation of special conglomerates call Chaebols who flow the cash in the biggest businesses.

First, government expanded credits; what made a gap between those that used and those that didn't take it. The Chaebol started to make scale industrial economies, which had a great impact on the economy.

The Japanese Secret

Japan was quickly influenced by western customs after the lost the WWII.

Together with the embracement of the corporate values, Japanese companies reached economies of scales which gave them a cost advantage in a several products; and at the same time, they were (and still) always looking to add value to the products they made in order to maximize profits; in this order, they increase market share as part of their growth strategy. Japanese companies look for the supplier relationship as they also try to get closer to customers on order to get feedback and satisfy them.

Japan developed a powerful conglomerate called ZAIBATSU since the Meiji Era. It started giving privileges to the family enterprises but then afterwards it is made of the most powerful Japanese companies.

In conclusion, Asian Management has a lot of things in common, and the way how economies developed are very similar but there are still different aspects that made each Asian economy different from the others, such as the strong or weak western influence. I think that between each region there is a line to follow up that help countries to structure their main strategies.

Korean Management Styles

I think that they will continue converging into each other until another company arrives with better management styles for internationalize and growth, then maybe they will converge into this new style.

To conclude we can say that there are some aspects that influence the convergence between the Asian styles of management and because of that they will still converge into each other, but it is also important to say that some aspects of other management styles such as the western, can influence too, because convergence is not always a choice, it is an international phenomenon that cannot be controlled must of the time, but I think that regional convergence is most likely to happen than worldwide.