Multiculturalism As A Policy To Develop Cultural Studies Essay

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Multiculturalism is a policy to develop and maintain a separate country and the world at large cultural differences and to justify such a policy theory or ideology. An important distinction from political liberalism, multiculturalism is the recognition of collective rights for the subjects: the ethnic and cultural groups. Such rights can be expressed in enabling ethnic and cultural communities to manage the training of its members, to express a political assessment and so on. Multiculturalism is opposed to the concept of the "melting pot", where the proposed merger of all cultures into one. The examples include Canada, where multiculturalism is cultivated, and the U.S., where there is traditionally proclaimed the concept of a "melting pot".

Multiculturalism is one of the aspects of tolerance, to require the coexistence of cultures in order of their mutual penetration, fertilization and development in line with common human popular culture. The idea of multiculturalism is put forward mainly in highly developed societies of Europe, which has long had a high level of cultural development. In modern Europe, multiculturalism involves primarily the inclusion in its cultural field elements of the culture of immigrants from Third World countries (including those from former colonies of European countries).

Critics of multiculturalism argue that the result is a complete destruction of centuries-old cultural attitudes, develop cultural traditions, since such mixing always leads to homogenization. In their view, if a low level of cultural development aliens undoubtedly increased, the high cultural level of the target country of multiculturalism invariably falls.

Multiculturalism, in part is reflecting the cultural situation of postmodern era, proved to be extremely in tune in its basic value orientation. The neo-liberal phase of Western civilization brought to life ethno race and cultural polycentrism. Multiculturalism as a model of culture involves primarily the removal of the vector centric development re-hierarchy and legitimating of forms of cultural otherness. However, the polyphony of ethnic, national cultures and subcultures and reveals above all the manifold forms of expression, existence of culture, which, however, is not equal. Their equation is reduced to a common denominator denotes the application of a classification grid for the forms of culture, having different nature of origin, different ways of functioning of various organizations, as described in The Cult of Multiculturalism.

Differently than in Western Europe, there is the idea of coexistence of multiple cultural worlds of thought in the states that are created in the immigrant-based, such as the USA, Australia, and Canada, as described by Fillion. Multicultural public education brings an additional level of complexity to the process of integration of society, which, obviously, would be in this case the way to integrate, to appeal mainly to the social mechanisms of cohesion, so, for example, as the "American dream", as described in Multiculturalism, citizenship and national identity.

The U.S. is an exceptional example of the coexistence of many cultures into a single cultural space. Although it should be noted is the fact that in cultural heterogeneous America differs from the other cultural heterogeneous primarily to the fact that the U.S. has no state belongs exclusively to one ethnic group, but represents the formation of many co-existing ethnic communities. As a multicultural state of dollars, according to the model of 'melting pot', was conceived as a "fusion" of Anglo-saxes - ethno-cultural foundations of American nation - and the various immigrant groups, it was highlighted in this ethno cultural and genetic mixture of conservation and the predominance of the Anglo-Saxon dominance. However, since the mid 60-ies the program "melting pot" gives way to the ideology of multiculturalism. Prerequisite for the formation of the program of multiculturalism was a "revolution" of civil rights, within which was adopted by the "Civil Rights Act" in 1964, weakening the whole Anglo-Saxon dominant in the U.S., as well as the "Immigration Act" in 1965, unleashing a huge influx of U.S. immigrants from Third World countries . D. Naisbitt in his work "Megatrends", considered the main Megatrends in the development of American society have to intrastate migration and immigration as the major reasons why there is the demand for the ideology of a multicultural society. Experience has brought about ethnic and cultural diversity is not only contrary to the mainstream culture, but also fitting in its context, enriches and nourishes her value system: "... ethnic groups do not look like any other, unless they comply with the general mindset and values of the country". Assimilation mechanisms in the form of mass culture, language, political system and education system create the basic social ground on which cemented ethnic and cultural differences and they do not contradict the typical, undertaken in the framework of the "American way of life." In the multicultural U.S. policy is clearly readable trend familiarizing immigrants to the values of American society. At the same time adopting a policy of multiculturalism indicates the absence of the required ethnic and cultural homogeneity of American society, the formation of additional mechanisms to curb ethnic and racial extremism, as described in The price of multiculturalism. N. Glazer noted that the main problem in creating a unified American nation - are Americans of African descent, or rather the historical roots of complex relationships between black and white Americans, who brought to life the policy of multiculturalism, the "integration without assimilation". The beginning of the second half of the twentieth century represents the significant increase in the number of Hispanics and Asian Americans change the overall picture of the relation of ethnic and cultural units in a multicultural country, smoothing out the old percentage superiority of Anglo-Saxon population. However, as finely observed, there are certain differences between the plurality of cash crops and the often-repeated, cultural differences, in which multicultural policy determines the extent and degree of acceptable cultural diversity, limiting redundancy other cultural components, which may cause fragmentation, segmentation of the cultural field, initially representing a cultural collage of introduced forms. Partly to illustrate the multicultural society sounds the concept "cultural soup", in which memes smallest unit of transmission of cultural heritage, by analogy with genes, in a state of constant mutation, the only guarantee of survival as a separate mime is its psychological appeal. From this perspective, American policy of multiculturalism is censoring cultural diversity, making the choice in favor of multiplicity, within the context of the mainstream.

Multiculturalism is a very controversial interdisciplinary phenomenon, including the ideological, philosophical, artistic aspects, and operates in the fields of anthropology, sociology, political science, economics, historiography, pedagogy, finally, literature and philosophy. This phenomenon serves as an expression and, simultaneously, to some extent justifies the pluralistic cultural paradigm, which assigns the task to propose a new "ideal" and often utopian vision, in accordance or in contrast to actively debated the ideal society and culture, "diversity."

Multiculturalism is a concept fairly new to the national literary criticism and cultural studies. Moreover, the term itself is often doubt and rejection, while domestic, and especially American studies past replete with various synonyms of the term "multicultural", such as heterogeneous, the polyculture, and the plurality of cultural traditions that do not merge into a unity. All this is to some extent, paved the way for today's boom associated with multiculturalism, many elements of which there were laid in the American tradition since the beginning of its independent existence. Since we commonly accepted term for this phenomenon has not yet been worked out, it seems appropriate to use the term "multiculturalism" has, to date, quite settled in the English tradition, as well as a more broader concept of multicultural as the main subject and the ideal of the various studies that operate in polyculture field, postcolonialism, and broader, postmodern, despite the above vague of these terms, as stated in How Multiculturalism Took Over America.

The concept of multiculturalism itself has now become the "rubber" term that includes a huge number of often conflicting trends and events, so that each of the researchers refer to this phenomenon, who invest in it, and it actually makes sense. As a result, multiculturalism is often mixed and irreconcilable, political rather than strictly cultural manifestos followers of the Afro-centrists, and cultural views of extremists, 60-70 - XX century, and calls for the restoration of cultural heritage advocates "pre-Columbian" America, speaker for moving the "center" of American culture to Indian heritage, and the liberal-democratic and cosmopolitan views of so-called moderate multiculturalists. Finally, the discourse of "cultural diversity" today was usurped by stubborn supporters of the Western logocentrism and cultural homogeneity, recognize the central argument of his western, contextual nature of values, first presented as universal, that does not interfere with the traditionalists, however, still insist on the primacy of Western principles of representation of non-Western . Thus, it is important to note already now that the multicultural project is not liberation, or on the contrary, the usurper, guarding in their pathos, has no ideology and, ultimately, ethics, and essentially can be used and is used by cultural groups with completely opposing goals. This, however, says most of its plasticity and internally modern character, which tells the unique opportunity to adapt.

IT should be noted that Multiculturalism is a phenomenon inherent in not only the United States. Being closely related to post-modernity and to a certain extent, with the post-colonial or post cultural social, historical, philosophical theories, it naturally gets a little development in all countries, one way or another marked unmerged coexistence of various cultures and ethnicities, often interpreted in a post-colonial discourse within the boundaries of the dichotomy "cultural imperialism" and "confrontation," formulated by E. Said. However, since the U.S. colonial scenario wore a unique character - a former colony in record time itself has become much more powerful likeness of European colonizers in relation to their own "foreign" cultural voices - the post-colonial ideology works differently, sometimes in hidden ways, giving rise early enough ( in the case of some sub traditions, in the XIX century) or meditative stable intermediate forms of cultural interaction, which today, in hindsight, called hybrid, border and internally in the strongest form, corresponding to the postmodern sensibility.

All in all, Multiculturalism in the United States is unique for several reasons, particularly because of the special relationship of American culture to the problem of regional, ethnic, racial identification, due to more acute than in other cultures, the contradiction between a strong pragmatic, rational basis in the national ideology and socio -cultural reality of the country's experiment. The paper is not possible to dwell on all the American (both North and South) and the Pan-American variants of the problem of multicultural understanding and multiculturalism, though their comparative analysis could be extremely interesting, especially since in recent years in the U.S. are increasingly having attempted to apply to experience of "neighbors" and apply it to their own national model of cultural set.  The word "American" is mostly for convenience and brevity, is used in the sense of belonging the U.S.