Memory In The Complex Paths Cultural Studies Essay

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I would like to explore some of the complex paths, where landscape and memory meet and interact, through a spectrum ranging from anthropology to different forms of art.

The image of the physical environment and the landscape has been used for centuries as a material source that enable us to produce remembrances, from the memory system of Simonides of Ceos in 500 B.C. until the imaginary walks of S. V. Sereshevskii in 20th century [1] . Frances Yates (British historian, 1899-1981) considers memory as an art, in her book "The Art of Memory" (1966) she writes that memory was seen as an art from the ancient times when Greeks talked about the "mnemotecnics", the techniques that were used in order to impress spatial images on memory [2] , and later on from Greece it passed on to Rome to take a more complete form. Yates is writing some principles about the 'mechanism' of the art of memory; the most important one is the necessity to να χαραξουμε στο μυαλο μας a series of places and she notices that the most common type of mnemonic place is the architectural one.(πχ σπιτι και τα δωματια του) Yates has demonstrated the consistency between this metaphor and certain major assumptions of ancient philosophy, such as the primacy given to the sense of sight- perceptible in the very etymology of the idea, which in Plato designates the essence of things, or in the Aristotelian thesis holding that 'the soul never thinks without a mental image'. Σελ. 12rephrase.

As for notions of memory, the landscape perspective would bring an increased awareness of how memory is 'seen'. Landscape is of course historically linked to 'the art of memory'. Since vision appears to be natural, it transforms memory into a seemingly natural experience, an experience present in the here-and-now. The interaction between vision and memory in the landscape is thus capable of generating narrative vision that cuts across the very basic distinction between the textual and the visual- a distinction which tends fundamentally to oppose, in art and architectural history, the iconographic approach to the approach of visual culture studies.??einaicopyapokapou???

Nowadays, we see a lot of 'memory systems' interacting with landscape. These memory systems could be considered the books, as well as films. Στον χωρο της εβδομης τεχνης this can be seen clearly in the works of Andrei Tarkovsky [3] (1932-1986) and his well known film The Mirror (1975), in this autobiographical and very personal film of his uses oneiric landscapes images combined with poems [4] to time travel to the past and his childhood memories.phototainias Στα πλαισια του μαστερ we were challenged to approach this idea of interaction, by making our own short film about landscape and how it interferes with time and memory. This film had to localize an intersection between time, place and memory and my answer to this was the feeling of nostalgia (longing for the past) and also the title of the film. 'Nostalgia' is very closely linked to memory, since ειναι η κατασταση στην οποια βρισκομαστε οταν μας περιτρυγυριζουν οι αναμνησεις, συνεπως without them it the feeling of nostalgia would never existed. Here, memory is perceived as more like a screen on which we project a fantasy of the past, inspired by present desires. Moreover it can be seen as a creative process closely linked to fantasy or as an obsession of reconstructing and retrieving the past.(πηγη?) So, in this film I am trying to develop mnemotecnics (as mentioned before) in order to bring to the surface the feeling of nostalgia by searching and then capturing spatial images or sounds that awaken my senses and memories, from places unknown to me, και εκει εγκειται η δυσκολια. But can be overcome through picturesque images and familiar sounds or smells. For example in the film, I am employing the sound of airplanes and το θροισμα των φυλλων, because "Sounds as well as silence are woven with memory" [5] , as well as a picturesque image of the lights of the city that reflects on the river as a link with the past and familiarity. The fusion of present and past in memory in this film is expressed through flashbacks, a collection of mementoes, illustrating in that way 'snapshot' nature of memory.

The idea of a garden as a theater of memory p. 18 sub-urbanism and the art of memory.

Collective Memory

Based on Aldo Rossi [6] "the city is the locus of the collective memory" [7] . The collective memory of its people which live in her and give her life, παλμο and her distinctive character. "The soul of the city" becomes the city's history, its αποτυπωμα της, its memory. "It is in the city that one becomes citizen" [8] . The city could be likened to a mental map, where the relative localization of the consecrated places and the itineraries of the processions themselves inscribe landmarks and mnemonic schemata.(να βρω την πηγη)

Memory is related with objects and places through the passage of time. So everything that consists a city, its buildings and public spaces and of course its parks becomes the locus. Collective memory becomes a value, a guiding force that participates in the διαμορφωση of a place. It transforms through its people standards and principles and through their 'frameworks' of memory.

In a similar way, the history of a city or of a public park could be seen as collective memory, due to the participation and the involvement of people in different time periods. Maurice Halbwachs (1877-1945), French philosopher and sociologist was responsible for developing the idea of collective memory argued that: "When a group is introduced into a part of space, it transforms it to its image" and continues: "It encloses itself in the framework that it has constructed". The history of the cities and urbanism showed as that the urban spaces were a vision as an art of collective memory. So having in mind what the histories of ideas have taught us and with combination of the science of philosophy that searched the social essence of memory, we should be able to understand spaces better not only as passive, conditioning memories (that is as particularly dense accumulations of traces and recollections), but also as active and conditioned memories- as systems of constructed mnemonic places. [9] Î§ÏÎµÎ¹Î±Î¶ÎµÏ„αι rephrase p.18

Halbwachs, in the Social Frameworks of Memory [10] (1925), from which Aldo Rossi ειχε αντλησει σημαντικα στοιχεια for his ideas about collective memory argues that memory is related with the society and not with the individual, he was αναιρουσε personal memory, because he wasn't seeing memory as a storehouse of impressions and recollections that has each one of us, but as "more of a process of reconstruction: an activity of localization and configuration functioning essentially from and within socially elaborated frames or reference systems''. [11] That means that memory is related indirectly with social frameworks and references such as our relations with people, space and time. We have memories kept of different times in our lives and there are coming to the surface and reproduced due to some trigger, to a spatial image of the present. It is the landscape that we see, the space itself that is time travelling us, and combined with our imagination our memories reappear and are able to reconstruct.

Layers of Memory in Vauxhall Spring Gardens

For my design proposal for the Vauxhall Spring Gardens memory and 'its workings' έπαιξαν καθοριστικο ρόλο. To be more specific, I saw and distinguished ας μου επιτραπει the memory in my design process σε τρια ειδη: into personal memory, collective memory and the historic memory of the place for which I am going to talk in the chapter about Place Reclamation. Αυτη η αναζητηση μνημης was realized after trying to develop a form of notation on site and a more personal site analysis of the park.

First I am going to talk about personal memory and how is possible to bring my own memories in Vauxhall Spring Gardens, αυτο συνεπαγεται to bring memory to a place unknown to me when the important factor of familiarity is missing.

At this point I will have to mention the workshop that took place in the beginning of the master course with the photographer Chino Otsuka, with the perspective to help us to bring our own memories in the park. It turned out to be very helpful in terms of localization some objects or details in the park that would serve as triggers in order to help us to bring memory and to get more familiarized to an unknown place. We were asked to face memory as 'a form of storytelling' and by managing to find these triggers we could go back and try to recreate the past. The starting point για αυτη την αναζητηση of the triggers through photographs was an old photo of our family album that we chose because of holding a special meaning for us. In this photo colours and materials as wood are dominant. [12] 

These photos capture details of the space and some of the objects found there. The purpose of these photos was to trigger our memory and remind us of some feelings from the past and maybe manage to bring to the surface feelings that make us nostalgic. PhotosChinoThis was basically attempted by capturing elements and qualities of the space such as texture, colour and the games between light and shade. Visually texture is related with light, since in every different light tone the texture seems different. "The detail of colour, texture and light are not only important in providing richness, diversity and complexity to animate landscape experience, but also in providing simplicity and coherence to unify experience." [13] 

Εν συνεχεια στα πλασια of an active engagement with the site we tried to develop our own tools to investigate and γνωρισουμε the site. So beyond the required and typical site analysis of the park, we were challenged to make a more personal site analysis. After spending as more time as possible in the park, I try to get to know it, after deep observation of the park and how people behave on it. Obviously the time that a designer has in order to get to know a place it can't be compared with the time that its regular visitors have passed in the place and with the time that is needed in order to get familiarized with it, the way they see it the last ones is more sentimental (based, of course, on their memories and experiences), although with the use of the appropriate design tools and the observational skills of the designer, can speed the procedure of learning a place and the involvement with it might give the feeling of a more creative design process rather than επιφανειακη και απροσωπη. The difficulty εγκειται to the presentation of how he experiences the place, since the designer is communicating through his drawings, the typical landscape architecture drawings have lack of reflecting meanings and existing qualities of the place. For that, notation systems, a medium of drawing is helpful because "it enable us to consider simultaneously different layers of experience including movement and time" [14] . Based on Lawrence Halprin's [15] motation (movement notation) on his book The RSVP Cycles (1969), I tried to score my movement through the park, realizing in this way how I move and behave and as a consequence how I experience Vauxhall Spring Gardens. And this movement in a way is explained by allocating and scoring the important spots of the park based on my remembered impressions and my "inward eye" (Wordsworth). (photo σχ.11)

We realize as Halprin writes "that scoring makes the process visible and makes our presence felt".

The collective memory in Vauxhall Spring Gardens can be found with the form of memory of events which are taking place. Events that are socially constructed from different groups of people, like families, group of friends, even the association of the Vauxhall City Farm, οπου αποτελει εναν πυρηνα προσελευσης κοσμου για το παρκο. The farm offers a lot to the community of Vauxhall by having educational and environmental awareness, but overall offers to the children special memories by bringing them close to nature. So in my design proposal for this park I preserved all the spaces that the farm keeps in the park, as well as the basketball court, με τη μονη διαφορα the removal of its fence, that seems a repulsive image and an obstacle of small informal gatherings of young people, that they can be an important part of collective memory.