Looking At The Different Types Of Fashion Cultural Studies Essay

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Due to the baby boom in the 1950s, there was a high demand of clothing for children and women. First let me talk about the real meaning of "Baby Boom." A baby boomer is a person who was born during the Post-World War II. A group, they were believed to be the healthiest and wealthiest generation during that time, and among the first to grow up genuinely expecting the world to improve with time. One of the unique features of boomers was that they tended to think of themselves as "a special generation," very different from those that had come before. In the 1960s, as the relatively large numbers of young people created a very specific rhetoric around their group. This rhetoric had an important impact in the self perceptions of the boomers, as well as their tendency to define the world in terms of generations, which was a relatively new phenomenon. Seventy-six million American babies were born between 1946 and 1960, representing followers that would be significant on account of its size alone. This cohort shared characteristics like higher rates of participation in higher education than previous generations and an assumption of lifelong prosperity and entitlement developed during their childhood in the 1950s. The age wave theory suggests to an economic slowdown when the boomers start retiring during 2007-2009. Boomers were coming of age and influenced many people at the same time across the world. For instance, Britain was undergoing Beatlemania while people in the United States were driving over to Woodstock, organizing against the Vietnam War, or fighting and dying in the same war; boomers in Italy were dressing in mod clothes and "buying the world a Coke"; boomers in India were seeking new philosophical discoveries; American boomers in Canada had just found a new home and escaped the draft.

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Also, the boomers found that their music, most notably rock and roll, was another expression of their generational identity. Transistor radios were personal devices that allowed teenagers to listen to "The Beatles" and "The Motown Sound." Those group musicians inspired their listener to follow their step include fashion and behavior. For example, young girls wore dresses and young boys wore jeans and t-shirts. The Beatles' musical innovations, as well as their commercial success, inspired musicians worldwide (Big Star: The Story of Rock's Forgotten Band). A large number of artists have acknowledged "The Beatles" as an influence or have had chart successes with "covers of Beatles songs." On radio, the arrival of The Beatles marked the beginning of a new era; program directors like Rick Sklar of New York's WABC went as far as forbidding DJs from playing any "pre-Beatles" music (Fisher, Marc, 2007). The "Shea Stadium" which they opened their "1965 North American Tour" attracted what was then the largest audience in concert history and is seen as a "landmark event in the growth of the rock crowd." Emulation of their clothing and especially their hairstyles, which became a mark of rebellion, had a global impact on fashion (Gould, Jonathan, 2008). More broadly, The Beatles changed the way people listened to popular music and experienced its role in their lives. From what began as the Beatle mania fad, the group grew to be perceived by their young fans across the industrialized world as the representatives, even the personification, of ideals associated with cultural transformation. As icons of the 1960s counterculture, they became a channel for bohemianism and activism in various social and political arenas, fueling such movements as women's liberation, gay liberation and environmentalism.

After the World War II, women craved for femininity, glamour, sexiness style and the use of synthetic material. Dior fulfilled all the dreams of the feminine woman in the early 50's. In 1947, Christian Dior presented a fashion look of material was a bold and shocking stroke.  His style used yards of fabric.  Approximately ten yards was used for early styles. Later Dior used up to eighty yards for newer refinements that eliminated bulk at the waist. The New Look and new approach to fashion was a major post war turning point in Fashion History. Dior's timing made his name in fashion history.  After the war women longed for lightheartedness in dress and desired feminine clothes that did not look like a civilian version of a military uniform (fiftiesweb.com).  Life magazine called Dior as the New Look in 1947. Evening versions of the New Look were very glamorous and consisted of strapless boned tops with full skirts and were ultra feminine. Dior's New Look dominated the fashion world for about ten years, but was not the only silhouette of the era.  In 1956 was the year that introduced visible changes that separate the early fifties from the late fifties.  It places that fashion era firmly alongside the stuffy formality of the forties, while putting the post 1956 period firmly into the start of the lively live style, anything goes sixties fashion period, often dominated by the young of the day. There were those in the 1950s that rebelled against the perfect groomed look, so often associated with Grace Kelly elegance.  Leslie Caron and Audrey Hepburn both often wore simple black sweaters, flat shoes and gold hoop earrings coupled with short haircuts.  They gave a continental alternative often described as chic and had many fashion followers seeking to embrace the modern.

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As a new, more open-minded society evolved, women moved to more relaxed clothes instead of wore dress rules that were associated with formality for decades. Marilyn Monroe appeared in the 1950s and became a fashion legend. Marilyn Monroe personified Hollywood glamour with an unparalleled glow and energy that charmed the world. Her swaying hips made her more attractive and seductive, which increased her sexual appeal. Her natural hourglass body was perfect for the 1950s where womanly curves were the desirable body image of the fashion era that made her as a '50s sex goddess. Her apparent vulnerability and innocence, in combination with a natural sensuality, has endeared her to the global consciousness. She dominated the age of movie stars to become, without question, the most famous woman of the 20th Century. Her ideal body would be considered too heavy by today's beauty standards. However, her image is still popular in the 20th century.

At the beginning of 1960s, the fashion style was similar to 1950s. Jacqueline Kennedy became the "lady like" trendsetter for the first half of sixties where there were clean suits, sleeveless A-line dresses, pillbox hat, and also gloves (Drake.Marin.k12.ca.us). She was the wife of the 35th president of the United States, John F. Kennedy, and served as First Lady during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. During her husband's presidency, Jacqueline Kennedy became a symbol of fashion for women all over the world. She hired French-born American fashion designer and Kennedy family friend, Oleg Cassini, in the fall of 1960 to create an original wardrobe for her as First Lady. From 1961 to late 1963, Cassini dressed her in many of her most iconic fashion, including her Inauguration Day fawn coat and Inaugural gala gown as well as many outfits for her visits to Europe, India and Pakistan. Her clean suits, sleeveless A-line dresses and famous pillbox hats were an overnight success around the world and became known as the "Jackie" look. Although Cassini was her primary designer, she also wore ensembles by French fashion legends such as Chanel, Givenchy, and Dior. More than any other First Lady her style was copied by commercial manufacturers and a large segment of young women (firstladies.org). In the years after the White House, her style changed dramatically. Gone were the modest "campaign wife" clothes. Wide-leg pantsuits, large lapel jackets, silk Hermes head scarves and large, round, dark sunglasses were her new look. She often chose to wear brighter colors and patterns and even began wearing jeans in public. (Jackie Kennedy: Post-Camelot Style). She also experimented with different styles, often wearing a large amount of jewelry, hoop earrings with her hair pulled back, and gypsy skirts.

In the 1959, the U.S. government declared the war on Vietnam. This became the turning point for youth culture to reject this idea of war because it was a sign of rebellion to kill many innocent people. The idea encouraged youths to be involved in demonstrating the theme of "freedom" toward songs and the most important was the fashion styles. The style was called the "hippie" or "flower children" in which both genders wore similar clothing such as tight Levis bell-bottoms that flared wide at the knee, and were covered with decorated patches (Fiftiesweb.com). Men and women wore their individual garments such as leather vests over bare chests or tee shirts and dressy loose blouses (Fiftiesweb.com). Tune In, Turn On, and Drop Out" was the motto of the hippie movement, a significant countercultural phenomenon in the 1960s and early 1970s that grew partially out of young America's growing disillusionment with U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Hippies were mainly white teenagers and young adults who shared a hatred and distrust towards traditional middle-class values and authority. They rejected political and social orthodoxies but embraced aspects of Eastern religions, particularly Buddhism. Many hippies also saw hallucinogenic drugs, such as marijuana and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), as the key to escaping the ties of society and expanding their individual consciousness. The immediate precursor to the hippies was the so-called Beat Generation of the late 1950s, including the poet Allen Ginsberg, who became a hippie hero. But where the coolly intellectual, black-clad beats tended to keep a low profile and stay out of politics, the hippies were known as much for their political outspokenness as for their long hair and colorful psychedelic clothing. To express their protests, and to "turn on" others, the hippies used art, street theater and particularly music. Folk music and psychedelic rock-the Beatles album Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band was a prime example for both crucial aspect of hippie culture. This culture reached its peak in the summer of 1967, when a concert in San Fransisco's Golden Gate Park kicked off the start of the so-called "Summer of Love." The event introduced the music and culture of the hippies to a wider audience and inspired thousands of young people around the country. In 1969, more than 500,000 people attended the Woodstock Music and Art Festival in New York, and event that symbolized the best aspect of the hippie movement. There was also a dark side to the hippie culture. A time magazine reported from San Fransisco's public health director saying that the city was paying $35,000 per month for treatment for drug abuse for 10,000 hippies (history.com).

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Therefore, the "hippies" style clothes was much more popular among teenagers because both sexes could express the similar idea and fashion compared to "lady-like" trend in which it only concentrated on female with showing good-manner lifestyle. The theme of "freedom" continued to be the most important fashion statement in the 1970s where it promoted disco and punk style. Many teenagers during this time period came to clubs to socialize with other teenagers. The outfits that they wore included gold lame, leopard skin, stretch halter jumpsuits, and white clothes that glowed in ultra violet light to capture the 70s disco fashion perfectly (Fashion-Era.com). To counter social stylish fashion, another theme appeared for the "rebellious" adolescent called the "punk" style, which was known as an anti-fashion. Punk clothes suited the lifestyle of lower class, and communicated through ripped jeans, torn t-shirts, and random haircut (Fashion-Era.com). When compared, one seemed respectable and wholesome, while the other made the wearer seem like a homeless person.

In 1980's "Glamorous" became the main theme as the television show "Dynasty" appeared and inspired over 250 million viewers around the world. This show influenced especially female audiences to dress lavishly and use both fine and costume jewelry (Ultimatedynasty.net). This idea portrait was to spend a large amount of money in order to show off one's economics' status. Moreover, most women wore shoulder pads with such ornaments as diamond, pearl, and gold chain. 'Dynasty' the 1980s television fantasy soap series promoted fashions which enlarged the shoulder. One of the main characters was played by the naturally broad shouldered film star Linda Evans. Nolan Miller, the Dynasty film set costume designer decided to go with her big shoulders and gave slight emphasized to them. Every other actor had to be shoulder padded, but with more depth to match her shoulder. Many who watched did so for a look at the 80's fashions which were always over the top and frankly camp. 1980s fashion favored applied decoration on suits and T-shirts and beadwork on clothing which all pandered to the ideals of a time of conspicuous consumption. The 1980s was a time of greed and individuals living a lie that they had everything whether it be fashion, champagne or property.  Many fell into debt as the only way to acquire an 80's lifestyle for many was via the credit card. Lavish used of both fine and costume jewelers was worn day and night on the show and it drifted into mainstream fashion. Big, almost huge gilt fashion earrings several centimeters across drew attention to faces drowning in shoulder pads. Stones could be fake or real. Diamante, pearls and gold chains were intended to tell the rest of the world you had arrived. The women in Dynasty wore all the trimmings of jewellery along with a wide range of lavish covetable underwear and lingerie (fashionera.com).

Similiarly, the concept inspired the male fashion style. For instance, Michael Jackson in The Thriller was the sixth studio album by American recording artist Michael Jackson. The album was released on November 30, 1982 by Epic Records as the followed-up to Jackson's critically and commercially successful 1979 album Off the Wall. Thriller explored similar genres to those of Off the Wall, including funk, disco, soul, R&B, and pop. Thriller's lyrics dealed with themes included paranoia and the supernatural. With a production budget of $750,000, recording sessions took place between April and November 1982 at Westlake Recording Studios in Los Angeles, California (thelakestudio.com). Assisted by producer Quincy Jones, Jackson wrote four of Thriller's nine tracks. In just over a year, Thriller became-and currently remains-the best-selling album of all time, with estimated sales between 70-110 million copies worldwide, as well as the best-selling album in the United States (thelakestudio.com). Thriller ranked number 20 on Rolling Stone magazine's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time list in 2003, and was listed by the National Association of Recording Merchandisers at number three in its Definitive 200 Albums of All Time. Thriller was preserved by the Library of Congress to the National Recording Registry, as it was deemed "culturally significant". Such clothing that Jackson wore red, black leather pants and jackets, one glove, and sunglasses influenced male to follow Jackson's style (Fashion-Era.com).

Moreover, The Miami Vice also inspired gentleman to wear colorful shirts with expensive suits. Miami Vice was an American television series produced by Michael Mann for NBC. The show became noted for its heavy integration of music and visual effects to tell a story. The series starred by Don Johnson and Phillip Michael Thomas as two Metro-Dade Police Department detectives working undercover in Miami. It ran for five seasons on NBC from 1984-1989. Unlike standard police procedurals, the show drew heavily upon 1980s New Wave culture and music. It is recognized as one of the most influential television series of all time. People magazine stated that Miami Vice "was the first show to look really new and different since color TV was invented" (nbc.com). The clothes worn on Miami Vice had a significant influence on men's fashion. They popularized, if not invented, the "T-shirt under Armani jacket"-style, and popularized Italian men's fashion in the United States. Don Johnson's typical lineup of Italian sport coat, T-shirt, white linen pants, and slip-on sockless loafers became a hit. Even Crockett's unshaven appearance sparked a minor fashion trend, inspiring men to wear a small amount of beard stubble, also known as a five o'clock shadow (or "designer stubble") at all times (New York Times). On an average episode, Crockett and Tubbs wore five to eight outfits, appearing in shades of pink, blue, green, peach, fuchsia and the show's other "approved" colors. Designers such as Vittorio Ricci, Gianni Versace, and Hugo Boss were consulted in keeping the male looking trendy. Costume designer Bambi Breakstone, who traveled to Milan, Paris, and London in search of new clothes, testified that, "The concept of the show is to be on top of all the latest fashion trends in Europe." Jodi Tillen, the costume designer for the first season, along with Michael Mann set the style. The abundance of pastel colors on the show reflected Miami's Art-deco architecture. During its five-year run, consumer demanded for unconstructed blazers, shiny fabric jackets, and lighter pastels increased. After Six formal wore even created a line of Miami Vice dinner jackets, Kenneth Cole introduced Crockett and Tubbs shoes, and Macy's opened a Miami Vice section in its young men's department. Crockett also boosted Ray Ban's popularity by wearing a pair of Ray-Ban Wayfarer (Model L2052, Mock Tortoise), which increased sales of Ray Ban's to 720,000 units in 1984. Many of the styles popularized by the TV show, such as the t-shirt under pastel suits, no socks, rolled up sleeves, and Ray-Ban sunglasses, have today become the standard image of 1980s culture. The influence of Miami Vice's fashions continued into the early 1990s, and to some extent still persists today. Therefore, those trends imitated the audience to dress like the famous movie stars on screen. As the result "glamour" trend for female and male was the most principal fashion in nineties to show the more expensive stuff people put on their dress to be look alike famous icon celebrities the more stylish they will be.

Similarly to "freedom" fashion style in the sixties and seventies, the term "expression" became the slogan of the nineties. The mood of society in the final decade of the last millennium was more defining than what was actually worn. So much more was on offer globally, and many people lost interest in fashion as necessary and important to their lives when business rules for dressing relaxed. Working from home became common. By the edge of the 21st century dressing down in every aspect of life became an acceptable norm. Ordinary retail clothing sales, textile manufacturing industries and stores all declined from a less active more casual marketplace. The range of fashion goods available was huge in the 1990s, but no one knows the real answer why retail sales were often slow-moving. The main driving force of fashion was the striving to achieve individuality. Fashion increased as fast as it could be relayed by the media and Internet and only by styling oneself rather than slavishly following a particular designer's fashion look, could individuality be achieved. Rapid distribution of information and a more relaxed attitude to clothes has led to a certain inevitable uniformity in cities thousands of miles apart. The consuming years of the 1980s less became more in the 1990s. Not everyone adopted minimalism, but many did as they sought to blend and fit with an increasingly aggressive urban society. For instance, the silhouette became neater as shoulder pads finally died and jewellery became non existent or chic in its fineness and barely there quality.

People ensured that designers of today are likely to be influenced by street fashion. But all too frequently they pick up an idea at the street level source. They have an eye to global commercial profits from effect on their ready to wear ranges. This makes for a lack of creativity as clothes develop homogenized uniformity. In a market saturated with retail outlets, clothing sales have been falling. The consumer simply has too many shopping places to choose from, so spending power gets spread very thinly between all the outlets or directed to specific branded goods.

Moreover, the view towards millennium or dressing down became widely known when many people lost interest in fashion. However, this situation made people come up with a trend called the minimalist style such as mini skirt, or tank top. Moreover, there appeared punk or gothic style in which both females and males wore black clothing, used make up, spiky hair, black pants, and color hair. The variety of colors was also popular during this time period as a way to express people's feelings. For example, people wore red t-shirts to show happiness, and wore blue for relaxation. Thus, the idea to express themselves and to present their feeling toward colors became the most important style during the 1990s.

Fashions today is still affected by the trends from 1950s-1990s. It becomes the primary role for people's lives because in essence, it reflects who people really are. Fashion has become a most important component to pop culture in every country. Individual values and social issues are often portrayed in the types and styles of clothing people wear. Susan Kaieser, a professor at University of California, stated that historically fashion has been influenced by subcultures and racial/ethnic communities (Worldandi.com). Fashion is marketed to appeal to the consumers and to create a desire to purchase new trends, despite the reality that there is not actual need for new clothing. Environmentalists have recognized the excess spending on clothing 'needs.' People have sought to purchase the trend in order to stay in style for generations. Environmentalists have begun placing responsibility on society. This enlightenment makes consumers and industries pay more special attention to the environmental danger and over indulgence that clothing might create. In order to be a part of resolving environmental problems, ideas have stimulated a new way of manufacturing and purchasing a product.

This trend has brought attention to the way industries should be marketed a product in an environmentally healthy way. This development is labeled eco-fashion (Beard, 449). Eco-fashion, thoughtful to the way a product was generated, despite the environmental or human expenses, became more of a social issue. Now, manufactures feel the need to assemble a product that is trendy of good quality, yet not exploiting to any natural or human resource. Concentration on developing a great product required more than just a focus on the end result. Natalie Domeisen (2006) reports that the United Nations is promoting products that committed to using organic cotton, minimum labor standards, and using recycled materials to manufacture a new product (13). Even though the materials are altered, the sophistication of the product is not. To complete the sophisticated shopping look, some industries have created accessories that are re-usable shopping bags (Beard, 449). Thus, the new concept was to replace the non environmental throw away plastic bags. All of those new industry changes reflect trends popular to eco-fashion.

Purchasing a product that is considered to represent eco-fashion allows the consumer to become a part of solving the global environmental issues. Clothing made with organic cotton and minimum labor standards create job opportunities that would change economic issues in other countries. The 1980's brought huge attention to the development on the conditions it took to provide a product to the consumer (Beard, 450-1). Companies that modify the production techniques by avoiding sweatshops and animal experimentation discover that their product is more marketable to the consumer.

Another newer tradition that has been practiced by many cultures is shopping at vintage and second hand shops. In previous decades, the idea of purchasing second-hand clothing was considered mostly by low-income families or students on a fixed budget (Beard, 457). The current trend has become the thrill of discovering a brand name piece of clothing, still in good condition, for an extremely discounted price. The negative aspect is that the selection is usually limited; however, this creates opportunities to add unique pieces to one's wardrobe. What once was considered embarrassing, shopping at a second hand store, has now become socially acceptable. Choosing to purchase vintage and second had clothing has become more than a new fashion trend. It has become influential to the society of the culture.

Fashion trends consist of more than just where a consumer shops. Trends are shaped by how the consumer shops. A new shopping development has become popular and it has become a new twist on an old concept: using magazines. Sogo, Metro, Matahari and other popular retail stores have provided catalogs that allow products to be bought without ever having to leave the convenience of home. Now fashion magazines such as Oriflame, Sophie Martin, and others have begun to adapt to this same idea. Fashions magazines are beginning to be created for basic shopping knowledge to the consumer without all of the extra articles. The traditional fashion magazines provided opportunities to browse and to dream what they would look like wearing the fashion that was most current and popular. However, these magazines did little to provide consumers with the knowledge of where to purchase the product. Today, professional women do not have the time to browse, and they are more concerned with where they can purchase the product at the best deal, instead of the traditional mall browsing (Aster, 22).

Magazine editors have recognized the need for convenience. The new trend in fashion magazines is seen in the publication of Lucky and Fashion Shop. The focus of these magazines of concentrated on consumers that have income of $50,000 or more. These magazines are high quality and more about the product and very effective (Aster, 22). Fashion promotions printed in these magazines have proven to be very expensive. The cost for an advertiser to place a one page ad can vary from $4000 to $61000 (Aster, 22). However, the effectiveness and concentration on a specific demographic of consumers, outweighs the expense.

Magazines created to promote fashion are publicized around the world. The trends from different cultures are absorbed into foreign cultures. Information on new fashion styles and products send the idea that this new trend is very important. It is seen in the Russian society that the model of what was traditional has changed. A famous Russian magazine, Kresti 'Yanka ("Peasant Woman"), in the past had published knitting patterns, recipes and family life advice; now the magazine includes articles on weight loss, skin care, love advice, and fashion styles (Merridale, 32). Ten years ago, Russian consumers would not have been able to purchase products easily from around the world. The emphasis on popular trends was not as bold. In today's culture, the fashion style influences most areas of daily life (Merridale, 32). Russian women and teenage girls desire to imitate the fashions that are most popular. Personal choices of style to women have become common. No longer do the desires of the old exist. Although narrow minded from the older generation and poverty within the country are still present in Russia, the consumers are entering the 20th century embracing new trends in fashion. Poverty and fashion do not seem to be two words that should be included in the same sentence. However, it is seen how the evolution of both are transforming the world.

Aside from poverty and fashion, the world is also affected by the interaction among music, sports and fashion. With modern forms of media such as internet, cable televisions, and DVDs, fashion really spreads its influences into every country around the world.

Fashion and music are two important factors that enrich pop culture. Music influences fashion, and fashion trends define each type of music. Fashion helps musicians express their personalities and their unique style. Standing out from the others is the most important things to the musicians since being different always impresses the audience.

For example, Elvis Presley's out of ordinary style dominated fashion trend in the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s with tight jump, wildly colorful suits whipped around, and long fit jeans. Elvis's style is considered one of the most remarkable influences of music to fashion. Everybody loved not only his music, but also his unique fashion sense. Also, in Sonya Rehman's writing about the interaction between music and fashion Tracing Trends of Fashion through Music, Elton John is famous for the suits, crazy hats, dark glasses and rings. The Beatles' get up reflected their music- with their bowl-shaped, identical haircuts, and their suits bobbing their heads in unison. Black lipsticks, colored contact lens with freak get-ups are Marilyn Manson's fashion style. Kiss defined the fashion trend of super hero-ish costumes, black and white bat-inspired make-up and glittery go-go boots. Also, Poison, Whitesnake, and Gun n' Roses, men with razor- cut fringes, long hair, leather pants, makeup and bling was standard. (Sonya Rehman 2007). In conclusion, fashion has made an impact on music, no matter how small or large, it creates the connection between music and style. Therefore, fashion and music are inseparable.

Not only does music affect fashion trends, but fashion also influences music, especially hip-hop which has seemed to go hand in hand with fashion. In her writing about hip-hop generation Rap and Race: It's Got a Nice Beat, But what About the Message?, Rachel Sullivan wrote, " Seventy-eight percent of adolescent said that baggy clothes were in, 76% said pro sports apparel was in, and 69% said hooded sweatshirts were in." (Sullivan 241). Moreover, people can find a variety of famous labels in hip-hop songs such as Calvin Klein, Perry Ellis, Ralph Lauren, Prada, Chanel, or Adidas. For instance, in the song Lil' Kim and Notorious B.I.G sing in the song Drug, "My flow's first class and yours is Coach like the bag, the Prada mama, my girls rock Chanel and smoke marijuana, admiring my shoes by Gucci," (Kitty Ryan). Since hip-hop is becoming more and more popular in pop culture, it is definitely one of the best tools to advertise fashion. That famous fashion brands appear more often in hip-hop proves how popular and important fashion is. Undoubtedly, fashion and music are irreplaceable factors since they interact with each other to become a voice to speak to the world of pop culture.

Besides music, fashion has dramatic influences on sports. In fact, sportswear has a greater global impact than high fashion since sports is one of the most important areas in pop culture. Fashion not only makes people more comfortable and confident when playing sports, but also makes sports it more stylish and trendy. Back in the early 1920s, sports fashion became popular, especially in golf and tennis. By 1917 Vogue urged women to put their overskirts in a shoulder bag once on a mountain slope. In his writing about the sports fashion C20th Sports Costume and Sports Dress Fashion History to 1960, Pauline Weston Thomas wrote, "By 1910, only golf allowed women to have expanding pleats down the sides of their tweed jackets to prevent clothes tearing when they did a golf swing…In 1922, Suzanne Lenglen shocked the world when she dressed for tennis at the Wimbledon wearing a short skirt. She abandoned the hat and also caused a stir with her hair bandeau designed to enable her to actually see what as going on. By 1930 a bare head was acceptable for tennis playing…In the early 1940s, athletes adopted nylon running shorts and cotton vests. Zip up windcheaters and anoraks were taken onto the athletics and sports fields to keep off the chill, but often with odd trouser bottoms. Thoughtful color coordination only became a norm in the 1960s when thick jersey cotton sweat shirting or nylon jersey track suits in colors like navy, bottle green or grey were the forerunners of vibrantly colored 80's nylon shell suits." (Pauline Thomas). From that point, sports fashion became one of the most noticeable trends that help people to express their comfort and confidence when playing sports.

Moreover, sports fashion also changes the view of gender especially to women who are supposed to wear dresses all the time for domesticated work. Sportswear makes them more healthy, strong, lively and confident since sports clothes show some parts of their bodies such as legs and arms. Therefore, sports fashion brings women opportunities to express themselves outside the domesticated work. With sportswear, women confirm the idea that they can be both beautiful and strong. One of the best examples is Lara Croft in Lara Croft: Tomb Raider. In the movie, she appears as an independent, sensible, dominant, powerful, and strong woman. The beginning of the film is the scene that Lara Croft wear short, three-hole shirt with her guns is fighting against a robot to get a diamond in a tomb. During the rest of the movie, Lara Croft wears army clothes with black shoes. These types of clothing are especially for sports since they are neat, stick to the bodies and make wearers easy to move. More importantly, Lara Croft's clothes definitely not make her look like a tom-boy, but a strong and powerful woman. In other words, it builds the image of a beautiful masculine woman.

Today, sports brands such as Nike, Adidas, and Reebok dominate the fashion market. They become more and more popular to all people, not only for athletes. Sportswear makes everyone more comfortable, strong and confident. Since sports clothes are not only made to absorb sweat, easy to do activities, but also give people the feeling of a strong, healthy and fit body with the sports designs such as stripes in pants that make people taller, zipped sweatshirts with symbol of famous sports brand or a pair of Nike running shoes. Thus, fashion not only provides people with the comfortable clothes when playing sports, but also gives them an outlet to express themselves.

Through the fashion timeline from the 1950s to today, the fashion worldwide influences, and its interactions with sports and music, fashion without a doubt plays a vital role in pop culture. Fashion is not just simply what people wear but it is a way to express their personalities and makes the world more colorful. Also, fashion can be considered a string that connects culture to culture, and people to people.