Looking At The Arts Of Music Cultural Studies Essay

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Music is an art that use sound as medium, it has common elements like pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm ( it's concept tempo and articulation). Within the arts, music classified as a performing art, a fine art, and auditory art. The definition of music is according to culture and social context. To many people in many cultures, music is an important part of their life. Greek philosophers and ancient Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies.

Music has been exist in prehistoric era. Based on findings from a range of Paleolithic sites, such as bones in which lateral holes have been pierced, these are usually identified as flutes. Instruments like the seven holed flute and various string instruments, have been recovered from Indus Valley civilization archaeological sites. India has one of the oldest musical tradition in the world, references to Indian classical music (marga) can be found in the ancient scriptures of the Hindu tradition. The earliest and the largest collection of prehistoric era musical instruments was found in china in between 7000 and 6600 BC .

In 1800, the Romantic era (1800-1890s) in music developed, with Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert as transitional composers who introduced a more dramatic, expressive style. During this era, existing genres, forms, and functions of music were developed, and the emotional and expressive qualities of music came to take precedence over technique and tradition. In Beethoven's case, motifs (developed organically) came to replace melody as the most significant compositional unit. The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra, and in the role of concerts as part of urban society. Later Romantic composers such as Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Gustav Mahler created complex and often much longer musical works. They used more complex chords and used more dissonance to create dramatic tension.

In 20th century, there was a fast increase in music listening as the radio gained popularity and phonographs were used to replay and distribute music. The focus of art music was characterized by exploration of new rhythms, styles, and sounds. Igor Stravinsky, Arnold Schoenberg, and John Cage were all influential composers in 20th century art music.

Music can be divided into genres and subgenres. There are three most popular genres in music, Pop, Jazz, and Rock.

Jazz is an American musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States from a confluence of African and European music traditions. The style's West African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes, improvisation, poly rhythms, and syncopation. jazz has also incorporated music from 19th and 20th century. From its beginnings in the early 20th century, Jazz has spawned a variety of subgenres, from New Orleans Dixieland dating from the early 1910s, big band-style swing from the 1930s and 1940s, bebop from the mid-1940s, a variety of Latin jazz fusions such as Afro-Cuban and Brazilian jazz from the 1950s and 1960s, jazz-rock fusion from the 1970s and late 1980s developments such as acid jazz, which blended jazz influences into funk and hip-hop. In jazz, the skilled performer will interpret a tune in very individual ways, never playing the same composition exactly the same way twice. Depending upon the performer's mood and personal experience, interactions with fellow musicians, or even members of the audience.

Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed in the 1960s from 1950s rock and roll, rockabilly, blues, and country music. The sound of rock often revolves around the electric guitar or acoustic guitar, and it uses a strong back beat laid down by a rhythm section of electric bass guitar, drums, and keyboard instruments such as organ, piano, and since the 1970s, rock also use digital synthesizers. Along with the guitar or keyboards, saxophone and blues-style harmonica are used as soloing instruments. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, rock music branched out into different subgenres, ranging from blues rock and jazz-rock fusion to heavy metal and punk rock, as well as the more classical influenced genre of progressive rock.

Pop music is a music genre that developed from the mid-1950s as a softer alternative to rock 'n' roll and later to rock music. It has a focus on commercial recording, often orientated towards a youth market, usually through the medium of relatively short and simple love songs. While these basic elements of the genre have remained fairly constant, pop music has absorbed influences from most other forms of popular music, particularly borrowing from the development of rock music, and utilizing key technological innovations to produce new variations on existing themes. The main medium of pop music is the song, often between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length, generally marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element. However The lyrics of modern pop songs typically focus on simple themes, often love and romantic relationships, although there are notable exceptions.

Performance is the physical expression of music. Often, a musical work is performed once its structure and instrumentation are satisfactory to its creators; however, as it gets performed, it can evolve and change, a performance can either be rehearsed or improvised. Musicians will sometimes add improvisation to a well-rehearsed idea to create a unique performance. Style is a part of the performance, musician or music should have their own style. Sometimes musician will add improvisation to a well-rehearsed idea to create a unique performance. Improvisation is a musical idea, which created without premeditation.

In producing music, we need a composition. Composition is often classed as the creation and recording of music via a medium by which others can interpret it. Many cultures use at least part of the concept of preconceiving musical material, or composition, as held in western classical music. Even when music is notated precisely, there are still many decisions that a performer has to make. The process of a performer deciding how to perform music that has been previously composed and notated is termed interpretation. Different performers' interpretations of the same music can vary widely. Composers and song writers who present their own music are interpreting, just as much as those who perform the music of others or folk music. The standard body of choices and techniques present at a given time and a given place is referred to as performance practice, whereas interpretation is generally used to mean either individual choices of a performer, or an aspect of music which is not clear and therefore has a standard interpretation.

Nowadays, music can be a part of business or Industry. The music industry or music business, sells compositions, recordings and performances of music. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the music industry was dominated by the publishers of sheet music. Now there are four major labels that dominate recorded music, Sony Music Entertainment, Universal Music Group, Warner Music Group and EMI, each of them consists of many smaller companies and labels serving different regions and markets. Since 2000, sales of recorded music have dropped off substantially, while live music has increased in importance. The live music industry is dominated by Live Nation, the largest promoter and music venue owner. Live Nation is a former subsidiary of Clear Channel Communications, which is the largest owner of radio stations in the United States. Other important music industry companies include Creative Artists Agency (a management and booking company) and Apple Inc. (which runs the world's largest music store, iTunes Store, and sells the iPod and iphone).

Music is something that we can learn from it. That's why there is a music school, college of music or university of music. Colleges of music and university schools of music are tertiary level institutions, and they may either be independent or part of a university. Many music schools originated as vocational training centers for would-be professional musicians, often outside the main academic structure.

Music is experienced by individuals in a range of social settings. Musical performances take different forms in different cultures and socioeconomic milieus. In Europe and North America, there is often a divide between what types of music are viewed as a high culture and low culture. High culture types of music typically include Western art music such as Baroque, Classical, Romantic, and modern-era symphonies, concertos, and solo works, and are typically heard in formal concerts in concert halls and churches, with the audience sitting quietly in seats. Other types of music, like jazz, blues, soul, and country are often performed in bars, nightclubs, and theatres, where the audience may be able to drink, dance, and express themselves by cheering. Until the late 20th century, the division between high and low musical forms was widely accepted as a valid distinction that separated out better quality, more advanced art music from the popular styles of music heard in bars and dance halls. That's what we call sociological of music.

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