Learning And Acquiring Worldwide Knowledge Cultural Studies Essay

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A Project is one of the highly effective means of learning and acquiring worldwide knowledge. It generates a concerted effort by students to acquire in-depth knowledge on a subject and present the same in systematic manner.

This Project is based on "History, Culture and Society of Pakistan" we have taken care to deal with the prescribed topics in sufficient depths and in a very lucid language. This project contains exhaustive material information for the familiarization of the prescribed topics. At the end, conclusion is added separately to gain an overall knowledge of the entire project.

We would like to mention that it was really a very good opportunity provided to us to study a well known and reputed country like Pakistan which is easy for us in understanding how things work in real life and what practical implications of our knowledge can be done. We have greatly widened our knowledge due to this project. It has been really worthwhile and has enhanced our learning to a great deal.

Along with the topics, actual data has been added accordingly. We are happy that we have gone through the study related to various fields of study of Pakistan. The present project is relevant and has a contemporary value as it throws light on the various factors that are necessary to be analyzed while creating project on History, Culture and Society of Pakistan.

Executive Summary

Every Country has their different culture and society which is related with the history of country, in a culture they have different religious, language, geography, literature, performing arts food and their festivals etc., society has also different parameter like their main religion, population, education, density etc. The country's culture and Society is mainly depend on country's past it's country's history. Pakistan is situated in the south-Middle of Asia and it has very interesting history so we decide to study "History, Culture and Society" of Pakistan.

Practical studies form an integral part of the MBA program. Only classroom training without any practice is of no use. As it is said:

"Theory without practice has no fruit,

Practice without theory has no root"

The proverb is enough to understand the interdependence of theory and practical on each other. Teaching gives on insight into the theoretical aspects of management, but implementation of theory gives practical knowledge of the management field.

In report writing various skills like analytical skills, communication skills, group behavior skills etc. are used. By writing reports students can learn all these skills. This is the reason why the practical studies are included in Bachelor program.

Project management provides a "roadmap" that is easily followed and leads to project completion. Once you know where to avoid the bumps and pots holes it stands to reason that you're going to be working smarter and not harder and longer.

Before we present this report, we would like to say that, it is a mirror on a reflection of whatever we surveyed, observed and came through during our project.

The report represents the study of Pakistan's history, culture and society. We use the different parameter for study, we study all aspects but it might be possible few aspects are left. To study Pakistan's History, Culture and society is difficult task because Pakistan have very long historical background and culture and their customs is mostly same in whole country but according geographically area there is some change in customs, language and their culture. Pakistan have also long political history and Pakistan declared itself Islamic Republic country. Pakistan's society is ethnically diverse in a Muslim community. It is largely contain rural society since independence in 1947, Pakistan has a robust and expanding economy. There is a regional diversity in Pakistan like Pakhtuns, Baloch, Punjabis, and Sindhis these all are Muslim, though they have different cultural traditions and languages.

Pakistan region is situated into the south Asia, with an approx population of 180 million people it is the sixth most populous country in the world. It is a important region in south. The motto of the Pakistan is "Faith, Unity, and Discipline" in Urdu "Iman, Ittehad, Tanzeem", the national anthem of Pakistan is "Qaumi Tarana" is approved by the government in August 1954. The National Flag of Pakistan is dark green in color with a white bar, a white crescent in the centre and a five-pointed star.

History

The history of Pakistan is very long and different-different empire was founded so Pakistan culture is developed on the basis of the empire's culture.

The earliest period of the region is the Vedic period. Vedic society and Aryan society settle down in this area and the Sanskrit epics. Ramayana and Mahabharata origins during this period, then after the era of the Achaemenid Empire during this era Parsian Empire was founded then after the Greek invasion crushing the parsian Achaemenid Empire. Alexander the great develop Greek invasion.

The other Empire are found after one to another are Maury Empire, ganadhra culture Graeco-Indians empire, Kushan empire, gupta empire, Sassanid empire, The white huns, Rajputs and Pala empire, Delhi sultanate, Mughal empire and British empire.

In the act of British parliament the act of Indian independent act on 18th July 1947. The act created to dominions Indian union and Pakistan.

After the independence in 14th August, 1947. Jinnah became 1st governor general of Pakistan. The partition of Pakistan and India along religious lines resulted in the largest migration in history with 17 million people fleeing across the borders.

Pakistan have Archaeological Heritage like Moen-jo-Daro, Harappa, Gandhara, Buddhist Remains, Taxila, Thatta etc. and it has also Architectural Heritage like as Lahore Fort, Badshahi Masjid, Jahangir Tomb, Shalimar Garden, Masjid Wazir Khan, Golden Masjid, Mahabat Khan Masjid, The Fort of Bala Hasar.

The economy of Pakistan is the 27th largest in the world in nominal terms and 47th largest in the world in terms of purchasing power parity. Pakistan has a semi-industrialized economy, which mainly encompasses textiles, chemicals, food processing, agriculture and other industries. Growth poles of Pakistan's economy are situated along the Indus River; diversified economies of Karachi and Punjab's urban centers coexist with lesser developed areas in other parts of the country.

In the first four years of the twenty-first century, Pakistan's KSE 100 Index was the best-performing stock market index in the world as declared by the international magazine "Business Week". The stock market capitalization of listed companies in Pakistan was valued at $5,937 million in 2005 by the World Bank.

With a per capita GDP of over $3000 in 2006 compared with $2600 in 2005 in 2005 the World Bank considers Pakistan a medium-income country, it is also recorded as a "Medium Development Country" on the Human Development Index 2007. Pakistan has a large informal economy, which the government is trying to document and assess. Approximately 56% of adults are literate, and life expectancy is about 64 years. The population, about 168 million in 2007, is growing at about 1.80%.

The high population growth in the past few decades has ensured that a very large number of young people are now entering the labor market. Even though it is among the seven most populous Asian nations, Pakistan has a lower population density than Bangladesh, Japan, India, and the Philippines.

Tourism in Pakistan has been stated as being the tourism industry's "next big thing". Pakistan, with its diverse cultures, people and landscapes has attracted 0.7 million tourists to the country, almost double to that of a decade ago.

The basic unit of currency is the Rupee, ISO code PKR and abbreviated Rs, which is divided into 100 paisas. Currently the newly printed 5,000 rupee note is the largest denomination in circulation.

The Pakistani rupee depreciated against the US dollar until around the start of the 21st century, when Pakistan's large current-account surplus pushed the value of the rupee up versus the dollar.

Society

Pakistani society is ethnically diverse in a Muslim community. It is largely contain rural society since independence in 1947, Pakistan has a robust and expanding economy. Pakistan's average per capita income was approached the transition line separating low-income from middle-income countries in 1990s but wealth is not properly distributed so almost one-third of all Pakistanis live in poverty. The society of Pakistan is a male-dominated society in which social development has lagged considerably behind economic change. It access to health care, and literacy, especially in females. Increasing population is affect to the limited resources and pattern of social and economic inequity.

Islam is adept by the majority of Pakistanis, Pakistan is a hierarchical society. People are respected because of their age and position. The Population density in Pakistan was last reported at 225.19 in 2010, according to a World Bank report published in 2012.

According to the Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement (PSLM) Survey 2010-11 and last PSLM 2008-09, the literacy rate for the population (10 years and above) is 58 percent during 2010-11, as compared to 57 percent in 2008-09 . Literacy remains much higher in urban areas than in rural areas and much higher for men than for women.

Pakistan is an agriculture country and 80% of its people form the rural population of the country. The villages, towns and small cities form the rural areas of Pakistan. Their main profession is cultivation and ploughing. The entire population of Pakistan is scattered and resides in villages, towns and big cities. They pursue different professions to earn their livelihood. Village is the most important and pivotal centre of rural life of Pakistan.

Urban areas in Pakistan completely differ from rural areas in the life pattern. The urban areas are the centre of social life with greater facilities and amenities of life.

The urban population of Pakistan represents about a third of the total. Two cities have a dominating position - Karachi and Lahore. Since the 1960s, government policy has been directed towards the dispersal of industry, which had become heavily concentrated in Karachi. As a consequence, urban growth has been more evenly distributed among several cities. Rapid and unplanned urban expansion has been parallel by deterioration in living conditions, particularly in the housing conditions of lower income groups.

In Pakistan the story of a woman's deprivations start even before her birth, where most of the girl fetuses are aborted. The lucky ones who survive are mostly "unwanted" children. Their life is a journey of subordination.

While being very young her parents, grandparents, elder family females, family males, and brothers decide for them on matters ranging from the very thinking to decisions and choices.

The most women in Pakistan do not have any choices starting from choice meals to choice males.

Culture

Pakistan as a separate Islamic nation it's estimated that approximately 97 percent of population are Muslim but members of several minority religions live there including Hindus, Sikhs, parsi, and Buddhists.

Culture of Pakistan is very diverse it stems it stems from the fact that what is now Pakistan has in the past been invaded and occupied by many people like as the white Huns, Persians, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and various others groups. There are different in culture of Pakistan. It's among the different ethnic groups in matters in their dress food and religion and also pre Islamic customs differ from Islamic practices. Pakistan is the first region of south Asia to receive the full impact of Islam and developed Islamic identity.

The main religion in Pakistan is islam which followed by 95.98% of people. The remaining 2.5% practice Christianity, Hinduism and other religions.

There are main two common languages are urdu and English and other languages are Punjabis, Pasto, Sindhi, and Balochi and other regional languages are Saraiki, Hindko and Brahui.

In the southern portion the city of Karachi is well known for its shorelines. Karachi was the original capital when the nation was formed in 1947 nearby Arabian Sea. In the northern section of the country consist of mountains, and also famous Khyber Pass is situated in this area.

The city of Islamabad is centrally located in the country, was officially the capital of Pakistan is in 1961. It becomes the active capital in 1966, Rawalpindi is famous ancient city of the country it consist famous government buildings and also wide variety of modern hotels and international airport.

The Pakistani literature comes after the India Pakistan partition. Basic main two types of literature, urdu literature and English literature of south Asia over a period of time.

Poetry is art and profession in Pakistan. It was originated in Persian empire. After the independence poetry is written in Urdu language and also regional language. Faiz ahmad is considered to have been Pakistan's greatest poet. Pakistan is known as land of poetry And nearly all Pakistani has written some poetry.

The Pakistani music has a large variety, folk and traditional music are famous in Pakistan, such as Qawwali and Gazal Gayaki in to modern forms synchronization of Qawwali and western music is popular. Kathak is a classical dance developed in the Mughal era and other folk dances are Bhangada, Luddi, Sammi of Punjab, Lewa, chap of Baluchistan, Attan and Khattak of Khyber and Dhammal, Ho jamalo, Jumro of sindh.

There are very similar to stage plays in theatre. They are performed in the lollywood industry.

State-owned Pakistan Television Corporation (PTV) and Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation were the dominant media outlets, but there are now numerous private television channels. Various American, European, and Asian television channels and films are available to the majority of the Pakistani population via private Television Networks, cable, and satellite television.

95% population of Pakistan is Muslims so there are main two types of food customs that are followed in daily life. One is that Muslim don't eat pork therefore beef, chicken, lamb and fish are the basic food. And second is that during the month of Ramadan fasting is a daily activity.

Spices and curries are main part of any Pakistani recipe. Spices use in daily life are chili powder, turmeric, garlic, paprika, black and red pepper, cumin seed, bay leaf, coriander, cloves, ginger, cinnamon, saffron, nutmeg and poppy seed. Because of use of spice and curry the side dish of Pakistan is plain rice, in the south part of the country food is more exotic and highly spiced.

In Pakistan marriage is known as "Nikah" in these is formal legal document signed by the bride and groom in front of several family members or witness these establish that the couple is legally married.

In Pakistan different parts lave different physical features and climates. Hence cultured differences found between the people of hills and land. The national dress of the Pakistan is shalwar qameez for both men and women. There is two type of version of shalwar qameez are available one is light cotton version for summer and second one is heavier wool version for winter, the other dresses are sherwani and achkan.

Men all over Pakistan prefer shalwar kameez with additional accessories which include Pakistani Waistcoat, Achkan and Sherwani with the shalwar kameez or with Churidar Pajama. Jinnah Cap, Fez also called Rumi Topi and Taqiyah is used with Shalwar Kameez. Khussa is a popular foot wear with shalwar kameez.

The most favorite dressing among Pakistani women is shalwar kameez which is worn in different styles, colors and designs. It is worn with different sleeve length, shirt length, necklines and different types of shalwars like patiala salwar, churidar pajama and simple trouser.

Pakistani women have large variety of traditional dresses other than Shalwar Kameez but they mostly wear them in special occasions like Wedding, Engagement, Mehndi and other traditional ceremonies.

Pakistan has different festival like Shab-a-barat, Eid-ul-fitr, Sibi festival, Sindh horse and cattle festival, Jashan-e-larkana, Basant, Pakistan day, Eid-ul-azha, Utchal, Chowna Birthday of Allama Mahammad Iqbal etc.

The national sport of Pakistan is hockey the hockey is traditionally it had been played almost exclusively in the western province of Baluchistan, but the cricket is the most popular sport in Pakistan. There are many games played in Pakistan which reflected cultural identity. Wrestling, hockey, cricket, basket ball kabaddi and squash are some of the games played all over the country.

By the use of hofstade's study of national culture we know about the Pakistan's culture on different five parameter are power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long term orientation etc.

In Pakistan, Culture of Pakistan is Islamic but Pakistan also has cultural etiquette based mainly on South Asia's influence, like as British. Culture of Pakistan is rich and vibrant. guests will find their hosts to be gracious and friendly. English is broadly spoken in major cities such as Karachi, Islamabad and Lahore and the business community. Pakistan is an exceedingly tolerant place despite its governance upon Islam. guests should note that there is a large cultural and economic gap between the social classes.

Some limitation of project

Due to Lack of time it's difficult for us to study whole aspects of history culture and society

Analysis of country's culture is difficult task to check and understood every parameter of study

Because of the time limitation, it may be possible that some important data are left out.

Due to lack of experience and knowledge of the Pakistan it can't be said that the projection has been made totally correct and accurate.

We might add here the project highlights and the important point of Pakistan's History, Culture and Society. An analysis is carried out through the organization analysis.

The Country which are taken for the project is very much known Country and it has also international reputation and good position.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The success of any task relies on the efforts made by person but it cannot be achieved without cooperation of other persons which are being helpful. So we would like to thank Gujarat Technological University and SMT. S. R. Luthra Institute of Management for giving us the opportunity of doing this project as special subjects and provides such as wonderful platform to represent ourselves as M.B.A. students.

As an institute side, it is my great pleasure to have this opportunity to express my regrets and sense of gratitude to our Director Dr.J.M.Kapadia. It is due to their help and support for this project work which would not be finished without their help.

We could not miss our Guide Ms. Parinaz Todiwala for giving the guidance and direction. It is due to their encouragement, valuable guidance and direction for this project work which would not be finished without their help. Our deep sense of gratitude to all teaching and non teaching staff of SMT. S. R. Luthra Institute of Management for their co-ordination.

We would like to sincerely thank our parents, all our friends & almighty lord who are always there to guide & nourish our thoughts & views even when the entire world has shun us. Thanks a lot.

Chetna Vaghasiya

Krishna Rank

Tejas Gardharia

Paras Patel

Vaishali Tarapara

Table of Contents

Sr. No.

Topic

Page Number

1

About Pakistan

2

History of Pakistan

3

Society of Pakistan

4

Culture of Pakistan

Bibliography

LIST OF TABLES

Table no. 2.3

Historical Timeline of Pakistan

Table no. 3.4

Population Densities in Pakistan

Table no. 4.11

Festivals

About

Pakistan

Pakistan region is situated into the south Asia, with an approx population of 180 million people it is the sixth most populous country in the world. It is a important region in south, Central and Western Asia, Pakistan has a 1,046 Kilometer coastline along the Arabian sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and bordered near India to the east, Afghanistan to the west and north, Iran to the south-west and China in the far northeast and also shares marine boarders with Oman.

The motto of the Pakistan is "Faith, Unity, and Discipline" in Urdu "Iman, Ittehad, Tanzeem", the national anthem of Pakistan is "Qaumi Tarana" is approved by the government in August 1954. The National Flag of Pakistan is dark green in color with a white bar, a white crescent in the centre and a five-pointed star. The significance of the colour and symbols used in the Pakistan Flag is as follows:

The white and dark green field represents Minorities & Muslim majority, respectively.

The crescent on the Flag represents progress.

The five-rayed star represents light and knowledge.

The State Emblem of Pakistan, which was approved by the Central Government in 1954.

The four ingredients of the Emblem are:

The crescent and star crest at the top is a traditional symbol of Islam

The shield in the centre, with four partitions, shows main crops of Pakistan which signify the strong agriculture based economy

The wreath surrounding the shield is a reproduction of the floral designs used in traditional Mughal art. Its inclusion in the design reminds of the nation's cultural heritage

The scroll supporting the shield carries the Urdu version of Quaid-e-Azam's famous motto "Faith", "Unity", Discipline. These three words articulate the guiding principles for the nation.

National Flower:- Jasmine

National Tree:- Deodar

National Animal:- Markhor

National Bird:- Chakor

History

Of Pakistan

The earliest period of the region is the Vedic period. Vedic society and Aryan society settle down in this area and the Sanskrit epics. Ramayana and Mahabharata origins during this period, then after the era of the Achaemenid Empire during this era Parsian Empire was founded then after the Greek invasion crushing the parsian Achaemenid Empire. Alexander the great develop Greek invasion.

The other Empire are found after one to another are Maury Empire, ganadhra culture Graeco-Indians empire, Kushan empire, gupta empire, Sassanid empire, The white huns, Rajputs and Pala empire, Delhi sultanate, Mughal empire and British empire.

2.1 Birth of Pakistan

In the act of British parliament the act of Indian independent act on 18th July 1947. The act created to dominions Indian union and Pakistan.

The boundaries of Pakistan emerged on the map of the world in 1947. This was on the basis of two nation's theory. For almost 25 year it consisted of two separate regions East Pakistan and West Pakistan but now it's made up by only western Pakistan. After a civil war, region of East Pakistan separated at considerable distance from West Pakistan and become independent state Bangladesh in 1971.pakistan have laid claim for the Kashmir region and these territorial dispute led to war between India and Pakistan in 1949, 1965, 1971, 1999 and it remains unresolved today.

Into the 18 century by 1857 the British became the dominant power in the region. Hindus holding the most of the economic, social and political advantages, so the formation of the nationalist Muslim league in 1906 by Mohammed ali Jinnah. The league supported Britain in the Second World War, and in return for the league's support of Britain agreed to the formation of Pakistan as a separate dominion within the commonwealth in august 1947.

2.2 Political History of Pakistan

After the independence in 14th August, 1947. Jinnah became 1st governor general of Pakistan. The partition of Pakistan and India along religious lines resulted in the largest migration in history with 17 million people fleeing across the borders.

Pakistan declared itself an Islamic republic on adoption of a constitution in 1956. But the civilian rule was stalled by the 1958 military coup d'état by Ayub khan during a period of internal instability and a second war with Indian 1965. Civilian rule resumed from 1972 to 1977 under Zulfikar ali Bhutto who became the country's third military president with the death of Zia-ul-haq in 1988, Benazir Bhutto, daughter Zulfiker ali Bhutto was elected as the first female prime minister of Pakistan over the next decade she alternated power with nawaz Sharif, during the Kargil conflict with India were followed by a 1999 coup d'état in which general pervez musharraf assumed executive powers.

In 2001 Musharraf named himself president after the resignation of Rafiq tarar, In the 2002 Parliamentary Elections, Musharraf transferred executive powers to newly elected Prime Minister Zafarullah Khan Jamali, who was succeeded in the 2004 by Shaukat Aziz. On 15 November 2007 the National Assembly of Pakistan completed its term and a caretaker government was appointed with the former Chairman of The Senate, Muhammad Mian Soomro as Prime Minister. Then Asif Ali Zardari husband of Benazir Bhutto was eventually elected as the new President in 2008.

2.3 Historical Timeline of Pakistan

1940

Jinnah calls for establishment of Pakistan in an independent and partitioned India.

1942

Cripps Mission of India, to conduct negotiations between all political parties and to set up a cabinet government. Congress adopts Quit India Resolution, to rid India of British rule. Congress leaders arrested for obstructing war effort.

1942-43

Muslim League gains more power: ministries formed in Sind, Bengal and North-West Frontier Province and greater influence in the Punjab

1944

Gandhi released from prison. Unsuccessful Gandhi-Jinnah talks, but Muslims see this as an acknowledgment that Jinnah represents all Indian Muslims.

1945

The new Labor Government in Britain decides India is strategically indefensible and begins to prepare for Indian independence. Direct Action Day riots convince British that Partition is inevitable.

1946

Muslim League participates in Interim Government that is set up according to the Cabinet Mission Plan.

1947

Announcement of Lord Mountbatten's for partition of India on 3 June. Partition of India and Pakistan, 15 August. Radcliffe Award of boundaries of the nations, 16 August.

1948

Muhammad Ali Jinnah became the first governor general of Pakistan.

1951

Prime minister Khan Liaqat Ali Khan assassinated

1954

Government of Pakistan approves the National Anthem, written by Abul Asar Hafeez Jullundhri and composed by Ahmed G. Chagla. Constituent Assembly unanimously passes the resolution in favour of Urdu and Bengali as national languages.

1956

Constituent Assembly decides the country shall be a Federal Republic known as Islamic Republic of Pakistan.

1960

Ayub Khan becomes first elected president

1965

Second war between Pakistan and India over Kashmir.

1969

Ayub Khan resigns; Yahya Khan declares martial law and assumes presidency.

1971

East Pakistan separates from West Pakistan and Bangladesh is born.

1973

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto becomes prime minister.

1978

General Muhammad Zia ul-Haq becomes Pakistan's sixth president.

1985

General elections held; Muhammad Khan Junejo becomes prime minister

1988

Zia dismisses Junejo's government, Benazir Bhutto becomes prime minister.

1990

President Ghulam Ishaq Khan dismisses Benazir Bhutto government; Mian Nawaz Sharif becomes the next prime minister

1993

President Ghulam Ishaq Khan and Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif both resign under pressure from military. Benazir Bhutto becomes prime minister for the second time

1996

President Farooq Leghari dismisses Bhutto government

1997

Nawaz Sharif becomes prime minister for the second time

1998

Pakistan conducts nuclear tests

1999

Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif overthrown in military coup led by General Pervez Musharraf.

2001

General Pervez Musharraf dismissed the president and named himself to the post.

2004

Shaukat Aziz becomes Prime Minister.

2007

Former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto assassinated in Rawalpindi.

2008

Yusuf Raza Gilani elected as a new Prime Minister.

2.3 Heritage of Pakistan

2.3.1 Archaeological Heritage

1. Moen-jo-Daro

Moen-jo-Daro was discovered in 1922, by Sir John Marshall. Before 4000 years ago, civilization was flourished there. It is situated at a distance of some kilometers from Larkana. Moen-jo-Daro stands as the most spectacular of all the excavate cities of the Indus Valley civilizaton. It was a beautiful city with brick walled houses, pillared halls, markets, baths, lanes, streets and public places and every house had walls, drains and bathrooms inside it.

2. Harappa

Harappa is situated in the city of Sahiwal. Scientists and archaeologists believe that Harappa also belongs to the Indus Valley Civilization. Remains of this city were excavated in the 1920.

3. Gandhara

The Gandhara was comprising of 3 regions namely, Northern Punjab, Peshwar valley and eastern Afghanistan. It is comparatively a new civilization. For a long time it remained the meeting place of various ancient cultures, as it was rule by many rulers. A distinctive art which is known as Gandhara Art took place from here and flourished during the 2nd and 3rd century of Christian era. Thousands monasteries and stupas were Buddha's figures, shapes and monasteries all made prominent features of Gandhara Arts.

4. Buddhist Remains

The Buddhist era ushered in some 500 years B.C. The Buddhist monastery found to be 2-5 century old. Some mounds were also found near Peshawar which represents Kanishka's mighty Pakistan. An impressive complex of Chapels, Stupas, quadrangles and monk's cells are also found. The great Buddhist civilization is now forming the heritage of the present Pakistan Culture.

5. Taxila

It was digged out in recent times near Rawalpindi. Taxila is the most popular name in history. It came into prominence during the Persian occupation. This city was the nucleus of religious and cultural activities.

6. Thatta

The principle monuments of Thatta are located on the Makli Hill.The main town of Thatta is famous for specimens of Indo-Muslim architecture in the Sub Continent. Notable among them is the great mosque built by Shah-Jahan.

2.3.2 Architectural Heritage

1. Lahore Fort

It is also known as the Shahi Qila. It was built by famous king, Akbar. The main structures inside the fort are the Moti Masjid, Diwan-e-Aam, Maktab Khana, the Shish Mahal and Nawlakha. The other remarkable constructions are the Hathi and Alamgir gates.

2. Badshahi Masjid

Badshahi masjid was built by Aurangzeb. Its architecture is somewhat similar to the Jamia Masjid Delhi. The masjid had been built with red stones while the domes are in marble.

3. Jahangir Tomb

Jahangir tomb was built by Shah Jahan. It is known as a fine building of the Lahore.

4. Shalimar Garden

It is located on the Grand Trunk Road. And this garden is a magnificent remnant of Mughal Granduer. The garden constitutes of three terraces, one above the other. Besides there is an elaborate and beautiful reservoir, water channels and fountains.

5. Masjid Wazir Khan

It was built by a viceroy of Punjab, Nawab Wazir, under Shan.

It is situated in Kashmir Bazaar inside the walls of the old city.

6. Golden Masjid

This Golden Masjid was built during the rule of Mohammad Shah and it is situated near Masjid Wazir Khan. It is also a very beautiful piece of architecture.

7. Mahabat Khan Masjid

This masjid was built by a Governor of Peshawar, Mahabat Khan, during Shah Jahan's reign. It has a fine massive structure with lofty minarets.

8. The Fort of Bala Hasar

This fort of bala hasar was built on raised platform 92 feet from the ground level. There are two gardens near the fort.

2.4 Economy of Pakistan

In terms of purchasing power parity, the economy of Pakistan is the 27th largest in the world in nominal terms and 47th largest in the world. Pakistan has a semi-industrialized economy, which mainly consists of textiles, chemicals, food processing, agriculture and other industries. Growth poles of Pakistan's economy are situated along the Indus River; diversified economies of Karachi and Punjab's urban centers coexist with lesser developed areas in other parts of the country. The economy has suffered in the past from decades of internal political disputes, a fast growing population, mixed levels of foreign investment, and a costly, ongoing confrontation with neighboring India. Foreign exchange reserves are bolstered by steady worker remittances, but a growing current account deficit - driven by a widening trade gap as import growth outstrips export expansion - could draw down reserves and dampen GDP growth in the medium term.

Stock market

During the first four years of the twenty-first century, according to international magazine "Business Week", Pakistan's KSE 100 Index was the best-performing stock market index in the world. The stock market capitalization of listed companies in Pakistan was valued at $5,937 million in 2005 by the World Bank. But in 2008, after the General Elections, uncertain political environment, rising militancy along western borders of the country, and mounting inflation and current account deficits resulted in the steep decline of the Karachi Stock Exchange. As a result, the corporate sector of Pakistan has declined dramatically in recent times. However the market bounced back strongly in 2009 and the trend continues in 2011.

Demographics

The per capita GDP in the year 2006 is $3000, which is compared with $2600 of the year 2005 and the World Bank considers Pakistan as a medium-income country. It is also recorded as a "Medium Development Country" on the Human Development Index 2007. Pakistan has a large informal economy, which the government is trying to document and assess. Approximately 56% of adults are literate, and life expectancy is about 64 years. The population, about 168 million in 2007, is growing at about 1.80%.

In the past, relatively very few resources had been devoted to socio-economic development or infrastructure projects. Inadequate provisions of social services, high birth rates and immigration from nearby countries in the past have contributed to a persistence of poverty. An influential recent study concluded that the fertility rate peaked in the 1980s, and has since fallen sharply. Pakistan has a family-income Gini index of 41, close to the world average of 39.

Employment

In the past few decades, the high population growth has ensured that a very large number of young people are now entering the labor market. Even though it is among the seven most populous Asian nations, Pakistan has a lower population density than Bangladesh, Japan, India, and the Philippines. In the past, excessive red tape made firing from jobs, and consequently hiring, difficult. Significant progress in taxation and business reforms has ensured that many firms now are not compelled to operate in the underground economy.

In the end of year 2006, the government had launched an ambitious nationwide service employment scheme aimed at disbursing almost $2 billion over five years.

In the year 2009, mean wages were $0.98 per man hour. Rate of unemployment is 25%.

In spite of cultural resistance and domestic abuse over the issue, High inflation and limited wage growth have drawn more women into the workforce to feed their families and for financial support.

Tourism

Tourism in Pakistan has been stated as "next big thing" in the tourism industries. Pakistan, with its diverse cultures, people and landscapes has attracted 0.7 million tourists to the country, almost double to that of a decade ago.

During the 1970s, Pakistan's tourism industry was in its heyday when the country received unprecedented amounts of foreign tourists, thanks to the Hippie trail. The main destinations of choice for these tourists were the Khyber Pass, Peshawar, Karachi, Lahore, Swat, Quetta, Gwadar and Rawalpindi.

The country's attraction are widely ranges from the ruin of civilization such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Taxila, to the Himalayan hill stations, which attracts tp those interested in winter sports. Pakistan is home to several mountain peaks over 7000 m, which attracts adventurers and mountaineers from around the world. The north part of Pakistan has many old fortresses, ancient architecture and the Hunza and Chitral valley, home to small pre-Islamic Animist Kalasha community claiming descent from Alexander the Great. The romance of the historic Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province is timeless and legendary; Punjab province has the site of Alexander's battle on the Jhelum River and the historic city of Lahore, Pakistan's cultural capital, with many examples of Mughal architecture such as Badshahi Masjid, Shalimar Gardens, Tomb of Jahangir and the Lahore Fort. Before the Global economic crisis, Pakistan received more than 500,000 tourists annually. Tourism in Pakistan is still a growing industry. Major attractions today include ruins of Indus valley civilization and mountain resorts in the Himalayas, Himalayan and Karakoram Range.

2.5 Currency System in Pakistan

Rupee

The basic unit of currency in Pakistan is the Rupee, ISO code PKR and abbreviated as Rs, which is divided into 100 paisas. Currently the newly printed 5,000 rupee note is the largest denomination in circulation. Recently the SBP has introduced all new design notes of Rs. 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 500, 1000, and 5000 denomination, while the design work of Rs.10,000 note is in progress which will help the banking industry in keeping few notes in saving accounts. The new notes have been designed using the euro technology and are made in eye-catching bright colors and bold, stylish designs.

Dollar-Rupee exchange rates

The Pakistani Rupee was stabilized to the Pound sterling until 1982, when the government of General Zia-ul-Haq, changed it to managed float. As a result, the rupee devalued by 38.5% between 1982/83 many of the industries built by his predecessor suffered with a huge surge in import costs. After years of appreciation under Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and despite huge increases in foreign aid the Rupee depreciated.

Foreign exchange rate

In the start of 21st century, The Pakistani rupee depreciated against the US dollar, when Pakistan's large current-account surplus pushed the value of the rupee up versus the dollar. Pakistan's central bank then stabilized by lowering interest rates and buying dollars, in order to preserve the country's export competitiveness.

Foreign exchange reserves

Pakistan mainly maintains foreign reserves with its State Bank of Pakistan. The currency of the reserves was solely US dollar incurring speculated losses after the Dollar prices fell during 2005, forcing the then Governor SBP Ishrat Hussain to step down. In the same year the SBP issued an official statement proclaiming diversification of reserves in currencies including Euro and Yen, withholding ratio of diversification.

Pakistan raised back its Foreign Reserves to $16.4 billion in October 2007, at the end of Prime Minister Shaukat Aziz's tenure. Pakistan's trade deficit was at $13 billion, exports grew to $18 billion, revenue generation increased to become $13 billion and the country attracted foreign investment of $8.4 billion. However, following the international credit crisis and spikes in crude oil prices Pakistan's economy could not withstand the pressure and on October 11, 2008 State Bank of Pakistan reported that country's foreign exchange reserves had gone down by $571.9 Million to $7749.7 Million. The foreign exchange reserves had declined more by $10 billion to an alarming rate of $6.59 billion.

The State Bank of Pakistan reported reserves to hit an all time high of $18.25 billion, in July 2011.

2.6 Foreign Trade

Investment

During the first nine months of fiscal year 2006, Foreign direct investment in Pakistan soared by 180.6 per cent year-on-year to US $2.22 billion and portfolio investment by 276 per cent to $407.4 million, as per the State Bank of Pakistan's report on April 24. During July-March 2005-06, FDI year-on-year increased to $2.224 billion from only $792.6 million and portfolio investment to $407.4 million, whereas it was $108.1 million in the corresponding period last year, according to the latest statistics released by the State Bank. Pakistan has achieved FDI of almost $8.4 billion in the financial year 06/07, surpassing the government target of $4 billion. Foreign investment had significantly declined by 2010, dropping by 54.6% due to Pakistan's political instability and weak law and order, according to the Bank of Pakistan.

Pakistan is now emerging as the most investment-friendly nation in South Asia. Business regulations have been profoundly overhauled along liberal lines, especially since 1999. Most barriers to the flow of capital and international direct investment have been removed. Foreign investors do not face any restrictions on the inflow of capital, and investment of up to 100% of equity participation is allowed in most sectors. Unlimited remittance of profits, dividends, service fees or capital is now the rule. Business regulations are now among the most liberal in the region. This was confirmed by the World Bank's Ease of Doing Business Index report published in September 2009 ranking Pakistan at 85th well ahead of neighbors like China at 89th and India at 133rd.

Pakistan is attracting an increasingly large amount of private equity. based on the amount of private equity entering the nation, Pakistan is rank as number 20 in the world. Pakistan has been able to attract a large portion of the global private equity investments because of economic reforms initiated in 2003 that have provided foreign investors with greater assurances for the stability of the nation and their ability to repatriate invested funds in the future.

Tariffs have been reduced to an average rate of 16% and with a maximum of 25%. The privatization process, which started in the early 1990s, has gained momentum, with most of the banking system privately owned, and the oil sector targeted to be the next big privatization operation.

International rating agencies such as Moody's and Standard and Poor's have recognized the recent improvements in the economy and the business environment.

Society

Of Pakistan

Pakistani society is mainly ethnically diverse in a Muslim community. It mainly and largely contains rural society since independence in 1947; Pakistan has a robust and expanding economy. Pakistan's average per capita income was approached the transition line separating low-income from middle-income countries in 1990s but wealth is not properly distributed so almost one-third of all Pakistanis live in poverty. The society of Pakistan is a male-dominated society in which social development has lagged considerably behind economic change. It access to health care, and literacy, especially in females. Increasing population is affect to the limited resources and pattern of social and economic inequity.

Pakistan was independent in 1947, as a separate homeland for Muslims, because 97 percent of Pakistanis were Muslims. The founders of Pakistan hoped that religion would provide a coherent focus for national identity, a focus that would mainly consider on country's ethnic and linguistic variations. Although this aspiration has not been completely fulfilled, Pakistani society has a presence of Islam, and debate continues about its appropriate role in national civic life. During the 1990s, Islamic discourse has been less prominent in political controversy, but the role that Islamic law should play in the country's affairs and governance remains an important issue.

There is a regional diversity in Pakistan. The different people are Pakhtuns, Baloch, Punjabis, and Sindhis. Though these all are Muslim, they have different cultural traditions and languages. And also ethnic regional, more prominently for the average individual than national loyalties. Punjabis are the most ethnic group; dominate in the central government and the military. Baloch, Pakhtuns, and Sindhis find the Punjabi rules provincial autonomy. Ethnic mixing within each province further complicates social and political relations.

3.1 Islam

Majority of Pakistanis have adopted Islam and governs their personal, political, economic and legal lives. Among certain obligations for Muslims are to pray five times a day - at dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening, Friday is the Muslim holy day. Everything is closed during the holy month of Ramadan all Muslims must fast from dawn to dusk and are only permitted to work six hours per day. Fasting includes no eating, drinking, cigarette smoking, or gum chewing.

3.2 The Family

The extended family is the basis for the social structure and individual identity; it includes the nuclear family, immediate relatives, distant relatives, tribe members, friends, and neighbors and loyalty to the family comes before any other social relationships, even business.

Nepotism is viewed positively in Pakistan, since it guarantees in hiring people who can be trusted, which is crucial in a country, where working with those people to whom one knows and trusts is of primary importance. The family is more private than in many other cultures. Female relatives are protected from outside influences. It is considered inappropriate to ask questions about a Pakistani's wife or other female relatives. Families are quite large by western standards, often having up to 6 children.

3.3 Hierarchical Society

Pakistan is one of the examples of hierarchical society. All those People are respected because of their age and position. Older people are viewed as wise and are granted respect. In a social situation, they are served first and their drinks may be poured for them. Elders are introduced first, are provided with the choicest cuts of meat, and in general are treated much like royalty. Pakistanis expect the most senior person, by age or position, to make decisions that are in the best interest of the group. Titles are very important and denote respect. It is expected that you will use a person's title and their surname until invited to use their first name.

3.4 Population density in Pakistan

In 2010, The Population density in Pakistan was last reported at 225.19, according to a World Bank report published in 2012.

Density of Population' is defined as the number of persons per square kilometre. It is an important index of population which shows concentration of population in a particular area. That is, Population density is midyear population divided by land area in square kilometers.

Year

Value

2000

187.48

2001

191.41

2002

195.11

2003

198.66

2004

202.18

2005

205.80

2006

209.52

2007

213.32

2008

217.21

2009

221.17

2010

225.19

C:\Documents and Settings\srlim\Desktop\pakistan-population-density-people-per-sq-km-wb-data.png

 Source: http://www.tradingeconomics.com

According to present census, Karachi Division is the most densely populated division in Pakistan. Its density of population is more than 2000 persons per square kilometer.

 Baluchistan province is the largest according to area, but it is thinnest according to population.

3.5 Education

Education in Pakistan is divided into five levels:

First level is primary, which grades one through five; middle level,which grades six through eight; high level, which grades nine and ten; leading to the Secondary School Certificate; intermediate which grades eleven and twelve, leading to a Higher Secondary School Certificate; and university programs leading to graduate and advanced degrees.

All the academic education institutions are the responsibility of the provincial governments. The federal government mostly assists in curriculum development, accreditation and some financing of research.

On a phased basis, English medium education is to be extended to all schools across the country. Through various educational reforms, by the year 2015, the ministry of education expects to attain 100% enrolment levels amongst primary school aged children, and a literacy rate of 86% amongst people aged over 10.

According to the PSLM Survey, that is,Pakistan Social and Living Standard Measurement Survey conducted in 2010-11 and last PSLM 2008-09, the literacy rate for the population (10 years and above) is 58 percent during 2010-11, as compared to 57 percent in 2008-09 . Literacy remains much higher in urban areas than in rural areas and much higher for men than for women. Province wise data suggest that Punjab leads with 60 percent literacy followed by Sindh with 59 percent, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with 50 percent and Balochistan with 41 percent.

The Gross Enrolment Rates at the primary level excluding katchi for the age group 5-9 years at National level during 2010-11 increased slightly to 92 percent as compared to 91 percent in 2008-09. Amongst the provinces, Punjab shows a marginal increase from 97 percent in 2008-09 to 98 percent in 2010-11. Sindh remained stable with 84 percent, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa improved from 87 percent to 89 percent and Balochistan declined slightly from 75 percent to 74 percent in 2010-11.

The Net primary level for enrolment rates at the National or Provincial level for the age group 5-9 years. The NER at the National level during 2010-11 slightly decreased to 56 percent from 57 percent in 2008-09. Punjab shows a decrease from 62 percent in 2008-09 to 61 percent in 2010-11. Sindh also shows decrease from 54 percent to 53 percent in 2010-2011, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa witnessed a decrease from 52 percent to 51 percent and Balochistan improved from 44 percent in 2008-9 to 47 percent in 2010-11.

The overall number of enrolments during 2010-11 was 39900.3 thousands as compared to 38202.0 thousands during the same period last year. This shows an increase of 4.4 percent. It is estimated to increase to 41596.5 thousands during 2011-12. The number of institutes stood at 227.8 thousand during 2010-11 as compared to 228.4 thousand during the same period 2009-10. However, the number is estimated to increase to 228.3 thousand during 2011-12. The number of teachers during 2010-11 were 1409.4 thousand as compared to 1386.1 thousand during the same period 2009-10 showing an increase of 1.7 percent. This number is estimated to increase further to 1445.0 thousand during the year 2011-12.

A total of 1,34,118 youth had received vocational and technical training under the President's "Funni Maharat Programme" and Prime Minister's "Hunermand Pakistan Programme".

HEC is also playing its leading role in running different scholarship programmes, to enhance the academic qualification at various levels on merit basis in line with requirement. During the period 2008-12 a number of 3996 scholarships were awarded under different programmes,3572 scholars proceeded to avail these programmes on merit basis and a number of 1650 scholars completed their studies.

3.6 Rural Society

Pakistan is an agricultural country and 80% of its people are from the rural population of the country. The villages, towns and small cities form the rural areas of Pakistan. Their main profession is cultivation and ploughing. The entire population of Pakistan is scattered and resides in villages, towns and big cities. They pursue different professions to earn their livelihood. Village is the most important and pivotal centre of rural life of Pakistan. Our villages badly lack in civic amenities. There is no proper system of drainage. The drinking water and electricity are not available in a large number of our villages. There are no hospitals, schools, post offices and markets in most of the villages making the life difficult and unhygienic. The village population, due to the difficult living environs in the villages, keeps on migrating to urban areas where better facilities of social life and brighter chances of earning sustenance are available.

However, the Government is very much connected with the problems of rural areas. The Government is making sincere endeavours to improve the conditions of rural areas. Modern facilities of health and communication are being provided in the rural areas. Roads, dispensaries, schools, post offices and shopping centers have been provided at Government level. The facility of drinking water and electricity has been made available to a number of villages.

3.7 Urban Society

Urban areas of Pakistan are completely differing from rural areas in the life pattern. The urban areas are the centre of social life with greater facilities and amenities of life.

The urban population of Pakistan represents about a third of the total population of the country. Two cities have a dominating position - Karachi and Lahore. Since the 1960s, government policy has been directed towards the dispersal of industry, which had become heavily concentrated in Karachi. As a consequence, urban growth has been more evenly distributed among several cities. Rapid and unplanned urban expansion has been parallel by deterioration in living conditions, particularly in the housing conditions of lower income groups. Many urban households are unable to pay rent for the cheapest form of available housing and live in makeshift shacks. Water supply and sewerage system are inadequate, and in many areas residents have to share communal water taps. Inadequate urban transport is also a major problem.

The urban areas, unlike rural areas, are well-developed and well-built with the modern residential colonies. The big cities, which form the portion of our urban areas, are the centers of high modern education. A large number of prestigious educational institutions are situated in the big cities which attract the students from all parts of the country. The urban areas have become the centre of social activity because of their multifarious aspects of social life. The industrial progress and the location of Government and other departments in the urban areas have made these areas prosperous and progressing.

3.8 Difference between Rural and Urban Society of Pakistan

Function

Villages and towns of Pakistan differ in their function. Villages are usually engaged in primary activities, including farming, animal keeping, lumbering, fishing etc. Towns are engaged in secondary and tertiary activities, like manufacturing, trade, transport, telecommunications, education, medical treatment and other activities. However, these two sets of activities are not exclusively confined to rural and urban areas. Shops, transportation services, educational and medical facilities are found in rural areas, too.

Similarly, there are vegetable fields within Karachi, Lahore and other major cities. It is more a question of the predominance of one set of activities over the other. As a consequence, the line of distinction between a small town and a large village is difficult to determine.

Lifestyle

Some specialists believe that lifestyle is a distinguishing feature of towns and villages. According to them, close contact with other members of the community is a distinctive feature of rural life. The inhabitants of a village, for example, usually know each other personally. In urban areas, on the other hand, relationships tend to be impersonal; urban areas are so highly populated that most people do not even know who their neighbours are. This is case in large urban centres like Karachi. However, even in places like Karachi, there are pockets in the city where people who belong to the same community or village live. In such areas people know each other and have closer contact with their neighbours. In small towns, which are in reality overgrown villages, most people know one another as well.

It is also argued that while village life is traditional, urban life is rational. This is not entirely the case in Pakistan. Most of the urban population in Pakistan has a strong rural background. Although the use of urban facilities changes their way of living, it does not change their way of thinking much. In Pakistan, the lifestyles of the rich and poor differ far more than the lifestyles of city and village dwellers. The objective application of lifestyle as a factor for distinguishing between villages and towns is therefore difficult.

Population

Another factor which distinguishes villages and towns is, population. Although this criterion is applied in many countries, there is no agreement on size. In Canada, for example, a settlement with a population of more than 1,000 is considered urban, in Japan more than 30,000 and in Pakistan, 5,000. In Pakistan, a settlement can also call itself a town if it has a two committee or cantonment that controls electricity, the water supply and drainage. For example, Ziarat in Balochistan had a population of 619 in 1998, but it was still classified as a town because it had these amenities. However, there are only ten towns with populations of less than 5,000 out of a total 478 urban centres in Pakistan.

3.9 The Status of Women in Pakistan

In Pakistan, the story of a woman's troubles get start even before her birth, where most of the girl fetuses are aborted. The lucky ones who survive are mostly "unwanted" children. Their life is a journey of subordination.

While being very young, her parents, grandparents, elder family females, family males, and brothers decide for them on matters ranging from the very thinking to decisions and choices.

Most of the women in Pakistan even do not have any choices starting from choice meals to choice males.

Before marriage, the women are under strict watching eyes and are always thought as doubtful in character; especially when any girl is a school going human, smiling on other males. In this secondary status treatment and doubts their marriages are arranged by the families.

After marriage, the woman's husband and her in-laws get hold of her reins and decide matters on her behalf; like shall she or shall she not have a child every year, or whether she would produce only boys, or whether she can seek independent employment and so on.

Finally, when she becomes old and her husband gets weak or may have gone already, it is her son or sons who decide her fate in the declining years of her life.

As if all this is not enough, the whole society acts as an oppressor, browbeating her into obedience.

In addition to that, a woman in Pakistan faces all kinds of gross violence and abuse at the hands of the male perpetrators, family members, and state agents. Multiple forms of violence include rape, domestic abuse as spousal murder, mutilation, burning and disfiguring faces by acid, beatings, ritual honor-killings, and custodial abuse and torture.

According to a report by Amnesty International, in Pakistan several hundred women and girls die each year in so-called "honor-killings", in a backdrop to government inaction. She is killed like a bird in family feuds to create evidence of "illicit" connections and cover them under the garb of "grave and sudden provocation" to escape severe punishment.

The practice of Summary-killing of a woman suspected of an unallowable liaison, known as "Karo Kari" in Sindh and Balochistan, which is known to occur in all parts of the country. Kari's (the females suspected of illicit relationships), remain dishonored even after death.

Women's bodies are thrown into rivers or buried in special hidden Kari graveyards. Nobody mourns for them or honors their memory by performing their relevant rights. Karo's (the males suspected of illicit relationships), by contrast are reportedly buried in the communal graveyards. The promise made by the country's Chief Executive in April 2000, that all "honor" killings would be treated as murders has yet to be converted into anything nearing reality.

Women who report against rape or sexual harassment, faced with a series of obstacles. These include not only the police, who resist filing their claims and misreport their statements but also the medico-legal doctors, who focus more on their virginity status and lack the training and expertise to conduct adequate examinations.

Furthermore, women who file charges open themselves up to the possibility of being prosecuted for illicit sex, if they fail to "prove" rape, under the 1979 Hudood Ordinance which criminalizes adultery and fornication. As a result, when women victims of violence resort to the judicial system for redress, they are more likely to find further abuse and victimization.

As far as domestic violence is concerned, it is the most under-reported crime, because it is generally overlooked by social customs and considered as a private family matter.

Thus, the word "woman" in Pakistan is synonymous with "endurance." She is simply forced to accept those certain bare facts of life; once she grows up to be a woman. Be it on streets, or for that matter in restaurants, a woman is first and foremost required to be alert. It is best to try and not notice, women are told. According to Hina Jilani, Lawyer and Human Rights Activist, "the right to life of women in Pakistan is conditional on their obeying social norms and traditions."

Culture

Of Pakistan

After the independence from Great Britain in 1947, took part of the land of India and created Pakistan as a separate Islamic nation it's estimated that approximately 97 percent of population are Muslim but members of several minority religions live there including Hindus, Sikhs, parsi, and Buddhists.

Culture of Pakistan is very diverse it stems it stems from the fact that what is now Pakistan has in the past been invaded and occupied by many people like as the white Huns, Persians, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and various others groups. There are different in culture of Pakistan. It's among the different ethnic groups in matters in their dress food and religion and also pre Islamic customs differ from Islamic practices. Pakistan is the first region of south Asia to receive the full impact of Islam and developed Islamic identity.

Pakistan geography is the mixture of south Asia, central Asia and west Asia so the culture of Pakistan is unique then the rest of countries, it's a combination of Islamic, regional, E

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