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According to Hodgetts [2006, p.93-94] the word 'Culture' comes from the Latin Cultura, which means worship and in the broadest sense it refers to the result of human interaction. It is acquired knowledge which helps people to interpret experience and generate social behavior.
Leadership appears to be a universal phenomenon but there has been no society where cultural norms have completely substituted for it. A variety of definitions for leadership accommodates the diversity of appearances that leadership may take among and within cultures and organizations. (Bass, 1990)
Furthermore, cultures are not static; they are dynamic and continually evolving. This growth varies from culture to culture and from time to time within the same culture. The associated beliefs, values, and other elements of culture at a single point in time may not necessarily be the same at a later time in the same culture; hence the immensely complicated task of examining leadership across different cultures.
Moreover, they underscored the importance of understanding cultural differences between countries. Studies have borne out Bass's attention to cultural analysis at the national level: The interdependence of global economic, social, and political arrangements requires people of one country to collaborate with citizens of another. Since Bass's comments, further study has shown that the success of the work of one nation's people in another culture is based upon understanding cultural differences, including the difference among attitudes towards the practice of leadership. (Adler, 2008,)
Yet there are rewards for this effort to understand a changing phenomenon from different and conflicting perspectives. Bass posed intriguing questions for the effort to determine the cultural components of leadership: How much can we generalize about leadership from one culture to another? Are some elements of leadership universal while others are culturally relative? The internationalization of business and the global village prompt these questions, for managers educated and experienced in one country and culture must know what decision-making practices and leadership styles are best suited for another country and culture.
Nongovernmental organizations and international government agencies are multinational organizations as much as some corporations are. International understanding and cooperation as well as misunderstanding and war may depend, in part, on how well we understand our similarities and differences.
Knowing the cultural expectations that group members have themselves, and person in authority provides one avenue of understanding the leadership. While the scholarship of leadership and authority within a particular culture continues, other research looks for patterns among national cultures or common patterns that may be used to analyze, compare, and differentiate national cultures. Associating countries by cultural affinities permits the creation of clusters, thus reducing the number of units to analyze.
The clusters permit a summary that displays cross-cultural similarities and differences and allows for a preliminary sketch of leadership patterns found among a group of nations. History, geography, language, religion, the stage of technological development, and related factors contribute to the formation of these clusters. In addition, countries are clustered according to factors such as leadership style preferences, autocratic or democratic, interpersonal values- conformity, recognition, and benevolence and the like (Bass, 1990, p. 84).
One early synthesis of cross-cultural leadership studies found eight clusters roughly corresponding to geographic proximity- Arab, Near Eastern, Far Eastern, Latin (Spanish) America, Latin Europe, Nordic, and Germanic. The eighth cluster, Anglo, was far more geographically dispersed but tied together by a common language and colonial background. Nations in this cluster included Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Four countries seemed to fall outside any cluster. Brazil was too Portuguese, indigenous, and African to be part of Latin (Spanish) America. India was too Eastern and Anglo to belong to either cluster. Japan differed greatly from other Far Eastern cluster countries because of its early adoption of Western technologies.
In addition, Israel was too European and Anglo to fit in with Arab cluster countries (Ronen & Shenkar, cited in Bass, 1990, p. 764). Subsequent work also uses clustering, with some variations in the assignment of countries.
Culture and cultural dimensions
According to New York education department (cultural project, 1988)"culture is reflected in the way people live their lives and can be found in different forms all over the world".
It is an umbrella word that includes a whole set of understood widely shared beliefs, traditions, ethics that charade an exacting group of people. It identifies the uniqueness of the social unit, its values and beliefs. Like nations, ethnic groups, organizations, industries and occupational groups have cultures too. Thus we can speak of the culture of African Americans, Hispanics. Physicians, lawyers, engineers, etc.
The basics of culture such as language, family structure, society norms, traditions, time orientation and gender role impact on consumers behavior, argues that individuals behavior is influenced more by their culture than any other factors. Culture defines the character of a society and may change over periods of time. Thus culture change has significant implications on cross-cultural marketing and makes, it imperative to adjust marketing strategies over time. Alternative models are available to measure national cultural differences. Arguably, the most widely utilized dimensions of culture are the five presented by Hofstede (2001) and his colleagues from their instrument called the Values Survey Module (VSM). Briefly, they are:
Individualism - The degree to which cultures encourage individual concerns as opposed to collectivist concerns.
Masculinity - The extents to which gender roles are clearly distinct. I.e. in masculine societies men are believed to be self-confident, tough and focused on material achievements while in feminine societies social gender roles overlap.
Uncertainty avoidance -It shows that how much should people rely on social norms to avoid uncertainty. It is the degree to which people feel threatened by uncertain situations and have beliefs and institutions that try to avoid these.
Gender egalitarianism - The amount of effort to be put into minimizing the gender discrimination.
Power-distance - This describes that the less powerful members of the organization accept power to be distributed unequally and obey orders of their superiors blindly. It encourages inequality between staff at different levels.
Cross Culture Marketing
Cross-cultural marketing can be applied to global as well as domestic-ethnic markets. Its application necessitates the use of knowledge and information for the purpose of customizing products/services and Strategies according to national and ethnic cultural characteristics.
Cross-cultural marketing should not be thought synonymous with international marketing or globalization. International marketing may take one of two different approaches to market a product or service, standardization or adaptation. If the product or service is thought to be universally or globally applicable (i.e. culture free), the marketing manager will take the standardization' approach. Otherwise, the product or service must be modified for each market with considerations of the host country's cultural influences, thus, adaptation. Pizza huts 100 per cent pure vegetarian dishes served in India are an example of such an adaptation approach. Cross-cultural marketing Utilizes the product/service adaptation approach for cross-national borders markets, domestic-ethnic markets, or both.
Globalization has been linked to the view that the world is a single market of consumers with a single global culture. Thus according to this school of thought the marketing mix can be standardized for the global market, corporations such as Coca Cola, McDonalds Pizza Hut and IBM may have created a 'global culture of their own' (i.e. corporate culture of a global company), but this is not to imply that the world may soon become a single market with a homogeneous culture. Modernization does not automatically change, for example, collectivistic into individualistic values. The westernization in Japan is one of the examples of this.
The Japanese have shown signs of westernizing - i.e. becoming individualistic - because young people in Japan are becoming more self-centered in their personal consumption behaviors, although their relationships to their families and employers are still traditional - i.e. collectivistic and hierarchic. World cultures may converge but they still retain their uniqueness. International marketing implies marketing across the globe and cross-national borders. It does not intend to cover marketing efforts domestically within multicultural nations such as Britain and the USA. Multicultural marketing within the borders of a nation, the domestic-ethnic marketing, is aimed at various ethnic groups in the home country.
Ethnic minority groups have rapidly grown larger in size and gradually integrated into societies of their host countries. In the USA and other multi-ethnic countries many hospitality and tourism companies have tapped the exponentially increasing purchasing power of ethnic minorities. For example Choice Hotels has 40 per cent of their hotels franchised to ethnic groups in (lie USA and Best Western has 28 per cent of their properties, worldwide, owned or franchised by Asian Americans. It is no secret that hotel properties that are owned, franchised, or managed by ethnic minorities are culturally acceptable to ethnic minority customers.
Cross-cultural differences between ethnic minority groups and the host nations' majorities affect marketing strategies. Cross-cultural marketing research on ethnic minority groups has been growing during the last several decades. For example, studied Hispanic and non-Hispanic consumer shopping behavior.
Knowledge of cultural differences and similarities is important in the development of international and ethnic marketing strategies. In recent cases, cross-cultural marketing has received attention from both business sectors and academia. Researchers have developed and applied cultural models for cross-cultural consumer behavior studies. (Hofstede, 2001)
Cross cultural consumer behavior in Hospitality and Tourism
Until recently the role of national cultural characteristics in determining tourist behavior had not been given much attention in hospitality and tourism research. However, the examination of cultural differences is especially relevant to tourism consumer behavior. Several studies conducted from the UK. Israel, Korea and the Netherlands, assessed the explanatory value of nationality in regard to tourist behavior.
These studies showed that nationality influences tourist behavior and that there was a significant perceived difference between the tourist behaviors of the affected nationalities. Other researchers have also noted from their own structured observations, marked differences between the behaviors of Japanese, American, Western European and Arab tourists.
Whether their associates represent legitimate interests, since their accountability is often questioned. Most national tourism organizations stress their operation on marketing and promotional matters, while neglecting the provision of strategic vision for the destination. They also fail to take measures to optimize the multiplier effects that may emerge if proper and interconnected networks integrating the entire economy are set up.
The operation of most regional and local tourism organizations in countries such as Spain, Portugal, France etc., is based on administrative territories' rather than product -based territories'. Tourism organizations are created in accordance with existing administrative borders set up for other purposes (e.g. town planning. environment. education, health. etc.). However, it is becoming clear that tourism clusters often do not coincide with borders established for other administrative purposes, which means that collaboration between regions, or even between countries is required. Rethinking the way in which tourist territories' are established is critical.
It is unquestionable that tourism planning has much to benefit it, if it is designed and managed alongside other forms of planning. Tourism involves core business activities addressing tourist needs. However, infrastructure should also be used for improving the living standards of the local population and for stimulating regional development. The benefits of designing policies able to meet the demands of both tourists and residents are enormous, from an economic point of view (more users and thus more income is generated and therefore the multiplier effect is maximized), from a social perspective (forms of dual development and antagonism towards tourism may be avoided) and also from a development point of view (investment is concentrated at spots and scale economics can be achieved).
While it is important to plan, especially regional, tourism planning alongside other forms of regional planning (town. health. environment, etc.). It must be said that at local level greater flexibility should be introduced, in order to allow businesses and organizations to organize themselves within economic, social and physical viable and sustainable clusters. While forms of strategic planning ought to be considered at regional level alongside regional planning, greater levels of freedom should be allowed at local level, because people must organize themselves in viable clusters that depend very much on their own wishes and on their investment capacities.
It is seen that this tendency is already emerging and gaining popularity worldwide. The Tourism Satellite Accounts developed by the WTO provide a great step forward in this area because, contrary to the fragmented demand-side definitions that have dominated tourism planning theory and practice over the last decades, they bring focus and clarification to what tourism businesses and activities are all about. The new supply-side definitions highlight that the core of the tourism activity suggests seven main economic activities:
Food and beverage
Intermediaries, tour operators, travel agencies and tourist guides
Rent a car
Cultural service and
Leisure and recreation activities
Hofstede and the Dimensions of National Cultures
Another scholar, Geert Hofstede, who took on the challenge of cross-cultural comparative study, argued that the comparison of leadership in different nations requires a theoretical framework. Hofstede insists that any comparison across nations of the values and attitudes related to leadership is in various ways a comparison of apples to oranges. It is a fruitless effort, Hofstede remarks (extending the metaphor further), without the proper "fruitology Hofstede initially developed his five dimensions of national cultures during a large research project into differences across managers in IBM's subsidiaries in 64 countries. Subsequent studies of students in 23 countries, elites in 19 countries, commercial airline pilots in 23 countries, up-market consumers in 15 countries, and civil service managers in 14 countries eventually refined these five dimensions. Eventually, Hofstede indexed many nations of the world on each of these dimensions.
But his innovative body of work does not escape criticism. Many authors quote Hofstede's work with bold confidence and some include his findings as complete assumptions. According to Dorfman and Howell (1988),Hofstede in his analysis used the same questionnaire on more than one scale and most have significant cross-loadings and when closely observed, it was found that the analysis comprise 32 questions with only 40 cases(40 data points parallel to 40 countries), an analysis based on such few subjects has enormous chances of sample error. Despite the sounding criticism Hofstede research is most extensively used around the globe by scholars and practitioners and it has many appealing attributes(Furrer 2000,358;Ross 1999,14;soondergard 1994).According to soondergaard (1994), Hofstede (1986) study received 1,036 citations as compared to other highly regarded study on strategy by Miles and Snow which only received 200 citations. Many researchers agree on his following points which reinforce the value of study:
There have been great arguments in support of Hofstede, as well as against his theories, but still his contribution remains the most invaluable piece of work on culture for both scholars and practitioners.
Argument of Culture Dimension
The study of culture provides fascinating insights into the common elements as well as the variety of human experiences. The extensive research in this area provides rich data that invite one to make applications and generalizations. Several concerns suggest caution in doing so. Although one can generalize about a culture within certain geographic boundaries, but we know there are different cultures within those boundaries as well. (Erez, 1994, 559)
As seen earlier, talks about African American, Native American, and Latino cultures just within the United States. One might also look for variations within each of these three cultures and then, within those subcultures, discover even further distinctions. These cross-cultural studies thus illustrate the variety of cultures within a nation's boundaries. Eastern Europe, because of the number of ethnic groups within one nation's boundaries, provides a particularly salient example of why caution is needed when making generalizations. The problem is exacerbated when one moves from the national level to the clustered cultural level of analysis to find common cultural dimensions.
The second caution relates to the principle of ecological fallacy. This principle suggests that it would be an error to attribute to an individual member of a group the characteristics of the group. As a rule of thumb, the extremes within a group generally vary more than the average between groups. Thus, the tallest and shortest men and women would have a greater difference in heights than the difference between the average man and average woman. One cannot know beforehand that a specific, individual Latin American leader will avoid uncertainty less often than a specific, individual Canadian leader, whatever the profiles of their respective cultures might suggest.
The opposite also applies-one cannot make valid and accurate inferences about a whole group based on only one or two members. The sampling procedures and statistical analyses of the scholarship discussed here are intended to prevent these false or hasty generalizations. Nonetheless, discussions of culture and individuals invite the risk of stereotyping individuals because of their group and a group because of a few individuals. Culture might best be kept as a background factor used to understand a particular situation but not kept as prominent as to bias the perception of that situation.
Another risk related to bias deals with identifying norms from one culture and applying them to another, and then distinguishing between better and worse practices. Some comparison inevitably results in cross-cultural studies. For example, in distinguishing
high uncertainty avoidance as opposed to low uncertainty avoidance leadership styles, one inevitably compares the characteristics of one with another.
Having given the characteristics of the first, one might then use terms such as "less" or "more." Low uncertainty avoidance leadership styles are "more informal" than high ones, for example other comparisons may imply a preference and thus a deficit in one style. For example, low uncertainty avoidance leadership styles are "less concerned with orderliness and the maintenance of records," do not document the conclusions drawn in meetings, and "tend to be less calculating when taking risks" (House et al., 2004, p. 6).
These measures, calibrated by the high avoidance of uncertainty dimension, describe the difference from a norm rather than the purposes those behaviors may serve. For example, it is not mentioned that to be less calculating when taking risks may reflect a greater willingness to accept the chance that conditions will change in ways beyond our ability to calculate.
Finally, it could be figured that, correlation does not imply causation. Two events correlated at statistically significant levels may not have a cause and effect relationship. Ice cream sales may be correlated with drowning deaths, but they do not cause them; rather, both occur when the weather is warmer. Thus, correlating cultural dimensions with economic and human conditions does not imply that those dimensions cause the conditions. There may be many intervening variables that account for variation in both measures and for their direct and inverse relationships.
Hospitality and tourism is an industry in which importance of culture cannot be underplayed. It is one the most rapidly developing sectors in a number of countries. Travel and Tourism market review of U.K 2007 suggests that this is one of the most prominent revenue generating industry for UK. In such a scenario it is crucial for hospitality managers and leaders to understand different cultures and meet specific customer requirements. This is crucial for gratification of customers, which is the corners stone of hospitality industry.
To find a starting point for universally desired attributes of leadership and cultural differences it is crucial to construct dimensions of leadership, measure them within different nations, and then compare those measures nation by nation. On a much more practical level, these efforts provide a place to begin to understand the cultural variations of leadership and the cultural contexts that may influence individual leaders from different countries. That understanding, qualified by the cautions offered here may provide a necessary foundation for collaboration to achieve mutual objectives.