Latin American Graphic Design Cultural Studies Essay

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The origins of the word Latin and American which together define the region are very different. The name "America" first appeared on records in 1507 world map by German cartographer Martin Waldssemuller in honor to Florentine cartographer Americo Vespucci in a book that accompanied the map Waldssemuller explaining that the word came from Latin form of the name Americus Vespucius. He then adopted it to the feminine form "America", to match of the gender of the other continents. The name was giving a year after the death of the Genoa-born navigator Christopher Columbus (Italian- Cristoforo Colombo, Spanish- Cristobal Colon), who disembarked in the New world in 1492.

As we know the countries in Latin America share similar history and culture from the moment when the colonisation started until nowadays they we are begin culturally invaded as a result of globalisation. Since the Spanish colonisation started in the XVI century and finishing in the XIX century, Latin American Design developing slowly and was limited to imitations of the Europe views. Only in the 20th century had most Latin American countries started to find and voice their identity in arts, including design.

Inspired by Avant-Garde" movement in Europe, Latin American artist started to revel against to dominance of the European traditions and look for ways to express the complex culture and vision of the native countries

The anger against centuries of colonization and culture oppression against the indigenous population, as well as against others ethnical groups living in Latin American, Resulted in numbers of cultural movements. Throughout the 20th that aimed to rediscover the national identity of the Latin America population and voice it in verbal and visual art.

As opposed to the US and Europe, where graphic design emerged as a profession in response to the growing demand for packaging and advertising brought by the growth of mass production of consumer culture in the 20th century, Latin America graphic Design was largely born in the streets. People used graffiti and posters to express their political views and protest against the way their culture was treated by the Western world.

Graphic design in Latin America began to take as a profession only recently. In the mid-20th century. Thank to the work and talent of different design personalities who help to promote this work in the filets of Visual Communication.

In this short life in Latin American Graphic Design has gone through different periods always in line with the social and economic vicissitudes of the region - a region that has never been quiet, whether socially, political, or economically speaking. Graphic Design becomes the mirror of the culture and what was happening in society.

In the 20th century the Graphic Design profession began to find itself better defined with the arrival of designers from Europe who help to establish new concepts and guidelines in countries such as Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia, Argentina, Chile, and Brazil. The appearance of specialized schools and department at universities, the creation of professionals associations and the staging of international events and exhibitions, such as the Posters biennials, also contribute over the time to the consolidation of professional activity in the region. Since then Latin America Graphic Design has create his own school and languages of expression. It has been shaping its identity for more of than half a century and its today trying to position itself as something different from the rest of the world.

In the early 1970s the Iberoamericana University of Mexico two of the leading educational institutions in Mexico City began offer curses in design studies., which lead to the first generation of designers in the country. Later the Cuba book institute employed a many designers between the 1970s and the early 1990s with the opening of the Higher Institute of Design in 1984 Cuba could boast free tertiary courses in product design and in and graphic design. In Venezuela, money from the oil industry facilitated significant Investment in other areas including culture, The Neumann Design Institute was founded in Caracas in 1964 one of the first formal teaching institutions of design in South America. This phenomenon benefited Argentina, Brazil fallow by Colombia in the late 60s. Chile graphic art industry in different to the other countries in Latin America started to emerge with the appearance of the various newspapers and magazines by the end of 19th century the country had around 200 typographic establishment and in the first half of the 20th century there was a explosion of monthly magazines, exhibitions and spring festivals that required many posters which culminated in competitions that attracted a great many artists.

The arrival of the computer brought about a new professional in the late 1080s. Today the whole of Latin American is witnessing a proliferation of design studios and artist that incorporate other areas such as the internet, video, Illustration and fashion into their activities. The digital media has expanded the borders of what was known as graphic design.

Digital software like Adobe CS, Artworks, CorelDRAW, Deneba Canvas, Express Animator, Microsoft Expression Design (based on Creature House Expression) Microsoft Expression Blend, Microsoft PhotoDraw, Microsoft Visio, OmniGraffle, 3D Max and many, many more are completely expanded the borders of the imagination of Graphic Design in Latin America and all around the world. The Digital Age transforms the way of thinking of many Designers in Latin America using the software as a tool to design visual message in order to achieve a full degree of cultural, economic, emotional and social axes associated with the modern development: environmental, economic and socio-cultural.

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The 21st century designers is connected to various form of communication and has permanently crossed the lines that used define the profession. The constant growth of access to information has forgotten much more versatile and multimedia professionals whose main characteristic is the diversity that surrounds them. Although it is made up of different countries with strong and distinct characteristics, Latin America today presents a cultural identity unique and humankind. The dynamic of this creativity and culture speaks for the vivacity of the region, while its products, languages music and people make up one of the principal and richest centers of cultural identity in the modern world.

is important and big impact is achieved by modernization, development and study. This will allow visual progress and the necessary training to outside observers and users of the items created. Bolivia has been in a constant fait for change, warning that this change is technological and not merely the basis of the compositional elements in design, layout, colour and shape, many more are of vital importance in the communication process in which every professional is involved. The designer has the duty and right to respect the nature of things and as part of nature is to inform in a clear and clean whatever is necessary without disturbing the psychology of the Bolivians.

The Area of Creation "Posters"

A forma of art appeared that today is more part of our lives that painting Posters art emerge as a practical daily necessity and become an important method of communication that was parallel in its development with the industry revolution. The process appeared with possible thanks to the diffusion of the silk-scream printing technique that was brought from China and Japan and the development in the west of lithography that enabled multicolour posters at low cost in unlimited quantities.

B y the end of the 19th Century Poster art had become an established means of social imagery, it also known as "cartel" in Spanish and "afiche" in French.

The posters has been commonly used as an advertising instrument (political commercial, and touristic) or as a cultural announcement of events and performances since 1870. Its evolution and ability for vast propaganda has made it one of the characteristics of contemporary urban life.

Te origin of the posters is the engraved stones that publicized the laws and official text of the Greeks and the public inscriptions on the walls of the ancient Roma, as well as in the Chinese stone engraving of poems, thoughts, reflections, laws and administrative decisions that were reproduced on silk paper for ages.

Great artist ha made posters design Daumier, Bonnard, and late Toulouse-Lautrec from France. The Czech Alphonse Mucha was a great protagonist of Art Nouveau. In Spain , Sorolla and Belliure designed bullfighting posters.

Posters art developed further during the first decade of the 20th century and the new technique emerged that involved the use of luminous tubes and photography which was introduced by Gischia in 1935. The development of cinema made use Posters art, National Schools were formed: the Germans leaning towards abstraction, the English romantic Pre-Raphaelite and the American Posters during the second half of the 20th Century , the Chinese and Cuban posters gained great importance .

We would not understand present daily urban life without posters, from pamphlets to gigantic advertising billboards, even though all maintain a standard format or a sheet of paper.

Today, the design and production of Posters art is one of the confines in which creativity is concentrated Despite the fact that is a defined field, but probably also because of it, creativity develops on high and sophisticated levels. This is due partly to the fact that the world of the visual arts has on the hand diluted the borders between the different artistic discipline, and in the other led the artist, in their constant search for new languages, further than was imaginable a hundred or even fifty years ago.

The cross fashion and scenes from the ordinary to the hyper technical, and lose, on their way, the sense of art , Many have deliberately worked against the traditional languages of art, and others , in the desperate attend to be different , more often than not end up with repetitive fads.

Posters today is a clear manifestation of contemporary artist creativity. More often than not, it is the work of collective result following the client's requirement and necessities and the capacity of the designers to transmit the message is clear, concise, direct and original way. Because of this, poster has become one of the main areas of contemporary artistic creation. One cannot conceive life without this posters which surprise us every day with their creativity.

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