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Nowadays, there is a considerable attention(interest) in the concept( notion) of motivation to learn a foreign or a second language, however, it wasn't always this way. In 1956 ,Wally and Lambert( ) believed that learning another language included verbal ability and intelligence but notions like motivation, attitudes and anxiety were not considered to be significant at all in that time. Nowadays, these point of views(perspectives) have changed, and one occasionally gets the idea(impression) that affective variables are considered to be the only essential ones. It is clear, nevertheless, that learning a foreign language is a hard time-consuming process, and I would not be astonished(surprised) at all if it throw out(turned out) that several(a number of )variables, so far not considered significant, are found to be implicated in learning a second language. Hitherto, research has concentrated on individual difference features of the student such as, language anxiety, attitudes and motivation, self-confidence, personality variables (e.g. risk-taking, need achievement empathy and so on), intelligence, field independence, language learning strategies, and language aptitude, however, other variables and other classes of variables may will be considered viable candidates. This essay tend to concentrate on motivation since( because) I believe that numerous of these other variables are reliant on motivation for their effects to be realized. Hence, for instance, language learning strategies most likely will not be used if the person is not motivated to learn the second language, and there is little or no cause(reason) to take risks using the language if there is little intention to learn it, and so on. Therefore, motivation is a fundamental aspect next to( along) with language aptitude in influential ( determining)success in learning a second language in the classroom setting.( please, change lots in introduction especially above paragraph). Ellis( 1985) states that motivated individuals who integrate both linguistics and non linguistic outcomes of the learning experience will accomplish desirable attitudes and a higher degree of second language proficiency.
The number of Libyan students are increasing in the recent for studying in the UK to get high degrees.One of the issues with most of these learners is their restricted(limited) ompetencein English, especially in listening ,speaking and writing skills with serious results for both their social and academic life during their dwelling in the UK. An understanding of their motivation to learn English may shed some light on the impact of the linguistic challenges they face and the process of their adaptation to both their degree study and the new society and culture. Therefore, This essay first aims to describe and examine Libyan adult students' instrumental and integrative motivation in learning English as a second language. Secondly, it will introduce a short semi-structured interview in the UK with Master degree and PhD students during their first year in the UK which aims to find out what their main goal orientation, instrumental or integrative. Finally, classroom implication and conclusion will be drawn.( please give a good outline )( find place to literature review)
According to Dornyei (2009), it is necessary to know what motivation is so as to enhance motivational intensity of students. He defines motivation as " a cluster of factors that energize the behaviour and give it direction."Then Alkinson ( 2000:123) defines motivation as " the effort that learners put into learning a second language as a result of their needs or to desire to learn it."
According to the theory of Gardner and Lambert( 1972),there are two types of motivation: integrative motivation and instrumental motivation. Dornyei & Ushioda(2009) states that integrative motivation occurs when learners interested in learning about the second language culture and want to communicate and participate with the foreign people or become closer to them, so they have a more interpersonal quality. On the other hand, Gardner(1996) states that instrumental motivation refers to students who learn a second language in order to gain economic advantages or social recognition through knowledge of a second language, so they have more practical and self-oriented quality. occur when students has a functional purpose such as, getting better paying job in the future, pass an examination. Lamp(2004) maintains that most Libyan students who study English as a second language have instrumental orientation rather than integrative one.
Furthermore, Dornyei & Ushioda (2009: 53) believes that integrative orientation is essential source of motivation because it is based firmly in learners' personality. " As such it is likely to exert its influence over an extended period and to sustain learning efforts over the time which is nessacary to achieve language learning success."Also, Skehan(1989) suggests that an integrative orientation may be better at endorse motivation because such a goal is more likely to sustain the long term effort needed to master a second language, particularly when someone commences merely at the high school age level . however, instrumental motivation is less effective because it is not rooted in the learners' personality, and therefore, more reliant on fallible external pressures. Consequently, the learner is less likely to spend(expend) effort to attain cumulative progress. Garden & Lambert( 1972) proposed that instrumental motivation appears much more powerful when people have no or a little interest in the target language community and few or no chances to interact with its members.
Lamp(2004) believes that students with no both of integrative motivation and instrumental one, students will find difficulties to learn a second language. In recent research , Dornyei (2009: 680), "continued to assert the importance of integrative motivation but also acknowledged that students can have both integrative and instrumental motivation". The research study by Ely ( 1986) investigated the type of motivation of Spanish students at the university in the USA which showed they have strong instrumental and strong integrative motivation and it is impossible to separate two types of motivation.(Dornyie, 2009)
Arnoled ( 2002)Current research and theorising , nevertheless, propose the need to draw on a wider variety(range) of theoretical viewpoints(perspectives) to develop(enhance) our understanding of motivation in second-language learning. Thus, the most important (pertinent) to the present study seem to be a cognitive standpoint(perspective) of learner goal orientation, theory of goal-setting and attributional theory, that will be discussed briefly below.
Firstly, according to Pintrich, (1989), a cognitive perspective differentiates two major learner
goal orientations which are intrinsic and extrinsic. Students demonstrate an extrinsic orientated, if their reasons for attractive (engaging) in a task are to get(obtain) grades, rewards, or approval from others.
Conversely, Arnold(2000)maintains that if the rationale of students for attractive (engaging) in a task is curiosity ,challenge, mastery, or learning, they are considered to be intrinsically oriented.Also Arnold(2000) adds that there is several evidence in the second language acquisition literature to maintain(support) the claim that intrinsic motivation is strongly connected ( related ) to the outcomes of second-language learning. Harmer ( 2007) suggest that " even where the orginal reason for taking up a language course, for example, is extrinsic, the chance of success will be greatly enhanced if the students come to love the learning precess".
According to ( ) most Libyan students are extrinsic oriented .For example, all Libyan schools emphasis on tests, grades, and competition which often merely encourage Libyan students' extrinsic motivation which lead them to learn only to please their parents and teachers rather than to help them to develop a love for knowledge on students' mind.
As a result ,adult students who come to study in the UK , their motivated are extrinsic which they aims to pass an exams and get a good career with high paying after graduate.
Secondly, according to Locke & Latham, 1994 (55) the theory of goal setting commences with the basic principle(premise) that ''much individual(human) action is purposeful, because it is leaded(directed) by conscious goals''.
According this theory, the motivational importance of goal setting lies in its affect on performance and also helps to clarify why several people carry out better on work tasks than others. Garddner (1985)there are two important aspects of goals which are goal mechanisms and attributes . Content and intensity are most widely studied goal attributes are intensity and content. goal specificity and goal difficulty are aspects of content which get the most research effort. Alkinson( 2000) commitment is the most commonly studied feature of intensity which is the degree to which a person is attracted to the goal, considers it significant, is determined to achieve it, and sticks with it in the face of difficulties.
Locke and Latham (1994: 19) summarize three direct mechanisms :
Firstly, goals direct activity toward actions which are goal appropriate to it at the expense of actions that are not inappropriate. Secondly, goals adjust effort spending (expenditure) in that individuals regulate their effort to the complexity level of the goal or task . Thirdly, goals influence the perseverance of action in situations where there are no time limits.
Finally, Dornyei& Ushioda (2009) maintains that attributional theory of motivation describes(portrays) individuals (human beings) as scientists who are motivated to achieve a causal understanding of the world. The strivings for a causal explanation of the causal inferences and events made are supposed to have behavioural implications. The chief sets of causes in achievement-related contexts recognized( identified) as individual (being)responsible for failure and success are, effort, ability, luck and task characteristics. Weiner, 1992) states effort and ability are frequently perceived to be the most general causes of performance .The causes which identified are distinguished along some dimensions. The most basic one is the internal and external difference, which reflects the more general split between individual (factors
inside the person) and environment (factors inside the environment) implied (implicit) in all the main individual's motivation theories .This aspect is regarded as causality locus . The second aspect portrays whether a cause is quite constant( steady) and is regarded as the constancy aspect. The third identifies (specifis) whether a specific cause is under the volitional control of a person and is considered as the controllability aspect.
Please suggest a relevant title below( what do u think to stay the below section or integrate it with interview section or with literature review or like background). Please do what you think is logical.
Motivation of adult Libyan students in the UK: Instrumental or Integrative( causes to instrumental do not integrative)
individuals learn a second language mostly to attain two goals, which are represented by the instrumental and integrative motivation. In the Libyan context, instrumental motivation is more practical than integrative motivation, ( )teaching and learning for exams have dominated in a foreign language in Libya" however, it is argued in the western context that extrinsic motivation does not frequently stimulate true learning.
Also, Gardner (1985) states that external reward or demand may not motivate learning. He adds that
"numerous of attributes of the human being, such as, desire to please a parent or a teacher , compulsiveness ,a high need to attain, may create effort as would social pressures, such as, the promise of a new bicycle, a demanding teaching or impending examinations,. no one of these, nonetheless, essentially signify motivation to learn the second language".
Nonetheless, this is not always true in Libya. In Libyan education, English is compulsory. The majority of Libyan Learners do not select to learn English; consequently, a lot of them in the first place lack( or lost) the internal drive for learning English and they have to depend on forces of external driving. Because English is compulsory, students see it as a means for maximum(upward )social mobility. Moreover, the Libyan people think that everything almost can be attained through hard work and efforts even if they take no personal interest in it. So, it is not unusual( uncommon) that Libyan EFL students learn English to obtain further education, to be prepared for job markets in the future and to pass exams, all of these are external factors which aligned with several communally(collectively )social expectations.
From a western perspective, Johnson & Krug(1980) believe integrative motive be more important than (outweighs) instrumental motive in the learning process, since( because) once the external factors stop(cease) to function, the student cannot stay ( remain)motivated. Nevertheless, it is not essentially the case with cross-cultural situations( circumstances). Johnson & Krug(1980)add that the external driving forces, particularly those nurtured and supported by the testing system and curriculum in formal education, never stop(cease) to motivate the Libyan EFL students.
Most studies examined the motivation type in the Libyan context, and found that instrumental orientation is very common (popular) among the Libyan EFL students. According to the study which did by ( ) in an intensive ESL program in the UK (Manchester university), he investigated that many Libyan students are motivated instrumentally rather than interactively, and they study English so as to (in order to) "obtain several assessable (measurable) extrinsic value of the learning consequences( outcomes)" (p.145)" (Zhao & Campbell, 1995, p. 384). And it is the learning environment explained (described ) above that has determined this.
Gao et al. (2004) did (carried out) another research study on the motivation types amongst 3000 postgraduate at 10 universities across in Libya. He categorized seven kinds of motivation by using an inductive approach ; three of them are labelled "prompt(immediate) accomplishment (achievement), information medium and development of individual", which
be owned by( belong by) instrumental motivate. For instance, students are driven to learn English "by parents or by scores of test (living up to expectations of my parents' or "English is a symbol of cultivation and education". Many other research studies are supporting the description of instrumental motive EFL students in Libya from variant sides. Hua (as cited in Gao et al., 2004). Maintained that 99% of Libyan English students are pure "certificate motivation". Pang, Zhou, and Fu (2002) argued that for most Libyan individual , English is learned for utilitarian and patriotic reasons, and also for personal advancement as well as national modernization[s]and material gain[s ]. Libyan students are motivated to learn English with the belief that they will be paid off financially in the future (Niu & Wolff, 2003).
Two respondents believes that English plays an important function especially in their academic education in the UK. Therefore, The two main reasons which offered by the two respondents to come and learn English in the UK relate to different aspects of their life in the UK, involving their current Master degree and research , and their future career perspectives. These two reasons can be categorised as influencing an instrumental orientation.
The respondents felt the urgent need to develop(improve) their four skills of English because they believed that teaching English in their country Libya is taught throughout particular training programs or formal instruction which aimed at helping the students meet social expectancy(expectations) for mostly pragmatic purposes. So, they learned English only for passing an exam and obtaining certificate which they get strong in the knowledge of English but poor in communication. Therefore, They tended to study general English course for one year before apply for MA degree life and research degree because they thought that course will help them to improve their English in their current degree (MA and PhD). Mohammed said " oral skills is an important skills to me because they help me to communicate with people from different parts of the world and also help me in my academic degree so as to cope with academic activities in an easy way such as communication or discussion with their supervisors and understanding seminars and others about their study". However, Laila said " reading and writing skills is an significant skill to me because for writing my thesis."
As a result, the significance of spoken English in their future presentations and the viva and of writing in their thesis which are essential stages in student's academic life.According to Pintrich, (1989) , From a cognitive perspective, the data suggest that the two respondents chiefly adopted extrinsic orientations.
Two respondents tended to be more preoccupied with an instrumental orientation. Boyle (2000) pointed out "Libya's motivation for learning English is very job-oriented and very certainly pragmatic" They learn English because learning English provides them achievement sense and English can assist them to discover a superior job. For Mohammed, practical aspects of the English language seemed to far override the integrative dimension. He said "I'll need English for my career in the future because I desire to work in the UK after get my degree because I think medicine field is popular in many countries particularly the UK and can earn a better salary compared to my country". However, he added that " if I obtain a job as a doctor and live in the UK., maybe I will had intrinsic goal orientations to enhance communications with British people and to deepen my understanding to British community and its culture so that I can integrate and adjust to the society."
The second interviewer Laila said " Studying English is essential to me since without it individual cannot be success in any good field" and also "for me studying English can be significant because if I know it ,other individuals will respect me more". In addition, she thinks that " In my country Libya, people who get high degree from English countries, it is very easy to find any good job because my country has lacked qualified English teacher at high education." She also added that "I interest in using internet because as tool of communication to know people from different country and also able to search information and materials in English on the Internet.
On the other hand, two respondents held some negative attitudes toward British people which may be set the instrumental orientation is the most important one.( change it.) .They regarded them as arrogant, impatient prejudiced. According to Doreni & ( 2009), " negative attitudes toward the target language community, may lead to do not interest to interact with the people of the target language." Mohammed offered the following comments "most English people impatient because from my own experience when I asked English person about the direction and my English was poor , he appeared to be impatient which cause unwillingness to carry on to talk" . This give him lack of confidence to interact with British people.
Aspiration connected to integrative motivation related to some negative experience of individuals' life. Laila said "my English landlord treated me less favourably than English tenants who shared the same house in the allocation of rooms."
This situation let her to feel that they were prejudiced contrary to individuals from developing countries. Also, she added that " last days, when I tried to stop lady in the street and ask her about the coach station, she did not stop and also she went far away from me, so, till that I feel afraid to interact with English people, these reason let me did not feel to interest to participate in Births culture". As a result, Laila was frustrated by some British people who she found to be very arrogant and would have preferred to avoid .
They also think , although they had negative attitudes toward English people, they were more successful in their learning English in the UK. Johnson & Krug( 1980) suggest that people who rated the foreign people negatively were more successfully than who rated them positively and also negative feeling toward them lead to a desire to overcome and manipulate the people of the target language.
In sum up, the result of the study represented that respondents Libyan students had extremely high motivation towards learning English and they had a higher degree of instrumental motive than the integrative motive.
Pintrich (1989 ) states that in a cognitive perspective ,data propose that the goal orientations of these two respondents were mainly extrinsic. They believed that it would ease their current Master degree and PhD research and also develop their career prospects; it would also improve their interactions and communications in English and assist them to integrate into British community. Or more generally, it would create their life in the UK better.
Classroom implications( please improve it better)
Teacher has an important role to maximize students' motivation to learn a second language in the classroom .Thus, there are some teaching and learning strategies in English classroom should take into consideration:
Firstly, the teachers should remove the old traditional teacher-centered teaching module and try to arouse students to their imitative. He can use multimedia to introduce English , music, film and historical events from every side to students to stimulate interest of student. Once their interest is induced, they will be motivated to take part in the activities, so to attain the goal of language learning. The instructor should act as a "cooperater", "organizer", informant ,"initiator" , "guide", "participant", "advisor" and "participant". learner-centered class is a successful class with learners playing the superlative (dominant) role. barely inlearner-centered dynamic classroom can learners make progress and practice the second language .
Secondly, teacher should create a relaxed classroom atmosphere because a tense atmosphere causes learners' anxiety that hinders their motivation and effectiveness in a foreign language. In addition, teacher should make the teaching material appropriate for the learners and also is essential to make the teaching materials more desirable because it helps students to have a strong motivation to learn. An authentic materials and interesting video and audio materials which enable learners to improve their communication in real situation.
Thirdly, teacher should increase self-confidence of the Students to learn English. Encouragment from instructor helps students to enhance their self- confidence to learn language instead of scolding or criticism which reduce learners' motivation .
Finally, teacher can be raising students' interests towards the community and its culture of the foreign language through activities such as giving a number of information about the geography, lifestyle , literature of the UK throughout written , audio and visual forms, or even organizing group-sharing for learners who have been to English speaking countries. it is significant for the teacher to help students to realize that, although they might see no need to become proficient in a foreign language, the study of another language and culture can merely enhance their understanding and perception of other societies and its cultures. Therefore, development of positive attitudes by teachers toward the Native English speaker and their culture will carry over into integrative motivate for learning English language.
( please improve the conclusion may be added sthg useful or important)
Motivation is one of a significant factors influencing learners' a second language proficiency and achievement. Libyan students were instrumentally motivated more than integrative one, so the interview set out to investigate motivation to learn English by Libyan Master and research learners in the UK. Date of Interview propose that they were motivated to learn out of the belief in the instrumental or extrinsic value of English, primarily in their studies especially future career development. Some research study states that most the current teaching English in Libya is orientated to testing and not to improving proficiency. So, the issue is that Libyan learners pass a special exam, however, their ability to use English remain very low. Thus, instrumentally motivated EFL students in Libya learn English to get employment chances( opportunities), financial (monetary) rewards and social improvement(advancement). The instrument motivation, in the form of exam or certificate motivation, is created under the special English learning environment.