Interrelationship Among The Groups Cultural Studies Essay

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Culture traits are defined as the learned behavior through the language spoken or the tools used or through the games they played. Cultural traits are the most critical behavioral patterns of distinctive group of peoples.

Individual cultural traits that are identical in more than one cultures is universal and refers to cultural complex. Whereas, culture system is a broader term and refers to a collection of cultural complex and culture traits. In the societies that are multi-ethnic in nature are differentiated on the basis of linguistic differences, difference in food preferences, and other recognizably distinctive cultural entities. The term culture region states that an earth's portion that is occupied and shared by group of people having recognizably distinctive characteristics.

Interaction of environment and individuals in postmodern societies were examined by using natural resources to acquire shelter, food and clothing. The study that explains the relationship between natural environment and interaction of individuals is called as cultural ecology. Culture is further divided into three subsystems termed as ecological, sociological and ideological subsystems.

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The technological subsystem is collected of the material objects and the techniques of their use by means of which people are able to live. Such substance are the apparatus and other instruments that enable us to feed, clothe, house, protect, transport, and entertain ourselves. The sociological subsystem of a culture is the sum of those predictable and established patterns of interpersonal relations that find their outlet in economic, political, military, religious, connection, and other associations. The ideological subsystem consists of the thoughts, attitude, and information of a culture and of the ways in which they are expressed in speech or other forms of communication.

Culture changes with time with the change in electronic, technological advancement, and by in the change in earning patterns I.e. women are now also the part of waged workforce, and now they are more independent and empowered. Change, both major and minor, induced by the concept of innovation, spatial diffusion, and acculturation.

Innovation refers to the changes that resulted from ideas created within the social group itself and then adopted by the culture. Spatial diffusion is the process by which a idea, a performance, an innovation, or a material spreads from its point of origin to new territories. Acculturation is the process by which one culture group undergoes major modifications of many of the characteristics of another culture which is dominant.

Language is defined simply as a medium through which people communicate with each other with mutual comprehension, and language is the most important medium by which culture is transmitted. Language is a unique symbol of cultural difference. Language may spread to other cultures when the people of such culture occupy new territory. Language evolved gradually and cumulatively, when people migrate and go for new trade contracts. People who speak in same pattern and follow same language are part of speech community, which possess standard language. Language and culture has a strong relation. Same is the case of religion that is a unifying thread in the culture complex of people. Unlike language, religion varies in its cultural role as it dominates in societies, unimportant, rejected, or even repressed in others. All societies have value systems that are common belief, understandings, expectations, and controls that unite their members and set them off from other, different culture groups. Religious belief is, by definition, an element of the ideological subsystems; formalized and organized religion is an institutional expression of the sociological sub system.

Categorization and division of Religions

Although there are some interconnection and derivations among different religions, but there are some distinction in the groups of people following different religions. They differ on the basis of monotheism that includes who believes in one God and other group polytheism who believe in many gods. Islam, Christianity, and Buddhism are the major religions in the world. One becomes the part of any ethnic group by his or her birth or by adopting that group by getting influence by its beliefs. Whereas, secularism is a kind of a rejection or negation of religious beliefs.

The principal Religions

Mutually all religions contribute in the diversity of the human being worldwide and each have its own beliefs and values intact with it.

Judaism

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Those groups of people who believe in one God and it laid a foundation for both the religion Islam and Christianity.

Christianity

Christianity had its origin from Judaism. A preacher whom his followers believed was the messiah promised by God. The new covenant he preached was not a rejection of traditional Judaism but a promise of salvation to all humankind, rather than to just a chosen people.

Islam

Islam springs from the same Judaic roots as Christianity and embodies many of the same beliefs: there is only one God, who can be revealed to humans through prophets; Adam was the first human; Mohammad is revered as the prophet of Allah (God), succeeding and completing the work of earlier prophets of Judaism and Christianity.

Buddhism

Buddha ("Enlightened One"). The Buddha's teachings were more a moral philosophy that offered an explanation for evil and human suffering than a formal religion. He viewed the road to enlightenment and salvation to lie in understanding the "four noble truths": existence involves suffering; suffering is the result of desire; pain ceases when desire is destroyed; the destruction of desire comes through knowledge of correct behavior and corrects thoughts.

Gender and culture

Gender distinctions vary from culture to culture, according to the roles defined for feminine and masculine. Some role assignments in one culture are tagged to females and the same could be for men in some other society.

Culture is the way of living of a society that how they lived their lives. They diversify on the basis of language, religion, ethnicity, and gender, these all are very important distinguishing ways.

Chapter 8

Spatial interaction is the term used by geographers to represent the interdependence between geographic areas. Spatial interaction can be the movement of people between places, the stream of merchandise from one region to another, the dispersion of ideas from a center of knowledge to other areas, or the spread of a infectious virus from a group of people living in one area to those living in another area.

There is a greater interaction between human livings on small distances than in longer ones. The distance decay arises when there is a decline in the activity of interaction due to long distances. It is about the distances in which cost, time, efforts and means play a vital role as compared to the willingness to travel.

Barriers to interaction refers that the biggest barrier is the distance itself. The amount of interaction decreases with the increase in the distance between them. Cost incurred to cover the distance is another barrier. When family, friends or relatives are living in a distant area then sometimes it is not affordable to visit and interact with them. In crowded areas people set psychological barrier to avoid large number of people to remain psychological sound.

Areas where there are a large number of people are living and they share all the old ideas then there is a chance for them to generate innovative ideas by discussing the old ones. High Density areas where people have same interest and they are willing to communicate then the spatial interaction would be higher.

The concept of territory is that the sense of belongingness in the people for the area in which they live and having a feeling of defending it when needed. Sharing some area with other people in which everyone can move and use for the activity, that area would be called as activity space.

The types of trips those make, and thus the degree of their movement space, are partially determined by 3 variables:

People’s stage in life

The means of mobility at their command; and

The opportunities implicit in their daily activities. individual assessment of the availability Work of possible activities or opportunities

Spatial diffusion refers that a concept or substance moves to some other territory from the place of its origin. Contagious diffusion refers to the innovation that will continue until the barriers are removed or until the area is saturated. Hierarchical diffusion means diffusion in both the upward and downwards.

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Spatial interaction and technology played an important role, it doesn’t only refer to the monetary ability to interact with someone but it depends upon the opportunities prevailing to interact. These opportunities could be automobiles and telecommunications.

Migration is leaving the current place in which you are living and moving towards some other place permanently. Its types would include intercontinental move0vement that means movement in the same country or from one country to another. Migrations may be done forcefully or voluntarily, whereas in majority of the cases migrations are voluntary.

Commonly known reasons for migration are joblessness, inferiority complex, political instability, over-crowdedness etc. In migration there is a pull factor exist which means the immigrants are attracted towards some incentives in the form of economic stability, safety, or employment opportunities in the new country in which they are moving in.

Similarly to the incentives for the immigrants there is also a barrier to migration which may include physical to move0vement, economic barrier to mov0vement, cultural barriers and political barriers.

Patterns of migration refers to migration field, return migration (moving back to the country from where migrated before), hierarchical migration (migrating from city with higher levels to the city with lower levels).

The concept of globalization is affected by economic, political, and cultural patterns. Globalization brings about greater integration in economic field in the form of international marketing, global marketing and transitional corporations.

Another effect that globalization caused is the increased number of non-governmental organizations. They influence the belief, tastes, and aspirations of people in virtually every country, although their effect is most pronounced on young people.