International Tourism In China Cultural Studies Essay

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1 Introduction

1.1 The Background of the Study

The modern international tourism has witnessed a continuous boom since the World War Two, and both the domestic tourism and the international tourism have developed at a surprising speed. Based on the prediction made by the World Tourism Organization (WTO), China, now one of the five major tourist destinations will have become the biggest one with an annual growth rate of 7.8% by 2020. At that time, China will take up 8.3% of the global tourist market share, that is to say, 130,000,000 person-times each year. Under such circumstance, Nanjing both meets the need of times and develops in an intensive method by making the tourism as its leading industry to make a comprehensive and detailed plan.

Nanjing has long been known as a famous cultural city. It is home to abundant cultural tourist resources, including heritages from Six Dynasties, Ming and Qing Dynasties and Public of China. In brief, Nanjing's tourist resources have three features. Firstly, they are in a great number and of high value. Secondly, they have many types. Thirdly, the majority of them are human landscapes. Endowed with abundant tourist resources and located in economically developed the Yangtze Delta Region, Nanjing enjoys a unique opportunity to develop the cross-cultural tourism. In addition, tourists have a more and more strong desire for culture and knowledge with their material lives enhancing and their scientific and cultural qualities improving. Meeting tourists' demand for learning of different cultures, the cross-cultural tourism becomes a hot spot in Nanjing's international tourism. Although Nanjing's international tourism, especially the inbound tourism has witnessed a year-after-year growth, there still is an inadequacy and it doesn't enjoy a high popularity in the international tourism market, particularly in the West-oriented market. To heighten Nanjing's popularity in the international tourism market and to accelerate its development in international tourism, it is of necessity to make research on the international tourism in Nanjing.

1.2 The Purpose and Significance of the Study

1.2.1 The Purpose of the Study

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Along with the background of the rapid development of global tourism and of more and more foreigners' desire for learning of China, the international tourism in China has been in the stage of quick progress. And Nanjing is home to abundant historical and cultural resources. Given all these factors, it is of great necessity for Nanjing to develop the international tourism especially the West-market-oriented tourism. However, it is inevitable to encounter the cross-cultural problems in the process of international tourism. Therefore, the purpose of the thesis is to put forward the measures to tackle the cross-cultural problems which appear in the international tourism and to make use of cultural variations by changing the way of thinking. And the ultimate goal is to realize the rapid and sound development of Nanjing's international tourism.

1.2.2 The Significance of the Study

 In the context of the rapid development of international tourism and the frequent communication between China and the West, it is of great significance to do the research on developing Nanjing's tourism especially on the West-oriented tourism.

There are three aspects to be mentioned. Firstly, this research is favorable for Nanjing to upgrade its industrial structure, making an exact coincidence with the central government's scientific outlook for development and people-oriented policies. Consequently, this makes Nanjing's economy develop rapidly and well. Secondly, it is beneficial for the cultural communication between China and the West. When westerners arrive in Nanjing, they may get a thorough and real learning of Chinese culture after being exposed to local customs. Meanwhile, citizens in Nanjing also make a better understanding of the western cultures while contacting with those foreign tourists. Lastly, it is advantageous for Nanjing to be learnt of by the rest of the world and, ultimately, become an international metropolis. It is worthy for Nanjing to consider the tourism industry as a business card to design, making each western tourist attracted by its profound culture and history and its modern metropolitan image, and, consequently become one of its spokespersons.

2 The Relevant Definitions and Basic Theory

2.1 The Meaning of International Tourism

Since the emergence of international tourism, there have been many definitions of international tourism. Even before World War One, some scholars had paid their attention to the economic influences engendered by international tourism. In 1911, Schuler expounded the influences on international payment produced by cross-border tourism in his paper on the Switzerland tourism. However, at that time, it was still too early to define the international tourism comparative to its underdeveloped stage of development. For the sake of a much easier comparison among different countries, the Statistic Expert Committee under League of Nations in 1937 passed a definition of international tourism, also the oldest one. Then the 1991 International Tourism Conference, which was organized by WTO in Ottawa, Canada's capital, officially gave its new definition, that is, international tourism is such kind of activity which is engaged in by a tourist who leaves his/her permanent residence for another country to stay at least one night without surpassing one year, for the purpose of non-profit activities. International tourism includes inbound tourism which refers to none-residents' visiting to the host country and outbound tourism which means national residents' visiting to the other countries.

2.2 The Definition of Cross-culture

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Since 1871 when the founder of cultural anthropology E.B.Tylor put forward the definition of culture in his works Primitive Culture, scholars have raised hundreds of definitions about culture from different perspectives. The definition of culture given by Tylor is that the so-called culture or civilization is an internal integration of knowledge, beliefs, art, morals, laws, customs and other capabilities and habits acquired by human beings as community members. His view has a deep influence on the later research and has been accepted by many scholars. In the West, the origin of the word "culture" is "cultura" in Latin. In English, the very beginning meaning of the word "culture" referred to agriculture and raising of plants. Since the 15th century, it has been extended to cultivate people's morals and competences. In modern times, the Japanese translated the word "culture" into "æ-‡åŒ-" in Japanese, and we Chinese introduced this translation to China. And culture is also a basic definition in both sociology and anthropology. In broad sense, culture is the sum of material wealth and spiritual wealth created by human beings; in narrow sense, it refers specifically to spiritual wealth including language, literature, art and other ideologies. Based on the analysis above, the thesis adopts the definition of culture in large sense, that is, culture is composed of three aspects: material culture, spiritual culture and behavioral culture.

When one type of culture crosses different values, religions, beliefs, spirits, codes of communication and systems, we call it cross-culture.

2.3 The Co-cultural Theory

2.3.1 The Content of the Co-cultural theory

Orbe deduced the co-culture theory by applying phenomenal logical method. The co-cultural theory is comprised of but not confined to the colored ethnic groups, women, the disabled and the poor. The core of the co-cultural theory is to construct a framework for the silent group in the mainstream of the society to express their opinions. There are two premises guiding this theory. Firstly, in the mainstream culture of the society, co-cultural members are marginalized. Secondly, in face of the oppression from the dominant culture, co-cultural members adopt some communicative approaches to succeed.

According to Orbe, there are three choices for cross-cultural members when they communicate with their counterparts from the mainstream culture. Firstly, they are melted into one part of the mainstream culture. Secondly, they adapt themselves to the mainstream culture and, meanwhile, endeavor to make the members from mainstream culture to accept them. Thirdly, they choose to be isolated by denying considering there is something in common between them and the popular culture members.

2.3.2 The Guiding Role the Co-cultural Theory Plays in the International Tourism

Since hundreds of years after the breakout of the Industrial Revolution, the West has made tremendous achievements in material production and, as a result, the success gives it an upper hand in cultural field over the rest of the world, and still it is today. Under such circumstance, Nanjing, dedicated itself into developing cross-cultural international tourism with every effort, is inevitably hindered by the so-called co-cultural problems. According to the co-cultural theory, Nanjing should take an adaptive attitude towards the Western popular culture and seek for the Westerners' acceptance or, at least, tolerance to Chinese culture while coping with the underprivileged Chinese culture and the advantaged Western culture. Only in this way can Nanjing make the cross-cultural tourism go smoothly and win cultural exchange and economical benefits.

3 Analyzing the Present Condition of Cross-culture between China and the West in Nanjing's International Tourism

3.1 Analyzing the General Condition of Nanjing's International Tourism

3.1.1 The Overall Development Condition of Nanjing's International Tourism

In recent years, Nanjing has witnessed rapid development in inbound tourism. In 2008, the city's tourism revenues reached 71.43 billion Yuan, accounting for 18.92% of the city's GDP. While it earned 873 million U.S. dollars with an increase of 8.1 percent, and Nanjing received 1,195,200 foreign tourists, 2.9 percent growth from the previous year.

To make market segmentation in accordance with destination, the top ten tourist source countries are: Japan, 118,695 person-times; the United States, 96,273; Malaysia, 87,427; South Korea, 74,494; Germany, 60,761; Singapore, 47,459; United Kingdom, 39,630 views; France, 33,588; Australia, 27,531; Italy, 24,012. One thing special to be mentioned is that the United States in 2008 has replaced Malaysia as the second largest source country in Nanjing's inbound tourism market.

3.1.2 The Cultural Resources in Nanjing's International Tourism

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3.1.2.1 The cultural relics and historic sites

According to the different dynasties, the cultural relics and historic sites can be categorized into five parts.

(1) The cultural relics and historic sites of the Six Dynasties Period

The cultural relics and historic sites of the Six Dynasties Period (from the beginning of the 3rd century to the end of the 6th century) are best represented by the Stone City, stone carvings, Ling Gu Temple and Wu Yixiang Street. Among those cultural resourses, the most charming treasures are Stone Carvings of the Southern Dynasties, which were listed as the major historic and cultural sites under state protection. In Nanjing, there remain a total number of nineteen Stone Carvings, and they are mainly located in the District Jiangning and Qixia. The oldest one can be traced back to the Southern Dynasties, about 1500 years ago. Among them, three stone carvings belong to the type of imperial tomb.

(2) The cultural relics and historic sites of the Ming Dynasty

There are a lot of relics of the Ming Dynasty in the urban area and suburbs, such as Zhu Yuanzhang's Mausoleum, Drum Tower, Wumen Gate, Shencemen Gate, Zhanyuan Garden, and the Screen Wall at the Confucius Temple. And the arch Shape brick hall Wuliangdian in the Linggusi Temple, built without an inch of wood or nail, is the largest beamless hall in China. Chaotiangong Palace used to be the place to rehearse the protocols in paying homage to the emperors in the Ming Dynasty.

(3) The cultural relics and historic sites of the Qing Dynasty

As for the historic relics related with this period, they are almost relevant to Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace. They are: Tangzi Street wall paintings, Ru Yili wall paintings, the Relics of Heavenly King Palace, the historic museum of Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace and so on. And among them, Tangzi Street wall paintings and the Relics of Heavenly King Palace are the major historic and cultural sites under state protection. The architectures of Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace are famous for their colored paintings and all of their walls, doors and windows are painted, which has formed a unique style.

(4) The cultural relics and historic sites of Republic of China

In tourism circles, there is an old saying: if you are in favor of the history of Sui and Tang Dynasties, you'd better pay a visit to Xi'an; if it is Ming and Qing, then to Beijing; if it's Republic of China, to Nanjing. That is the truth. Nanjing boasts more than 1000 Republican architectures. The achievements of Nanjing Republican architecture received great benefit from a group of young architects returning from overseas; they broke the design monopoly of foreign designers. The buildings can be divided into five types: the eclecticism, which adopts the modern reinforced concrete technique; the western classical architecture; the modern architecture with traditional Chinese palatial style; new national style; the western modern style. The greatest achievement is the gorgeous Zhongshan Mausoleum. The cultural relics related to Dr. Sun Yat-sen include the Parliament Building where Dr. Sun Yat-sen was elected Provisional President, the President Mansion of the Republic, the Xuyuan Garden, Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum at the southern foothill of Zijinshan Hill and Zhongshan Grand Road, a road purposely built for Dr. Sun's coffin to be carried into the tomb, which is the first modern road in Nanjing.

(5) The cultural relics and historic sites of the modern Nanjing

It boasts numerous cultural resources and modern buildings. The major tourist sites are Nanjing Changjiang Bridge, Nanjing international conference and exhibition center, Jiangsu Gallery, Jinling Restaurant and Gudu Restaurant.

3.1.2.2 The folk customs

Nanjing's folk customs are featured by their quaintness as well as popularity. Because people in Nanjing are endowed with the high cultural qualities, the local customs are characterized with various types and surprising beauty. For example, the urban dwellers are interested in Jinglin Lantern Show, Plum Blossom Festival and Tolling the Bell to Greet New Year, while the suburb residents prefer to much more bustling festivals and activities, such as the Barn Lantern in Gaochun, the Dragon and Drum Dance in the Qinhuai River and so on. The other local customs include: Jiangxin Zhou Islet Grape Festival, Nanjing Rain Flower Pebble Art Festival, New Year's Festival, Lantern Festival and Mid-autumn Festival.

3.2 Analyzing the Cross-cultural Problems between China and the West Existing in Nanjing's International Tourism

3.2.1 The Obvious Cultural Differences in the International Tourism

3.2.1.1 The differences in material cultures

The material culture is the one in form of physics and it includes everything created by the laboring people, such as tools, weapons, daily utensils, clothing, decorations, palaces, housings, temples, working shops, metropolis, tombs, parks and so on. They are concentrated expression of people's perspectives, demands and abilities. Varied cultures have created varied material cultures with its own characteristics and this is the case for China and the West that each nation has produced cultural products in physics with the very different styles in their respective course of historic development.

Let's have a glimpse at the tip of iceberg of cultural differences in physics through analyzing the garden. In terms of gardening, the Chinese classical garden belongs to the natural type with the Chinese landscape painting and scenic poems as it aesthetic principle, and most of its designers are painters and poets who are in pursuit of natural beauty. In addition, it has a freedom and natural structure and puts a high value on flexibility. While the typical western garden is the geometrical kind with geometry and architecture as its aesthetic principle, and many of them are designed by architecture designers who pursue man-made beauty, designing beauty and dynamic beauty. Besides, it emphasizes on the relationship between the principal and the subordinate and on the ration and the order. As for the scale of the garden, thanks to its varied functions, the garden in China is relatively tinier, which are perfectly represented by gardens in South of Yangtze River, while the garden in the West is much larger. In dealing with the relationship between the garden and architectures, it is the garden who governs architectures in the typical Chinese garden designing, however, the relation is just opposite in the West. In terms of plants, in China, trees are planted in a scattered distribution and flowers are mainly cultivated in pots; while in the West, trees are arranged in an orderly layout and flowers are grew in flower terrace with paintings. As for the decorations, the Chinese classical garden is aided by rows of stones, calligraphy, paintings and literature, while the western garden is supported by sculptures and crafts.

3.1.2.2 The differences in behavioral cultures

The behavioral culture refers to a sum of peremptory or non-peremptory regulations or codes developed in the practice of human beings. It mainly includes: customs, morals, laws and so on. Among them, the custom is the oldest and the most popular social conduct, a kind of lifestyle which has been passed from generation to generation for thousands of years. It can be reflected in each aspect of life, such as diet, clothing, festivals and social manners. In addition, it is not enforced by laws but by public opinions. Of the local customs, the social taboos should be the most important aspect to be paid attention to. Both the Chinese and westerners have their national taboos. Take the life expectancy for example, in China, we the people of longevity "老年人" in Chinese or " the old " in English by direct translation, and we Chinese consider the word "old" as a symbol of wisdom and experience and as the expression of respect; In the West, however, this word conveys a meaning of useless. Therefore, the westerners prefer to use the expression of "senior citizen" to call the old. Besides, when it comes to the numbers, the Chinese avoid everything related with "four", for in Chinese, four is pronounced as "si", a quite similar pronunciation as the word "death", while they prefer the number "eight", as it has the harmony of sound with "prosperity" in Chinese. Different from the Chinese, the westerners abstain "thirteen" and they avoid everything connected with this number when they travel. By the way, this taboo comes from the story of "The Last Dinner" in the Bible.

3.1.2.3 The differences in spiritual cultures

The spiritual culture is the sum of the way of conduct, points of view, values, aesthetic standards, morals, religious beliefs, and national characters formed in the material production and spiritual activities of human society. Of them, the value is the core, as the judgment of value determines the direction of popular will and guides the codes of conduct between people and people, between people and the society, and between people and the nature around them.

The Chinese culture emphasizes the perspective of the collective and, therefore, the individual benefit should be subordinated to the collective benefit. In addition, the collective-oriented value makes Chinese very concern about the outsiders' opinions before they start to do certain things. Consequently, Chinese are keen on face-saving and it takes them a lot of time and energy. This leads directly to the formation of their extrovert, reserved and moderate national character, however, also to make them not aggressive enough and lack in the sense of competition. In contrast, the westerners pursue individualism and put a great emphasis on competition, personal character and dignity. The individualism is permeated in every aspect of their lives. In their opinion, the individual is the center of the society and his/her lifestyle and life quality depend on his/her own capabilities. Besides, they hold on that there will be no society without the individual and the benefit of the individual is more important than that of the collective. One more to be mentioned is that the right of privacy is of extreme importance to them and it is legal as well as rational.

3.2.2 The Inadequacy in the Cross-cultural Management and Service Level in International Tourism

3.2.2.1 The inadequacy in the employees' capabilities

From the perspective of the cross-cultural tourism, the employees in Nanjing's tourism have two serious shortages in their capabilities to communicate with the western tourists. Firstly, they are lack of enough knowledge about western cultures. For example, the employed in restaurants do not pay much attention to protect and respect the right of privacy, which has become a common phenomenon and made their guests complain time and time again; besides, the employees' inadequacy in non-language such as gestures, eye contacts, body distance and so on, also hinders effective communication. Secondly, many employees in this field can not speak English fluently and even some of them can not speak English at all. In the light of a sample survey from the roster of tourism guides in Nanjing's tourism website, the number of English tour guides do not surpasses seven hundred and even these people almost only have the primary tour guide license, which fundamentally hinders the development of the cross-cultural tourism.

3.2.2.2 The under-exploitation of the cross-cultural tourism resources

Although Nanjing is rich in the cross-cultural resources for the international tourism, these resources have not yet been taken full advantage of. This problem is mainly manifested in the following two aspects. Firstly, there is shortage of enough cross-cultural tourist products and many of them, even if there are, have not been fully developed to attract enough tourists. For example, Nanjing is home to abundant cultural and historic resources and to a great number of museums, but many of those museums are low in quality and lack of attraction. Therefore, there are few people to visit them and they only attract some professionals in history or culture. Secondly, the specific cross-cultural tourism lines are low in quantity and quality and lacking in famous one. At present, tourist products relevant to cross-culture in Nanjing are dominated in form of one-day tour, and other forms are primarily in the stage of concept and test and have not yet been taken into shape, which has conditioned westerners' direct contact with Nanjing's culture. For example, the successful "Alley Tour" in Beijing, which makes tourists exposed to the local customs and daily lives, should provide inspiration for Nanjing to develop its own featured tourist products.

4 Counter-measures against the Cross-cultural Problems between China and the West Existing in Nanjing's International Tourism

4.1 Developing Tourist Products of Varied Cultural Resources

4.1.1 Exploiting the Compound-type Tourist Products

(1) Developing sightseeing products of cultural and historic sites

To develop Nanjing's sightseeing products of varied cultural resources is primarily to develop its groups of architectures and the relevant historic relics of ten dynasties. In the light of this view, the following products can be developed. Firstly, considering the already developed tourism site of Ming tomb, the ancient City Wall and the imperial palace of the Ming Dynasty is the focus to be developed, thus forming the architecture tour of the Ming Dynasty. Secondly, with Tangzi Street wall paintings of Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace and the Relics of Heavenly King Palace as its representation, the architecture tour of Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace can be taken into shape. Thirdly, the architecture tour of Republic of China can be formed by developing the Parliament Building, the President Mansion of the Republic and Zhongshan Grand Road, with Dr. Sun Yat-sen's Mausoleum added. Lastly, the sightseeing tour for modern building is of equal value to be exploited, and it can be best represented by Nanjing Changjiang Bridge, Nanjing International Conference and Exhibition Center, Jiangsu Gallery, Jinling Restaurant and Gudu restaurant.

(2) Developing tourist products of culture and leisure

In recent years, tourists' interest has shifted from natural sightseeing to leisure, which is the new feature and trend in today's tourism market. Therefore, the combination of leisure and culture will be the new direction for the development of Nanjing's tourism. The following measures should be adopted. Firstly, it is of great importance for Nanjing to exploit its resources of local customs. The followings have been developed, including: Jinglin Lantern Show, Plum Blossom Festival, Tolling the Bell to Greet New Year, Jiangxin Zhou Islet Grape Festival and Nanjing Rain Flower Pebble Art Festival. However, westerners have not been familiar with these festivals and activities. Therefore, it is of necessity to intensify their introduction and publicity, and there are several methods to publicize, such as publishing brochures introducing relevant knowledge and strengthening guides' acquaintance with local customs. In addition, the building of local custom library and the publicizing of local cuisine should be on Nanjing's top agenda. Secondly, the publicity of the brand of Nanjing's Night is another priority. The charming of Nanjing's Night is primarily dependant on developing the Night of Qinhuai River, which is the tourism brand to be publicized with every effort. Besides, other activities should be provided to the western tourists at night and they are: the museum, the theater, the concert, the bookstore and shopping.

4.1.2 Developing Various Tour Routes

(1) The tour routes relevant to religions

The temple fair provides a unique opportunity to exhibit local customs and the religious ceremonies, the religious cults and the architectures of a local style, which has a strong attraction to tourists. As a metropolis of tolerance and love, Nanjing is home to different kinds of religions. Therefore, there are two tour routes related with religion to be exploited. The first is the tourism line of Buddism, which is composed of Linggu Temple, Lingchang Temple and Longquan temple. The second line, relevant to Muslim, is mainly dependent on Liuhe Mosque.

(2) The tour routes related with museums

The museum tour is the most detailed and quickest way to get to know the exotic culture. Take London's museums for example, the British Museum, the National Museum and other hundreds of professional museums are the city's hot spots for tourists. On the ground of its profound history and culture, Nanjing can totally develop its own museums on special topics. Therefore, the following theme museums should be on the list. Firstly, based on its abundant resources of history, Nanjing may exploit historic museums, including: the Museum of the Six Dynasties Period, the Museum of the Ming Dynasty, the Museum of the Qing Dynasty, the Museum of Republic of China and the Museum of Revolution. Secondly, given Nanjing's abundance in numerous historic figures, it probably can develop the museum introducing historic figures of all walks of life. Among these famous people, the following figures are priorities and they are: Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the national father of China; Cao Xueqin, the author of A Dream in Red Mansions; Zhu Yuanzhang, the founder of the Qing Dynasty.

4.2 Improving the Management and Service Level in the Cross-cultural Tourism

4.2.1 Strengthening the Employees' Professional Training

The professional quality of employees is vital to the development of the cross-cultural tourism, and efforts should be made in the following aspects. Firstly, in terms of the system, the first job is to regulate the regular education. As the prime force for education, colleges at all levels play a leading role in basic education and in the cultivation of competent people; at the same time, it is of equal significance for these training institutions to improve their level of teaching and to offer different educational programs, which will undoubtedly guarantee personnel in this field with enough opportunities for further education. The second job is to strengthen the professional trainings, which is the primary form for the further education. To achieve this goal, it is important to construct the training networks and to improve the quality of training teams. Secondly, as for the training content, the first thing is to increase the number of cross-cultural employees. Given the background of the financial crisis, it makes sense to attract those graduates proficient in western languages, such as English majors, to engage in the international tourism; besides, because of oversupply of Chinese tour guides, it is also important to offer English language training for the young guides at a discount. The second job is to strengthen their knowledge about the western culture and special attention should be given to the knowledge about privacy, taboos, gestures and religious beliefs.

4.2.2 Intensifying the Government's Intervention in the Cross-cultural Tourism

(1) The government's intervention plays an important role in the development of the cross-cultural tourism. Firstly, it is of necessity to set up a unified department in charge of making plans for developing the cross-cultural tourism. The goal of the government management and service is to build several household tourist products. Secondly, to achieve this goal, it is important to pull famous investors to build two or three landmark cultural programs with Nanjing's local features, and these tourist products should be not only national and distinctive, but also be the exact embodiment of Nanjing's profound history and culture. These products will surely meet the westerners' cultural demand.

(2) Undoubtedly, effective and comprehensive information is a bridge over the western tourists and the tourist products in Nanjing. In 2002, Nanjing's municipal government set up thirty tourist brochure shelves in the city's major star-class hotels for the first time with the free supply of tourist guides, publicity materials of each major tourism site and relevant materials about Nanjing's transport, which did a great favor for tourists. However, to promote the development of Nanjing's tourism, much more work deserves to be done. Firstly, it may be useful to build free billboards for tourism in the railway station and other public places. Secondly, given the successful publicity made by Guilin, the tourism city of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, which invited the famous director Zhang Yimou to make a publicity film, Nanjing may also adopt the similar measures to make advertisement by marketing the tourism features, themes and slogan. At the same time, it is of necessity to publish brochures in several languages.

Conclusion

Under the background of China's rapid merging into the world and Nanjing's quick development of inbound tourism, it is of great significance and also of necessity to study the international tourism. Considering Nanjing's abundance in historic and cultural resources and the existing problems in the international tourism, the thesis, under the guiding of the co-cultural theory, argues that cultural variations belong to a kind of resources, which can produce economic benefits; meanwhile, measures countering against the cross-cultural problems are also raised. Concretely speaking, the thesis has done three jobs. Firstly, from the perspective of thought, the paper, in conformity with the co-cultural theory, argues that Nanjing should take adaptive attitude towards the western popular culture if it determines to succeed in the cross-cultural tourism. Secondly, the article analyzes both Nanjing's advantages in exploiting the cross-cultural tourism and its cross-cultural problems. Lastly, the thesis puts forward concrete measures to make full use of those cross-cultural resources and overcome cross-cultural barriers.