Influence Of Celebrity Endorsement On Consumers Cultural Studies Essay

Published:

This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.

In order to arrest quick attention of audience & consumers the advertiser use individual's spokespersons or endorsee as a source component. Companies marketing consumer durable & non-durable products are often using popular sportspersons & film stars in their advertising to endorse their products. Companies expects to derive three types of benefits from endorses

Endorsers increase viewing of T.V. ads

Endorsers can influence position change towards a company and its brands because of their credibility

Endorsers perceived personality characteristics can get associated with a brand imagery.

The basic assumption underlying celebrity endorsement is that, the value associated with the celebrity is transferred to the brand, & therefore create an image that can be easily referenced by consumers. It is believed that the more credible the source the more persuasion. The endorser is likely to be influencing the acceptance of message by audience. Endorsers in advertisement are viewed as "source" of information & influence audience's acceptance of message content because of their credibility & attractiveness. It is believed that endorsers possess some symbolic attributes, which consumers associated with the brand. By purchasing owning and consuming those brands consumers see themselves as possessing those desired attributes.

A recent estimate notes that one quarter of all commercials screened in the USA include celebrities. In UK one in five (20%) marketing communication campaign feature celebrities. (Journal of Advertising Research)

In India 20% of advertisements is endorsement by celebrities. Dainik Bhaskar estimates the total expenditure on advertising as Rs 19900 crores (Nov 2005) while on celebrity endorsement Rs 950 crores.

Theory and practice prove that use of super star in advertising generates a lot of publicity and attention for public.( Ohanion 1991 )

At present the business companies prefer the use of celebrities as spokesperson in order to position and promote the sale and popularization of products or brand. The use of celebrities has become a favorable marketing strategy.The use of celebrity endorsing a product is prevalent all over the world.

Literature Review

Over the years, researchers in the fields of marketing, communications and social psychology have tried to identify factors related to the endorser that are central to understanding and improving their effectiveness. The theoretical basis for assuming that an advertisement's effectiveness increases relative to the trustworthiness, expertise, and attractiveness of the communicator stems from two research streams: source credibility (comprised of source trustworthiness and source expertise) and source attractiveness (also referred to collectively as the source models). From their study in 1953 Hovland et al. established the source credibility model and defined expertise as "the extent to which a communicator is perceived to be a source of valid assertions" (p. 21) and trustworthiness as "the degree of confidence in the communicator's intent to communicate the assertions he considers most valid" (p.21).

Source Attractiveness does not refer to physical attractiveness per se - it is related to three more general concepts: similarity, familiarity, and liking. The model holds that the effectiveness of a message depends on the source's familiarity, likeability, similarity, and attractiveness to the respondent. Familiarity is considered knowledge of the source through exposure, whereas likeability is affection for the source as a result of the source's physical appearance and behavior; and similarity is the supposed resemblance between the source and the receiver of the message (McGuire, 1985). According to the source models, endorsers are effective when they are seen by consumers as trustworthy (Friedman & Friedman, 1976; G. Miller & Basehart, 1969), experts (Crano, 1970; Crisi & Kassinove, 1973; Woodside & Davenport, 1974), and attractive (Joseph, 1982; McGuire, 1985). Although there are a number of moderating influences (e.g. fit with product and audience; low vs. high purchase decision; prior attitudes), in general, the more trustworthiness, expertise, and or attractiveness the endorser has the more effective they are at changing consumer attitude and opinion. (Brinol, Petty, & Tormala, 2004; Gotlieb & Sarel, 1991; Grewal, Gotlieb, & Marmorstein, 1994; Harmon & Coney, 1982; Hovland, Irving, & Kelly, 1953; Hovland & Weiss, 1951; Sternthal, Dholakia, & Leavitt, 1978) Empirical evidence in support of source credibility is abundant. Source credibility is credited with improved consumer confidence (Brinol et al., 2004), reversing negative predispositions (Sternthal et al., 1978), increasing product purchase intentions (Harmon & Coney, 1982), and altering consumers' reactions to advertisements and brands (Goldsmith, Lafferty, & Newell, 2000). Additionally, research has shown that highly credible sources "induce more behavioral compliance than do less credible sources" (Ohanian, 1990, p. 42); in short, the source credibility literature provides strong evidence to suggest that the more credible a source is the more effective they are at endorsement. Empirical support for source attractiveness is limited and at times contradictory. For example, physically attractive communicators are more liked than unattractive communicators (Joseph, 1982). Kahle and Homer (1985) found that source attractiveness enhanced brand recall in advertisements and led to a change in attitude and purchase intentions. Endorsers presenting products that were congruent with their image appeared more attractive than when presenting products that did not fit with their image, interestingly, this effect was only found with celebrity endorsers (i.e. not in non celebrity endorsers) (Kamins & Gupta, 1994). Ohanian (1991) on the other hand found that attractiveness was not significant in altering purchase intentions although expertise was. Ohanian's (1991) finding, although interesting, did not rule out the possibility that attractiveness indirectly influenced effectiveness. For instance Kamins (1990) hypothesized and found evidence that physical attractiveness of a celebrity only enhances product and ad based evaluations when there is a close match between product and celebrity. It can be said that source trustworthiness, source expertise and source attractiveness are relevant dimensions when selecting celebrity endorsers, although the importance of these dimensions are not equal; source trustworthiness and expertise are likely to have a larger impact on the effectiveness of an endorser than source attractiveness. (Shimp, 1997) Collectively referred to as the source models (McCracken, 1989), expertise, trustworthiness and attractiveness represent the three most important dimensions heretofore in our understanding of celebrity endorser effectiveness (Ohanian, 1990). Research has shown that as factors in the source models increase, so too does the effectiveness of celebrity endorsers (McGuire, 1985; G. Miller & Basehart, 1969; Till & Busler, 1998).

Data Collection Method .

To encompass the different facts of Celebrity's Influence on consumers and their buying behavior a comprehensive literature search carried out. This review examined the viewpoints of various factors of celebrities, which influence to consumers buying behavior attitude. On the basis of this review of literature, a detailed list of different attributes of celebrity was prepared to analyze the influence of celebrities on consumers and their purchasing decision attitudes, through T.V. advertisement.

The main aspects that were considered for the present study are listed below,

Influence of celebrities on consumers through T.V. advertisements

Impact of Expertise of celebrities, on consumers buying behaviour through T.V. Advertising.

Influence of Trustworthiness of celebrities on consumers buying behaviour through T.V. advertising.

4. Influence of Physical Attractiveness of celebrities on consumers buying behavior through T.V. advertising.

Influence of celebrities Personality on consumers buying behavior through T.V. advertising.

2 Keeping in mind these aspects fifty-two statements related to various different factors of celebrity which influence to consumers buying behavior attitude

3 To further refine the scale, fifty-two statements of the item pool were subjected to detailed item analysis. The basic purpose was to ascertain the reliability and discriminative capacity of these statements. In the development of an attitude scale researcher has used t-test to ascertain the discriminative power of the statement. However, due to certain practical difficulties a less stringent method was given to six management teachers, on account of their theoretical and practical insight in the field. They were apprised of the objectives of the carefully going through these statements and critically evaluate each statement on the following guidelines:

Relevance of each statement to the objectives of the study.

Discriminating ability of each statement in measuring the attitudes.

Avoiding duplication, in case more than one statement tried to measure the same thing.

The criterion for retaining any statement for the final selection was on the basis of the agreement of at least five experts out of six on the given guidelines i.e. relevance, discriminating power and duplication. Even if four members agreed and two disagreed on any one of the guidelines, the statement in question was discarded. In this way twenty nine statements fulfilled the norms and therefore, they were finally included in the study.

It was planned that the items of this scale should not only measure the direction of attitudes towards different facts of celebrity's Influence on consumers and their buying behavior but also the intensity of their directions. Therefore, a simple dichotomous scale of attitude measurement was not considered to be useful for providing the relevant information. After considering other types of attitude scales, choice was narrowed down to Likert Type Scale for analyze belief of consumer towards major factors of celebrities which influence to consumers and Bipolar Semantic Differential Scale for analyze to specific attributes which influence consumers and their buying behavior because of its versatility, ease of construction, ease of administration and the ability to simultaneously measure the intensity and direction of attitudes. The use of Likert and Bipolar Semantic Differential Scale also allows inclusion of large number of diverse statements. A five-point interval scale from "strongly agree" to "strongly not agree" was used to measure the response to each statement (items).

Scale development framework

Likert's Scale: A five point of likert's Scale is used to measure the attitude of respondents towards the B types of questions.

(5) (4) (3) (2) (1)

Strongly agreed Agreed Undecided Not Agreed Strongly not agreed

Bipolar Semantic Differential Scale: A 5 point Bipolar Semantic Differential Scale is used to measure the attitude of respondents towards E types of questions.

(2) (1) (0) (-1) (-2)

Strongly agreed Agreed Undecided Not Agreed Strongly not agreed

Research Methodology

The study has been conducted in the urban area of Gautam Budh Nagar (up). Choosing as the universe was that people of this area were educated and holding tv set and viewing TV and advertisements. Gautam Buddha Nagar is a district of Uttar Pradesh state in northern India. Census report 2001 shows that population of Gautama Budh Nagar was 1191263. Report also shows the total male (646554) and female (544709) population. In 1991 male literacy was 69.12% which has reached 82.56% (census 2001) and female literacy reached from 29.82% to 54.56%. it shows a good impact of education on the population of Gautam Budh Nagar.

Size of the sample: Total 300 respondents were selected by non-probability convenience sampling method. The sample was selected in such a way that both the male and female were represented proportionately. The basic hypothesis was based on the premise that there should be significant attitudinal differences between these two groups i.e. male and female.

Data Analysis:

Fishbein Model (Attitude-towards-the-object (person)) has used to measure the influence of celebrity on consumers and buying behavior attitude of consumers.

A = Respondents Attitude towards the celebrities T.V. advertisements.

∑ = Mathematical symbol means the sum.

m = Number of attributes being tested

Bi = Consumer belief that the celebrity possesses attribute i

Ei = Evaluation or desirability of attribute i

i = attribute 1, 2 … m

B (Belief) Statements: Beliefs of respondents were measured by likert's five-scale method on influence, Expertise, Trustworthiness, Physical appearance, Personality (Five)

S.N

B (Belief) Statements

E (Attributes) Statements

1.

Influence

(6) Seven

2.

Expertise

(6) Six

3.

Trustworthiness

(5) Five

4.

Physical appearance

(5) Five

5.

Personality

(7) Six

E (Attributes) Statements: Twenty nine specific statements related with Influence, Expertise, Trustworthiness, Physical appearance and Personality attributes of celebrities, measured by Bipolar Semantic Differential Scale.

Multiples B x E: Each Belief/Attributes has tested by Multiples B x E, Maximum score 5 x 2=10 and 5 x -2= -10 minimum score.

Statistical Tools:

Mean: Mean value has calculated by multiplied score Belief (B) and Attributes (E) for each male/ female respondent then find out average score of 198 male and 102 female.

Z TEST: Z test has used at 5% table value to find out statistical significant difference between the opinion of male and female respondents.

Empirics

INFLUENCE OF CELEBRITY ADVERTISEMENTS ON CONSUMERS THROUGH T.V. ADVERTISING

To analyze the influence of celebrity on consumers (male/female), Firstly measured "belief" (B) of consumes towards the influence of celebrities and got views of respondents, by the likert's five scale method. The result showed that the Mean value of 300 respondents were 4.06, which showed that respondents were strongly in favour of celebrity advertisements. Further result reflected that male respondents mean value was (3.96) and female respondents mean value was (4.26) which showed that female respondents were more favourable to celebrity advertisements.

Secondly eight statements were asked from the respondents on the basis of assumed specific factors /attributes (E) and used Fishbein Model to analyze the influence of celebrity

The first statement of table describes the celebrity (film stars, T.V stars and sports stars) advertisements are more effective than non-celebrity advertisements

Table No 1.1 shows that the mean score of female respondents (3.94) is slightly higher than male respondents (3.48). However, calculated value of t (0.060514) is less than 1.96 table value at 5 percent level of significance. In other words it can be concluded that there is no difference in the opinion of male and female. They think in similar manner regarding the above statement.

The second statement was Celebrity advertisements are more convincing than non-celebrity advertisements.

Table No 1.1shows that the mean score of female respondents (7.13) is higher than male respondents (5.48). But calculated t value (3.56104) is greater than 1.96 table value at 5 percent level of significance. In other words it can be concluded that there is statistically significant difference in the opinion of male and female respondents. It reflects that female respondents are more convinced by celebrity advertisements comparatively male respondents

Table No 1.1

INFLUENCE OF CELEBRITIES THROUGH T.V. ADVERTISEMENTS ON MALE/ FEMALE RESPONDENTS

S.N

Statements

Mean value

max10 To -10min

t

Male

Female

1

Celebrity advertisements are more effective than non celebrity advertisements

5.82

6.51

1.41993

2

Celebrity advertisements are more convincing than non-celebrity advertisements

5.48

7.13

3.56104

3

Use of celebrity increases advertisements

credibility

6.29

6.47

0.53790

4

Celebrities attract more attention of people through T.V. advertisements.

5.35

6.86

3.74320

5

Celebrity advertisements are the most powerful tool in the hand of business companies to sell their products.

6.85

6.91

0.164195

6

Celebrity advertisements, contributes very importantly to india's industrial prosperity.

7.01

7.18

0.52834

The third statement was Use of celebrity increases advertisements credibility.

Table No 1.1 shows for this statement the mean score of female respondents (6.47) is higher than male respondents (6.29). However the calculated value of t (0.53790) is found greater than 1.96.It reflects that there is no difference in the opinion of the both male and female respondents feels more strongly that the use of celebrity increases advertisements credibility.

The fourth statement was Celebrity attract more attention of people through T.V. advertisements

Table No 1.1 shows that mean score of male respondents (6.86) was slightly higher than female respondents (5.35) but calculated t value 3.74320 is greater than 1.96 table value at 5 percent level of significance. In other words it can be concluded that there is statistically significant difference in the opinion of male and female respondents. Female respondents more strongly feel that celebrity attract more attention of people through TV advertisements comparatively male respondents.

The Fifth statement was Celebrity advertisements are the most powerful tool in the hand of business companies to sell their products.

Table No 1.1 Sixth statement explicitly says that advertisement is the most potent tools available to business for enhancing sales. Result shows that the mean score of female respondents (6.91) are slightly higher than male respondents (6.85). However, calculated value of t (0.164195) is less than 1.96 table value at 5 percent level of significance. This indicates that both male and female respondents consider celebrity advertising as one of the most potent business tools. This is possible because most of the Indian urban women are increasingly being exposed to advertising. Due to popularity of TV as a major medium.

The Sixth statement was Celebrity advertisements, contributes very importantly to india's industrial prosperity.

Table No 1.1 Reflects that majority of respondents both male and female, strongly agreed with this statement. The mean score of female respondents is slightly higher (7.18) as compared to the male respondents (7.01). However this difference is not statistically significant. So it may safely conclude that people have positive attitudes towards celebrity advertising as far its contribution to india's industrial prosperity is concerned.

DISCUSSION: FACTORS, WHICH INFLUENCE THE BUYING BEHAVIOUR OF CONSUMERS (RESPONDENTS)

Expertise

To analyze the buying behaviour of respondents (male/female), first analyzed belief of respondents on expertise, trustworthiness, physical appearance and personality of celebrities then twenty-four specific attributes of celebrity's analyzed for all four major beliefs (expertise, trustworthiness, physical appearance and personality) of respondents (figure-1).

The result showed that the Mean value of 300 respondents were 2.62, which showed that respondents were slightly in favour of that celebrity should be expertise for TV

Figure-1

advertisements. Further result reflected that male respondents mean value was (1.32) and female respondents mean value was (3.92). Which showed that female respondents were more strongly believe that celebrity should be expertise for the TV advertisements comparatively male respondents?

Seven statements specific factors /attributes (E) (figure no.1) related with expertise of celebrities towards products/brands asked from respondents to analyze the impact of expertise of celebrities, on respondents (male/female) buying behavior.

First statement was Expertise (brand or product) of celebrity influences your buying behavior.

Table No 2.1 shows that mean score of female respondents (4.58) was higher than male respondent (3.56). But calculated t value (2.49873) is greater than 1.96 table value at 5 percent level of significance. This shows that there was statistically significant difference in the opinion of male and female respondents, and female respondents buying behavior was more strongly influenced by expertise (brand/product) of celebrity in comparison to male respondents.

Table No.2.1

INFLUENCE OF EXPERTISE OF CELEBRITY ON RESPONDENTS BUYING BEHAVIOUR (MALE/FEMALE)

S.N

Statements

Mean value

max10 To -10min

t

Male

Female

1

Knowledge of product/brand to celebrity is also influences your purchase decisions

3.66

2.18

3.00102

2

If celebrity is user of product/brand then he/she will more convincing to purchase

3.55

3.65

0.30336

3

Experience (product/brand) of celebrity influences your buying behaviour

3.02

6.19

10.33581

4

Celebrity should be Qualified and Justified with the product /brand and ads... then he/she will more convincing to your buying behavior

3.18

3.64

1.35155

5

Education and Skills of celebrity influences on your buying behavior

3.17

4.02

2.13836

6

Technical knowledge about product/brand to celebrity is require to convince to purchase

1.16

1.87

1.29785

Second statement was Celebrity's knowledge about the product or brand influences your purchase decision.

Table No 2.1 shows that the mean score of male respondents (3.66) was slightly higher than female respondents (2.18) but t value (3.00102) is greater than 1.96 table values at 5 percent level of significance. This shows that there was statistically significant difference in the opinion of male and female respondents. The male purchasing decisions were more influenced by knowledge of (product or brand) of celebrity, in comparison to female respondents.

Third statement was if the celebrity is the user of product or brand then he/she will be more able to convince the consumers to purchase.

Table No 2.1 shows that the mean score of female respondents (3.65) was slightly higher than male respondents (3.55) but t value (0.30336) showed that there was statistically no difference between the views of male and female respondents at 5 percent level of significance. Which shows that both male and female respondents were slightly in favour of that celebrity should be user of the products/brands.

Fourth statement was the experience (for product or brand) of celebrity influences your buying behaviour

Table No 2.1.2 shows that the mean value of female respondents (6.19) was

higher than adult respondents (3.02) but t value (8.379) is greater than 1.96 table values at 5 percent level of significance. This shows that there was statistically significant difference in the opinion of male and female respondents. The average female respondents were more strongly convinced to purchase if celebrity is experienced (product or brand) than comparatively male respondents

Fifth statement was the celebrity should be qualified and justified with the product or brand then he/she will be more convincing to your buying behavior.

.Table No 2.1 shows that the mean score of male respondents (4.64) was higher than female respondent (2.00). But calculated t value (14.0235) is greater than 1.96 table value at 5 percent level of significance, which means that there was statistically significant difference in the opinion of male and female respondents. The average male respondents were more strongly convinced to buy, if celebrity is qualified and justified with the product or brand in comparison to female respondents.

Sixth statement was the education and skills of celebrity influence your buying behavior.

Table No 2.1 shows that mean score of female respondents (4.02) is greater than 1.96 table values at 5 percent level of significance. This shows that there is statistically significant difference in the opinion of male and female respondents. The average female respondents were more strongly feels that celebrity should be educated and skilled to influence their buying behavior.

Seventh statement was the celebrity's technical knowledge about product or brand is required to convince to purchase.

Table No 2.1 shows that the mean score of female respondents (1.87) was slightly higher than male respondents (1.16) and t value (1.29785) at 5 percent level of significance. It showed that there was statistically no difference between male and female respondents' opinion. It can be inferred that technical knowledge hardly affects the buying decision of respondents.

Trustworthiness

To analyze the impact of trustworthiness of celebrities, on buying behaviour of respondents (male/female), first measured belief (B) of respondents towards the trustworthiness of celebrity and got views of respondents, by the likeret's five-scale method. The result showed that the Mean value of 300 respondents were 3.83, which showed that respondents were in favour of that celebrity should be trustworthy for T.V. advertisements. Further result reflected that male respondents mean value was (3.63) and female respondents mean value was (4.03). Which showed that female respondents were more strongly believe that celebrity should be trustworthy for the TV advertisements comparatively male respondents?

Five statements specific factors /attributes (E) (figure no.1) related with trustworthiness asked from respondents to analyze the impact of trustworthiness of celebrities, on respondents (male/female) buying behavior.

First statement was you purchase your products or brand due to trust on celebrity

Table No 2.2 shows that the mean score of female respondents (6.63) was higher than male respondents (4.45) but t value (6.39112) was greater than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. This showed that there was significant difference between male and female respondent's opinion. Female respondents were more strongly convinced to purchase if celebrity is a trustworthy, comparatively male respondent.

Second statement was Honesty and truthfulness of celebrity influences your buying behavior

Table No 2.2 shows that that the mean score of female respondents (6.71) was slightly higher than male respondents (6.44) but t value (0.69483) was less than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. It showed that there was statistically no difference between male and female respondent's opinion.

Third statement was If celebrity is dependable then he/she will be more convincing to purchase through T.V. advertisements.

Table No 2.2 shows that the mean score of male respondents (5.83) was higher than female respondents (4.26) but t value (2.95697) was greater than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. This showed that there was significant difference

Table No 2.2

INFLUENCE OF TRUSTWORTHINESS OF CELEBRITIES ON RESPONDENTS BUYING BEHAVIOUR (Male/Female

S.N

Statements

Mean value

max10 To -10min

t

Male

Female

1

You purchase your products/brand due to Trust on celebrity

4.45

6.63

6.39112

2

Honesty and truthful of celebrity influences your buying behavior

6.44

6.71

0.75190

3

If celebrity is Dependable then he/she will more convincing you to purchase.

4.26

5.83

2.95697

4

Sincerity of celebrity influences your buying behavior.

5.33

5.19

0.27198

5

Reliability of celebrity also influences your purchase decisions

5.79

6.54

2.12348

between male and female respondent's opinion. Female respondents were more strongly convinced to purchase if celebrity is dependable.

Fourth statement was Sincerity of celebrity influences your buying behaviour.

Table No 2.2 shows that the mean score of male (5.33) respondents was slightly higher than female (5.19) respondents but t value (0.27198) was less than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. It showed no significant difference between male and female respondent's opinion. Both male and female respondents were more strongly convinced to purchase by the sincerity of celebrity.

Fifth statement was Reliability of celebrity also influences your purchase decisions

Table No 2.2 shows that the mean score of female respondents (6.54) was higher than young respondent (5.79). But the calculated t value (2.12348) is greater than 1.96 table value at 5 percent level of significance. This shows that there was statistically significant difference in the opinion of male and female respondents. The average female respondent's purchase decisions were more strongly influenced, if celebrity was reliable, comparatively male respondents.

Physical Attractiveness

To analyze the impact of physical attractiveness of celebrities, on buying behavior of respondents (male/female), first measured belief (B) of respondents towards the physical attractiveness of celebrity and got views of respondents, by the likeret's five-scale method. The result showed that the Mean value of 300 respondents were 4.63, which showed that respondents were strongly in favour of that celebrity should be physical attractive for T.V. advertisements. Further result reflected that male respondents mean value was (4.38) and female respondents mean value was (4.34). Which showed that male respondents were more strongly believe that celebrity should be physical attractive for the TV advertisements comparatively female respondents?

Five statements specific factors /attributes (E) (figure no.1) related with physical attractiveness of celebrity asked from respondents to analyze the impact of physical attractiveness of celebrities, on buying behavior of respondents (male/female).

First statement was Body constitution (smartness) of celebrity is most important factor for attracting and convincing you to purchase.

Table No 2.3 shows that the mean score of female (5.18) respondents was slightly higher than male (5.13) respondents but again calculated t value (0.07914) was less than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. This showed that there was statistically no difference between male and female respondents opinion.

Second statement was the (age factor) young/adult celebrity is more effective than old celebrity

Table No 2.3 shows that the mean score of female respondents (7.16) was slightly higher than male respondents (4.36) but again calculated t value (4.48296) was greater than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. This showed that there was statistically significant difference between male and female respondents opinion. Female respondents were more strongly influenced by young and adult celebrities.

Third statement was the voice and gesture of celebrity also affects your purchase decisions.

Table No 2.3 shows that means score of female (5.28) respondents was higher than male (4.29) respondents but t value (1.29369) was less than 1.96 at 5 %

Table No 2.3

INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL ATTACTIVENESS OF CELEBRITIES ON RESPONDENTS BUYING BEHAVIOUR (MALE/FEMALE)

S.N

Statements

Mean value

max10 To -10min

t

Male

Female

1

Body constitution (Smartness) of celebrity is most important factor for attract and convince you to purchase

5.13

5.18

0.07914

2

(Age Factor)Young/Adult celebrity is more effective than old celebrity

4.36

7.16

4.48296

3

Voice and gesture of celebrity is also effect on your purchase decisions

4.29

5.28

1.29369

4

Celebrity should have appealing figure (sexy and beautiful) to convince you to purchase, through T.V. advertisement

7.42

4.10

6.10488

5

(Gender) female celebrities are more convincing than male

7.13

4.30

4.93833

level of significance which showed that there was statistically no difference between male and female respondent's opinion.

Fourth statement was the celebrity should have appealing figure (sexy and beautiful) to convince you to purchase, through T.V. advertisement.

Table No 2.3 shows that the means score of male (7.42) respondents was higher than female (4.10) respondents but t value (6.10488) was greater than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance which showed that there was statistically significant difference between male and female respondent's opinion. The male respondents were more strongly convinced to purchase if celebrity had appealing (sexy and beautifully) figure in comparison to adult respondents.

Fifth statement was the female celebrities are more effective and convincing you to purchase than male

Table No 2.3 shows that the means score of male (7.13) respondents was higher than female (4.30) respondents but t value (4.93833) was greater than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. This showed that there was statistically significant difference between male and female respondent's opinion. Male respondents were more influenced by female celebrities, comparatively female respondents.

Personality

To analyze the impact of traits of personality of celebrities, on buying behavior of respondents (male/female), first measured belief (B) of respondents towards the traits of personality of celebrities and got views of respondents, by the Likeret's five-scale method. The result showed that the Mean value of 300 respondents were 4.33, which showed that respondents were strongly in favour of that celebrities should have some specific traits of personality of celebrities for T.V. advertisements. Further result reflected that male respondents mean value was (4.09) and female respondents mean value was (4.57). Which showed that female respondents were more strongly believe that celebrity should be physical attractive for the TV advertisements comparatively male respondents?

Seven statements specific traits /attributes (E) (figure no.1) related with personality of celebrity asked from respondents to analyze the impact of traits of personality of celebrities, on buying behavior of respondents (male/female)

First statement was the Image & reputation of celebrity plays important role in influencing your buying behaviour.

Table No 2.4 shows that the mean score of male (7.19) respondents was slightly higher than female (6.09) respondents but t value (7.34438) was greater than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. This showed that there was statistically significant difference between male and female respondents opinion. Female respondents buying behavior were more strongly influenced by the Image & reputation of celebrity, which plays important role in influencing your buying behaviour

Second statement was the popularity (public figure) of celebrity is most important factor for effective and convincing advertisements.

Table No 2.4 shows that the mean score of female (7.35) respondents was slightly higher than male (4.60) respondents but t value (10.14971) was greater than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. This showed that there was statistically significant difference between male and female respondents opinion. Female respondents buying behavior were more strongly influenced by the popularity (public figure) of celebrity is most important factor for effective and convincing advertisements

Third statement was the social & cultural background of celebrity influences your buying behavior.

Table No 2.4 shows that the mean score of male (7.29) respondents was slightly higher than female (6.09) respondents but t value (4.88314) was greater than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. This showed that there was statistically significant difference between male and female respondents opinion. Female respondents buying behavior were more strongly influenced by the social & cultural background of celebrity.

Table No. 2.4.

INFLUENCE OF PERSONALITY OF CELEBRITIES ON RESPONDENTS BUYING BEHAVIOUR (MALE/FEMALE)

S.N

Statements

Mean value

max10 To -10min

t

Male

Female

1

Image & Reputation of celebrity plays important role to influence your buying behaviour

6.09

7.19

7.34438

2

popularity(public figure) of celebrity is most important factor for effective and convincing advertisements

6.06

7.35

10.14971

3

Social & Cultural background of celebrity influences your buying behaviour

4.60

7.29

4.88314

4

Status, class, and lifestyle of celebrity should match with product/brand and advertisement for effective and convincing advertisement

5.32

7.37

10.33581

5

Your buying behaviour, influenced by caste and regional background of celebrity

-0.17

-1.64

5.39575

6

Language of celebrity also effects on your buying behaviour

5.32

4.19

2.35301

7

Religious background of celebrity also influences to your purchase decision

-2.64

-1.17

1.29785

Fourth statement was the status, class, and lifestyle of celebrity should match with product or brand for effective and convincing advertisement.

Table No 2.4 shows that the means score of female (7.37) respondents was higher than male (5.32) respondents but t value (10.33581) was greater than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. This showed that there was statistically significant difference between male and female respondents opinion. Female respondents buying behavior were more strongly influenced by the status, class, and lifestyle of celebrity and these traits should match with product or brand for effective and convincing advertisement.

Fifth statement was your buying behaviour is influenced by caste and regional background of celebrity.

Table No 2.4 shows that the mean score of female (-0.17) respondents was slightly higher negative than male (-2.64) respondents and t value (5.39575) was greater than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. This showed that there was statistically significant difference between male and female respondents opinion. Female respondent's opinion is more negative than male respondents regarding caste and regional background of celebrity.

Sixth statement was the language of celebrity also affects your buying behaviour

Table No 2.4 shows that the means score of male (5.32) respondents was higher than female (4.19) respondents but t value (2.35301) was again less than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. It showed that there was statistically difference between male and female respondent's opinion. Male respondents strongly felt that language of celebrity also affects on buying behavior, in comparison to female respondents.

Seventh statement was Religious background of celebrity also influences your purchase decision.

Table No 2.4 shows that the mean score of male (-1.17) respondents was slightly higher negative than female (-1.64) respondents and tvalue (5.39575) was less than 1.96 at 5 percent level of significance. This showed that there was statistically no significant difference between male and female respondent's opinion. It means that religious background has no influence on the buying behavior of the respondents.

Findings and conclusion

FINDINS OF ANALYSIS OF RESPONDENTS BELIEF (B) (Table No. 3.1) Results show that female respondents are more strongly in favour of all major five beliefs (Influence, Expertise, Trustworthiness, Physical appearance and Personality) and t value reflects that their opinions are also dominating to male respondents, except one major factor physical appearance where both male and female respondents' opinions are same.

One more interesting finding of this analysis is that male respondents are not in favour of that expertise of products/brands of celebrities for the TV advertising is not mandatory.

Table No. 3.1

FINDINS OF ANALYSIS OF RESPONDENTS BELIEF (B)

S.N

(B) Belief of Respondents

MEAN VALUE

(Max5 to Min 1)

t

Value

Significance difference at 5% level

Male

Female

1.

Influence

3.96

4.25

2.23324

Significance difference

2.

Expertise

1.32

3.92

13.6003

Significance difference

3.

Trustworthiness

3.63

4.03

2.50914

Significance difference

4.

Physical appearance

4.38

4.34

0.50210

No Significance difference

5.

Personality

4.09

4.57

4.88055

Significance difference

Findings of Analysis Of celebrities' Attributes /Traits Impact on Respondents buying Behavior (E). (Table No. 3.1.1)

2.1. As far as influence of celebrity's advertisements is concerned. Most of the respondents strongly felt that celebrity advertisements are more effective and increasing credibility of TV advertisements. They acknowledged importance of advertising as a business tool and playing a very important role for India's industrial prosperity. Female respondents were more strongly agreed that celebrity advertisements attract more attention of people and convincing to respondents, comparatively non-celebrity advertisements.

2.2. As far as expertise of product/brands of celebrities for TV advertisement is concerned. Majority of male respondents' belief that celebrities should be expertise of that product/brands to which they are going to endorsing through TV advertisements is not necessary to influence their buying behavior. However female respondent's belief that celebrity should be expertise: educated and skilled, they should have knowledge of product/brands and experienced, to which they are going to endorse through TV advertisements.

Both male and female respondents feel that celebrities will be more effective and convincing if the are user of product and qualified and justified to that product to which they are going to promote through TV advertisements. According to most of

Table No. 3.1.1

FINDINS OF ANALYSIS OFCELEBRITIE'S ATTRIBUTIES /TRAITS IMPACT ON RESPONDENTS BUYING BEHAVIOUR ATTITUDE (E)

S.N

(E) Attributes /Traits of celebrities

MEAN VALUE (BÃ-E)

(Max10 to Min-10)

t

Value

Significance difference at 5% level

Male

Female

Influence

1

Effectiveness of Celebrity advt

5.82

6.51

1.41993

No significance difference

2

Convincing

5.48

7.13

3.56104

Significance difference

3

Increases credibility of advt

6.29

6.47

0.53790

No significance difference

4

Attract attention of people.

5.35

6.86

3.74320

Significance difference

5

Celebrity advt powerful tool for business co to sell their products.

6.85

6.91

0.16419

No significance difference

6

Celebrity advertisements, contributes to india's industrial prosperity.

7.01

7.18

0.52834

No significance difference

Expertise

1

Knowledge

3.66

2.18

3.00102

Significance difference

2

User

3.55

3.65

0.30336

No significance difference

3

Experience

3.02

6.19

10.3358

Significance difference

4

Qualified and Justified

3.18

3.64

1.35155

No significance difference

5

Education and Skills

3.17

4.02

2.13836

Significance difference

6

Technical knowledge

1.16

1.87

1.29785

No significance difference

Trustworthiness

1

Trust

4.45

6.63

6.39112

Significance difference

2

Honesty and truthful

6.44

6.71

0.75190

No significance difference

3

Dependable

4.26

5.83

2.95697

Significance difference

4

Sincerity

5.33

5.19

0.27198

No significance difference

5

Reliability

5.79

6.54

2.12348

Significance difference

Physical attractiveness

1

Body constitution

5.13

5.18

0.07914

No significance difference

2

Age Factor)

4.36

7.16

4.48296

Significance difference

3

Voice and gesture

4.29

5.28

1.29369

No significance difference

4

Appealing figure

7.42

4.10

6.10488

Significance difference

5

(Gender) female celebrities

7.13

4.30

4.93833

Significance difference

Personality

1

Image & Reputation

6.09

7.19

7.34438

Significance difference

2

Popularity (public figure)

6.06

7.35

10.1497

Significance difference

3

Social & Cultural background

4.60

7.29

4.88314

Significance difference

4

Status, class, and lifestyle of celebrity

5.32

7.37

10.3358

Significance difference

5

Caste & regional background of celebrity

-0.17

-1.64

5.39575

Significance difference

6

Language of celebrity

5.32

4.19

2.35301

Significance difference

7

Religious background of celebrity

-2.64

-1.17

1.29785

No significance difference

the respondents Technical knowledge of product to celebrity is not required to influence their buying behavior.

2.3. As far as trustworthiness of celebrity is concerned to influence respondents buying behavior. Both male and female respondents believe that their buying behavior influenced by trustworthiness of celebrity. Five statements were asked to diagnose specific attributes/factors (Trust, Honesty and truthful, Dependable, Sincerity,and Reliability) of celebrities which may influence consumers buying behavior. Out of the five statements on trustworthiness three statements results shows significance difference between male and Female respondents, findings also reflects that female respondents buying behavior is influenced by the trust, Dependable & Reliability of celebrity.

2.4. As far as the influence of Physical attractiveness of celebrity on consumers buying behavior is concerned. Both male and female respondents were agreed that celebrities should be Physical attractive with Voice and gesture for TV advertisements. Out of five specific statements, three statement shows significance difference, female respondents more strongly like to young and adult celebrities, comparatively old celebrities. However male respondents were like female celebrities with appealing figure (sexy).

2.5. As far as the influence of personality traits of celebrity on consumers buying behavior is concerned. Both male and female respondents were agreed that celebrity should be popular (public figure) with good image and reputation. Result also reflects that socio-cultural background, status-class, and language of celebrities also influence on respondents buying behavior.

One of the interesting out come of this analysis is that caste, regional or religious factors are not having any influence on the respondents to purchase the product.

Writing Services

Essay Writing
Service

Find out how the very best essay writing service can help you accomplish more and achieve higher marks today.

Assignment Writing Service

From complicated assignments to tricky tasks, our experts can tackle virtually any question thrown at them.

Dissertation Writing Service

A dissertation (also known as a thesis or research project) is probably the most important piece of work for any student! From full dissertations to individual chapters, we’re on hand to support you.

Coursework Writing Service

Our expert qualified writers can help you get your coursework right first time, every time.

Dissertation Proposal Service

The first step to completing a dissertation is to create a proposal that talks about what you wish to do. Our experts can design suitable methodologies - perfect to help you get started with a dissertation.

Report Writing
Service

Reports for any audience. Perfectly structured, professionally written, and tailored to suit your exact requirements.

Essay Skeleton Answer Service

If you’re just looking for some help to get started on an essay, our outline service provides you with a perfect essay plan.

Marking & Proofreading Service

Not sure if your work is hitting the mark? Struggling to get feedback from your lecturer? Our premium marking service was created just for you - get the feedback you deserve now.

Exam Revision
Service

Exams can be one of the most stressful experiences you’ll ever have! Revision is key, and we’re here to help. With custom created revision notes and exam answers, you’ll never feel underprepared again.