Human Sex Trafficking

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Every ten minutes, a women or child is trafficked into the United States There is no international consensus on a definition of trafficking but according to Wikipedia, you cannot cite Wkipedia

“Trafficking in human beings, sometimes called human trafficking, or sex trafficking (as the majority of victims are women or children forced into prostitution) is not the same as people smuggling. A smuggler will facilitate illegal entry into a country for a fee, but on arrival at their destination, the smuggled person is free; the trafficking victim is enslaved. Victims do not agree to be trafficked: they are tricked, lured by false promises, or forced into it. Traffickers use coercive tactics including deception, fraud, intimidation, isolation, threat and use of physical force, debt bondage or even force-feeding with drugs to control their victims. Whilst the majority of victims are women, and sometimes children, forced into prostitution, other victims include men, women and children forced or conned into manual or cheap labor. Due to the illegal nature of trafficking, the exact extent is unknown. A US Government report published in 2003, estimates that 800,000-900,000 people worldwide are trafficked across borders each year. This figure does not include those who are trafficked internally.”(citation needed, and Wikipedia does not work so you should not have used this quote) Should be a block quote if you were going to use it.

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Trafficking in women and children has become an issue of global concern in recent years: Made easier by faulty borders and advanced communication technologies, it has become increasingly transnational in scale and highly profitable. Unlike drugs or arms, women and children can be sold several times - they are produce in a worldwide business that generates billions of dollars and operates with high discretion.

Trafficked victims may be sold, tricked, forced or otherwise coerced into situations from which escape is impossible. Women and young children as young as six years old, are forced to work in the sex industry, as prostitutes or in pornography, others enter marriage contracts also known as mail order brides. “Were talking about women and girls, as young as six years old, trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation; men trafficked into forced labor; children trafficked as child soldiers.” (Colin Powell, Women, child for sale)Needs (Powell) and then full MLA citation in the Works Cited page

Violence is not always used. In some cases traffickers take advantage of how vulnerable innocent, naïve people can be caught in a situation in which they have no choice or think they have no choice, an example being people living under illegal status. Others leave their countries willingly in the hopes of a better life, but end up in situations where their health and safety are in danger because of their vulnerability in a foreign country. In the case of a young girl from Mexico who was approached by a young American couple. They came up to the eleven year old girl and her parents and began telling the girls parents that they could offer her a better life and an education. The couple told the parents that they would take her and let her work around the house as a maid. The girls parents accepted and they were gone. A few months' later police received a phone call from a neighbor stating that he was hearing noises in the house next door. On their arrival the police found the girl caged and beaten. The girl was so malnourished she couldn't even stand up.(citation needed) This is just an example of how these people take advantage of the situation and the state the people are living in to get what they want.

Trafficking routes change according to local conditions or supply and demand factors. It is no longer enough to say that victims are trafficked from poor countries to the wealthier ones. In many cases the 'direction' or 'flow' doesn't follow. (citation needed)However, we have to remember that it benefits the traffickers to keep their victims in a foreign environment where not only are they vulnerable for having entered a country illegally, but disadvantaged because of their ignorance of the law, culture and language of that country. It is even more difficult to identify trends and patterns; more and more the merchandise is moved the harder it is to track the source. Young women from Romania and Moldova were lured to Cambodia with promises of lucrative jobs as entertainers, but ordered to work as prostitutes. (citation needed) Immigration controls at the Paraguay - Brazil border are extremely lax. Authorities do not request identification papers from unaccompanied children or from adults traveling with young children. It has been reported that while some children are being trafficked across this border from Paraguay to Brazil, others are being trafficked from Brazil into Paraguay. (citation needed) Young women and girls are trafficked from Thailand to South Africa via Singapore, while children from several African nations are trafficked to South East Asia via South Africa. Children are trafficked from China to work in the sex industry in Thailand, while children from Korea and Vietnam are trafficked to China. Young Filipinas are even trafficked to unexpected locations such as Africa, Papua New Guinea and Guatemala. In the later cases, the ultimate destinations are probably Canada or the USA. (citation needed) Children may be trafficked within a country or they may be trafficked across national or international borders. Trafficking within a country is less common than cross border trafficking, yet the harm suffered by the children is no less than that suffered by the victims of cross border trafficking. It generally occurs from the rural to the urban areas; however, children may also be taken to tourist areas or areas dominated by workers away from home placed to work in oil fields, construction sites, truck stops, ports or military bases.(citation needed) In addition, children who have been trafficked across borders may continue to be trafficked within the same country to avoid detection. Cross border trafficking can involve three countries: countries of origin where children are taken illegally from them; countries of destination the ones that receive the trafficked children; and transit countries. These aren't the final destination, but more like an entry point into another country or region. Some countries can fall under all three categories. Guatemala, for example, can be considered a country of origin because children have been trafficked to nearby Mexico or the United States. It is a country of destination for some children from El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua; and it is a transit country for others from these neighboring Central American countries that are being trafficked to the United States. (citation needed) The repatriation process can also traumatize a child who has been trafficked. Children who have been trafficked across borders and 'saved' are often treated as criminals. They are considered to be in breach of the law in those countries in which prostitution is a crime, and they are considered to be in breach of immigration laws for having entered a country illegally. They may be subject to imprisonment or 'rehabilitation' before being sent back to their country of origin. There is also the possibility that once in their country of origin; they are again punished, this time according to the laws and policies of their own countries for immigrating illegally. (citation needed) There is a high need to apply immigration laws and policies more humanely in the case of trafficked children, and even a need for international and regional agreements or cooperation. In 1996 Indian police raided a brothel in Mumbai and rescued over 400 women and girls, some who had been trafficked into India from Nepal. The Indian law enforcement authorities wanted to return the Nepali victims to Nepal. The Nepalese government, however, was unwilling to accept responsibility for their return. (citation needed) Since then, member nations of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) promised to take coordinated efforts at the regional level to effectively address this problem. The Convention on Preventing and Combating the Trafficking in Women and Children for Prostitution was signed in January 2002 at the Eleventh SAARC Summit.(citation needed) The Convention is looking to make easier cross-border collaboration by setting up a Regional Task Force, which will look into not just the criminal but also the human aspects of trafficking by incorporating the care, treatment, repatriation and the reintegration of the victims. In Nepal today, most government shelters, as well as NGO programs for child victims of trafficking provide counseling and medical care services. In India, the government has erected 80 protective homes to provide girls and women who are detained under the trafficking law with residential care, education, vocational training and psychological services. (citation needed)

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Each year, some 1.2 million children are trafficked worldwide, according to the United Nations. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe estimates that 200,000 individuals are trafficked annually from Eastern Europe, a significant proportion being children. (citation needed) Some become unpaid domestic servants, or work in sweatshops, but many more—boys, girls, and teenagers—are forced into prostitution and crime.

International federation Terre des Hommes estimates that six thousand children between the ages of twelve and sixteen are trafficked from eastern Europe each year, with more than six hundred and fifty being forced to work as sex slaves in Italy. The price of a girl trafficked to Italy can be between two thousand five hundred dollars and four thousand dollars, with up to ten thousand dollars being paid if she is a virgin. In Albania, the country most involved in the sex trade, have women and children being lured to go to the West with false promises of marriage, jobs or education. When they get there, there is no husband, no job and no education. Alone in a foreign country without any means of support, violence and intimidation ensure they are soon earning money for their new “owners.”

International federation Terre des Hommes estimates that 6,000 children between the ages of 12 and 16 are trafficked from eastern Europe each year, with more than 650 being forced to work as sex slaves in Italy. The price of a girl trafficked to Italy can be between $2,500 and $4,000, with up to $10,000 being paid if she is a virgin. According to the French human rights organisation, Albania is the county most involved in the sex trade, with women and children being lured to go to the West with false promises of marriage, jobs or education. When they get there, there is no husband, no job and no education. Alone in a foreign land without any means of support, violence and coercion ensure they are soon earning money for their new “owners.”

Child trafficking in eastern Europe: A trade in human misery

By Richard Tyler 25 October 2003

http://www.wsws.org/articles/2003/oct2003/traf-o25.shtml

An article in the Guardian newspaper reported the case of a retired Italian couple who had been arrested for buying a three-year-old Albanian boy, paying $6,000 to the trafficking gang that specialized in “underage merchandise.” 6,000 children between the ages of 12 and 16 are trafficked from eastern Europe each year, with more than 650 being forced to work as sex slaves in Italy. The price of a girl trafficked to Italy can be between $2,500 and $4,000, with up to $10,000 being paid if she is a virgin. According to the French human rights organisation, Albania is the county most involved in the sex trade, with women and children being lured to go to the West with false promises of marriage, jobs or education. When they get there, there is no husband, no job and no education. Alone in a foreign land without any means of support, violence and coercion ensure they are soon earning money for their new “owners.”

The Greek government estimates that there are some 3,000 unaccompanied Albanian children in the country, with more coming during the summer months. In oral evidence about the trafficking of Albanian children to Greece, given to the Commission on Human Rights, Terre des Hommes representative Eylay Kadjar-Hamouda said, “A child earns a minimum of €30-€50 per day and gives all the money to his boss. A very small percentage is sent back to his family in Albania but in a very irregular way. Generally several children are exploited at the same time by a boss.”(Women, child for sale)

“In the country of destination, Greece, the children are not considered as victims but as guilty of having illegally entered the country,” Kadjar-Hamouda noted. “Terre des Hommes is particularly concerned that some of the children placed in centres in Greece simply disappear.”(Women, child for sale)

This concern is not limited to Greece and points to the most sinister aspect of the trade in children. “We notice that the number of children going missing in the east does not tally with the numbers we trace in Europe”, said Marina Rini of Terre des Hommes in Italy. “We know that gangs offer children for sale dead or alive. We can only conclude that the missing children die or are killed for their organs.”(King)

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Thousands of eastern European children and teenagers are being reduced to produce in a trade in human misery. They are bought and sold like goods to satisfy perverted sexual appetites, to provide slave labor, or, worst of all, to be “harvested” for their organs and body parts so that the rich and their children can live at their expense. UNICEF put the global value of human trafficking at over $12 billion a year, just $2 billion less than Albania's gross domestic product.(Staff)

The global increase in poverty is most evident in eastern Europe, rising from 1 million to 24 million people between 1987 and 1998—defined as those forced to live on less than $2 a day. The percentage of the population below the poverty line is 30 percent in Albania and over 44 percent in Romania, according to the (Staff).

According to Terre des Hommes, “Living conditions for the majority of the approximately 150 million children in the East European states and the Soviet Union have worsened since 1989.”(King)

The governments of the European Union turn away when it comes to trafficking children, even though having signed on to the Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the Sale of Children, Child Trafficking and Child Pornography. A 2002 report by Europol, the European Law Enforcement Agency, on the trafficking of human beings into the EU, shows that most of the 15 member states keep no relevant statistics at all. Only four provide any concrete information, with the majority reporting that figures are “not available” or “not given.”

The innocence of women and children are constantly being taken from them by a monster's hand every ten minutes. Yet seeing this, governments say they “try” to solve the problem at hand; really all they are doing is postponing the inevitable, bringing back what we fought so hard to abolish. The rise of a new more advanced kind of slave trading, the trade of women and children.

Work Cited

King, Gilbert . Woman, Child for sale. New York: Chamberlin Bros., 2004.

Staff, Central Intelligence Agency, "The World Fact Book ." Central Intelligence Agency. December 17, 2007. Staff, Central Intelligence Agency. 12 Mar 2008 <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/>.