How The Heroines Was Made Cultural Studies Essay

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This book explores different types of class conflict that has been existing since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. It puts much emphasis upon the period of Cultural Revolution as it acted an important role in altering classes and broke down original hierarchical system which involves mainly landlords and peasants. This paved a way to the emergence of a newly class in contemporary China: the bureaucrats. The author's comments on Chinese bureaucrats reflected the fact that class conflicts still exist - it is only a matter of the change of form. This is useful for my paper as it explained that the predominant perception upon Chinese bureaucrats are based on previous class conflicts that had been happened before Cultural Revolution and some aspects can still be applied to researches nowadays.

I found this book in University of San Francisco library, and the keywords I used in searching for this were class conflicts and China.

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Zhou, Yongming. Historicizing Online Politics: Telegraphy, the Internet, and Political Participation in China Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2006

Zhou's book historicized and examined information technology's influence upon politics and democratic development in China. As a professor in anthropology at University of Wisconsin-Madison, he adopted a somehow groundbreaking way of analyzing the relations between technology and politics: the usage of ethnographic methods by downloading data into computer files and view them as historical texts. He remains skeptical about the concept of relating information technology with civil society model as it does not necessarily apply to China's circumstances. He took "another approach, which relies on concrete historical facts rather than on a preconclusive theoretical framework to reach conclusions"(7).

I found this book interesting because it adopted Benedict Anderson's idea of "imagined community" to illustrate Chinese nationalism in cyberspace; however I thought his methodology might not be fully reliable since data that had been downloaded from the internet might not be accurate and comprehensive enough.

I accessed this resource through University of San Francisco library. The keywords I used were China, politics and Internet.

Perry, Elizabeth J. and Merle Goldman. Grassroots Political Reform in Contemporary China Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2007

This book looks into political reforms regarding "restraining arbitrary and corrupt official behavior and enhancing the accountability of grassroots authorities" in contemporary China by historicizing democratic development, and pointed out the future possibility of China's grassroots reforms. Being a part of an interdisciplinary book series which aims at presenting research that "deals with present-day issues against the background of Chinese history and society", this book constitutes academic articles that reflect various aspects about grassroots' effort in China's democratization.

I picked five articles from this book which focus on the political standing of labor and the influences of public opinion supervision. I found these articles especially helpful in showing the increasing importance of the role of mass activities in "initiating and circulating critical mobilization of party-state bureaucracies for problem solving"(307).

Elizabeth J. Perry is a scholar of Chinese politics and history in Harvard University. Merle Goldman is a specialist on modern China and Professor Emerita of History at Boston University. I found this book in University of San Francisco Library. The search terms I used were China, grassroots and politics.

Goldman, Merle. From Comrade to Citizen: The Struggle for Political Rights in China Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2005

Goldman looks into Chinese people's raising awareness of political rights despite state censorship. He emphasizes on the role of two types of intellectuals in pushing forward China's political reform and the process of their merging with ordinary people, which potentially pushed forward the emergence of groups from different social status that lead civil disobedience in contemporary China. The book further touched on the expansion of rights consciousness in China at the levels of workers, farmers and religion; nevertheless, it overlooked a larger group of people - immigrant workers, who may fall into categories of workers and farmers but still being distinctive from both.

I found Chapter Seven and Eight particularly useful as they focus on the development of citizenship in the expanding "public space" - the cyberworld, which support my assumption of the Internet's potential advantage in expressing people's discontent against the bureaucrats in Deng Yujiao Incident.

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I found this book in University of San Francisco library, the keywords that I used were class conflicts, civil rights and China.

Zheng, Yongnian. Technological Empowerment: The Internet, State and Society in China Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 2008

Zheng describes Internet as a powerful tool of stimulating "political liberalization" rather than "political democratization" as the central government uses it as an effective instrument of control for Chinese Communist Party. In this sense, expectations of using Internet to promote democracy became nothing but an optimistic imagination. However, the author argues that comparing with traditional media, new information technology opens possibilities for Chinese people to communicate among themselves and thus through collective actions, they might be able to transform the state-society relations or bring about social changes. I found Chapters Six and Seven useful in backing up my assumption regarding efforts that people from cyberspace have been made in order to help Deng and how it took effect in altering court decisions.

Zheng Yongnian is Professor and Director of East Asian Institute, National University of Singapore. I found this book in University of San Francisco library and they keywords were Internet and democratization.

Hong, Emily and edited by Elizabeth J. Perry "Regional Identity, Labor, and Ethnicity in Contemporary China." Putting Class in Its Place: Worker Identities in East Asia. Chapter Eight, 225-243. Berkeley, California: University of California, Berkeley Press, 1996

This article examines living and working status of Chinese migration workers, analyzed the circumstances and public opinions toward them in terms of ethnicity and regionalism. The author studied different regions of China and found diversity in divisions of labor among migrants based on more specific local origins. However, the common feature that many regions share is central government's policy regarding migration - specifically the household registration system - results in an obvious job limitation for peasant workers and thus lowered their social status in China nowadays.

Given the fact that this article was written 14 years ago, situations for migrant workers have been changed; for example, few people are still using the term "floaters" to refer to peasant workers, which was mentioned in the article. Nonetheless, they still formed the largest vulnerable group in China as the article described; thus some concepts about this issue from the author can still be adopted.

I accessed this resource through University of San Francisco library. The keywords for this book were China, female and labor.

Nesbitt-Larking, Paul and Alfred L.Chan and edited by Timothy Brook and B.Michael Frolic "Chinese Youth and Civil Society: The Emergence of Critical Citizenship." Civil Society in China. Chapter Six, 149-171. Armonk, New York: M.E.Sharpe, Inc., 1997

This article looks into the Chinese young adults' growing discontent against corruption of bureaucrats and the government; as well as their potential in bringing political impacts. Since the article was published over a decade ago, years of births of youth that has been mentioned were around 1970s, which were out-dated; yet through the readings I still found many similarities in opinions about the bureaucratic class, hence most parts of this article is applicable in my research.

Both authors are faculty members from University of Western Ontario. I found this book at University of San Francisco library, the keywords I used were class conflicts, China and young adults.

Ngai, Pun and Chris King-Chi Chan "The Subsumption of Class Discourse in China." Boundary 2. 35:2(2008), 75-91. Duke University Press. 2008.

This article looks into the articulation of class struggle since Mao period and the abrupt class discourse in the reform period by analyzing current status of migrant workers in China under globalization. The authors historicized changes of class conflicts in China by analyzing the language and terms of class, thus brings about the newly emerged working class - migrant workers, to illustrate their circumstances and how they struggle against the system of class. This article is useful to me in terms of why Deng - a girl who stabbed one to death still won public sympathy.

Pun Ngai is a faculty member from Hong Kong University of Science and Technology; Chris King-Chi Chan is a faculty member from Hong Kong Polytechnic University. I found this article through the University of San Francisco article database. Keywords: China, migrant workers and class struggle.

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