How Space Affects Function In Buildings Cultural Studies Essay

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People always take place within a space in their daily life; this is the reason people design the spatial environment according to their needs, whether a landscape, a city, a house, a room. El Lissitzky mentioned "Space: that which is not looked at through a keyhole, not through an open door. Space does not exist for the eye only; one wants to live in it." [1] The purpose of a space is the main consideration for designers before they start the plan. It is a complicated factor which affects the final layout of the space.

A site is influenced by many complex and diverse factors. There are different architectural contexts and each determines the type of building design. The scale between spane and architecture, especially the most standard occurring sizes, is determined primarily by the structural usage, and is always perceived in relation to human scale and the adjacent spaces. People are affected by the relative perception of spatial scale effects. Architects and planners have developed some systems over the course of the architectural history, all which refer to human scale. One of the most recent is Le Corbusier's "Modulor".

Hence, an increasing pressure on interior designers to provide functional facilities that maximize the usages of interior space and serve more than one limited programmatic requirement. For example, in conference centers, classroom buildings, and banquet facilities the ability to change room size is essential. However, if there is only single function of the space, the consequences will be using other places to set with another functions. For a limited area, multifunction as the major design concept is the better solution. The space planner should know the conventionally available building products and techniques to open and close spaces, including their approximate installed cost, their approximate sound transmission qualities, and the relative ease with which they can be opened and closed.

Singapore is a small island city-state of about 700 sq km with a cosmopolitan population of 4.6 million people. With a small land size and practically no natural resources, Singapore faces a challenging of transformation occurring. It is important to focus on designing with multifunction to improving of living quality. This help to make Singapore to become an economically vibrant city that is also one of the most livable cities in Asia.

II. FUNCTIONALISM

Functionalism is explained in many areas: architecture, philosophy of mind, psychology, etc. Functionalists argue society is a system made up of inter-related parts like a body is made up of organs that work together. Like organs in the body each part, sub-system or institution work with each other to keep society functioning well. If change happens in one part of society, the change will happen in other parts as well. Some part of society may start to work less well, like a failing organ and lead to dysfunction. Functionalism, in architecture, is the principle that architects should design a building based on the purpose of that building.

According to mathematics, space is the objects and events occur happening in a boundless, three-dimensional extent and it has relative position and direction. Between the link of the evolution of architectural drawing and concepts of space in environmental design overtures can be traced back via a continuous, chain of evidence to the higher cultures of the Near and Far East and early Egyptian dynasties when the ideas of a ground plan and spatial concepts were organized against simple linear grids. The earliest known 'architectural' design drawing is a landscape layout plan for a tamarisk grove which fronted the Egyptian temple at El-Dier el-Bahari near Memphis. It is drawn in ink on sandstone and dated circa 2100 BC. The design plans were not used in the design of western European architecture until the rediscovery of Euclidean geometry in 1100 AD.

Space is a site for human interaction, dealings, rituals, games and spectacles. These actions determine the spatial design to a great extent and the spatial features influence the user and the functions. People focus on the functions of the target space now. Building and design of a space considers the relationship between space and functions. Design with functions is a key point to transform a space to be brand new place.

The parameters of spatial design are important elements. The function always affects the final spatial form. Spatial types can be identified and distinguished by how clearly its specific function can be recognized in the structural design. Specific architectural requirements and the purpose can strongly influence a spatial design and the functions. Bruno Zevi briefed that "All the techniques of representation and all the paths to architecture which do not include direct experience are pedagogically fruitful; but their function is no more than allusive and preparatory to that moment in which we, with everything in us enter and experience the spaces we have been studying. That is the moment of architecture." [2] This statement showed the importance of function in a space. Besides of function and use, a space possesses other distinctive features that are significant to spatial design and can be emphasized as specific spatial qualities. Space is perceived physically by all the feelings and cognitively with mind. Every site has its own specific, spatial environment, linking the design of building changes the form of its surrounding space that determines a structure's possible design options.

In the 1930s, functionalism began to be discussed as an aesthetic approach rather than a matter of design integrity. The idea of functionalism was conflated with lack of ornamentation, which is a different matter. It became a pejorative term associated with the baldest and brutal ways to cover space, like cheap commercial buildings and sheds. For 70 years the preeminent and influential American architect Philip Johnson held that the profession has no functional responsibility which is only building without proper functions and this is one of many projects today.

The three classic goals of architecture are commodity, beauty and firmness. Vituvius is the author of The Books on Architecture; it is about Latin and Greek on Architecture. The famous for asserting is firmitas, utilitas, venustas which are commodity, beauty and firmness. As birds and bees build their nets, human build their own home. The place of functionalism in building can be traced back to the Vitruvian triad, Vitruvius is sometimes reffered as the first architect, but it is more accurate to describe.

In the early years of 20th century, the architect - Louis Sullivan popularized that from the function to capture his belief that a building's size, massing spatial grammar and other characteristics should be driven solely by the function of the building. The implication is that if the functional aspects are satisfied, architectural beauty would naturally and necessarily follow. In viewing architectural works each section in concrete works should clearly indicate its function; the role played by each part within the structure.

Functionalist principle in architecture area is focused on the benefits from the design of structure, material and systemic usage. Sullivan is considered by many as the creator of the modern skyscraper, was an influential architect and critic of the Chicago School, and was a mentor to Frank Lloyd Wright. This same concept happens in architecture design, if the architect focuses on the design of the structure without considering the result of survey and analysis how he could build a Pyramid along the mountainside.

The function is sacrificed in order to make the design or the building meaningful. The intuitive form of space, which surrounds us wherever we may be and which we then always erect around ourselves and consider more necessary than the form of our own body, consists of the residues of sensory experience to which the muscular sensations of our body, the sensitivity of our skin, and the structure of our body all contribute. As soon as we have learned to experience ourselves and ourselves alone as the centre of this space whose co-ordinates interests us on which architectural creation is based. A building is attractive and outstanding in a zone, however, if the building is lack of functions it becomes as obstacle on the street. However, a well designed building makes difference for the society, for people as well as the environment. All natural organisms are possessed of the mechanical ability to perform certain functions. In the way of expressing in their own forms as a whole or in their crystallization to convey to the mind an expression of these functions. The architect, in the , in imitation of this natural condition of matter, so models his form that they also tell their functions; and these functions are always mechanical conditions of strength, elegance and repose, in combinations of various quantities of these properties. The fundamental principle of the modeling of architectural forms is therefore mechanical.

'Function' was without question an important concept in modern architecture, but it has above all been in the critique of modernism that it has come into its own. A 'function' describes the result of the action of one quantity upon another; relative to architecture, function is a term primarily relating to the tectonics of building.

There is a book already mentioned; Adolf Behne's Der moderne Zweeckbau (The Modern Functional Building) published in 1926, in particular elaborated the significance of 'function' term. The book's aim to discuss the whole range of points of view that could broadly speak be considered sachlich - usually translated into English as 'function'. Behne's book is the extensiveness off the range of work that Behne considered sachlich, and his criteria for distinguishing between its different manifestations.

The architect can only grap and carry out his truly artistic work, that is , the creative works, when he addresses questions of his client's attitude of life, way of living, business methods…For this reason 'being a client' is not just buying a piece of land, some bricks, and an architect. The client must be an activity, whose taking possession of the acquired space is so definite, clear, rich, and organic that it can be transformed into the relationships of masonry walls… (120)

Building a new structure is not only the elements required only but the spirit and functions as well, not an architect desires to design a building without meaning. Behne was critical of the German architects whom he characterized as 'romantic functionalists', because their work would be not easily adapt to future changes of use, and so lacked the generality necessary to the social, as opposed to the individual condition. If builds a structure for five years and demolishes it in next five years, this is wasting of time and materials as well of money. With a small land size and practically no natural resources in Singapore, it is not worth for societal economy. Therefore, planning for many land uses within the small island is important. In addition to uses like housing, commerce and industry, given these limitations, the city planers have to formulated an own brand of sustainable development in Singapore.

If every building is part of a built whole, then it recognizes from its aesthetic and formal requirements certain universally valid rules, rules that do not arise from its individual functional character [Zweckcharakter] but from the requirements of this whole. For here, in the social sphere after all, must lie the primeval elements of the aesthetic. [137]

Behne's idea was that true functionalism was the making visible not of the building's individual purpose, but its purpose considered in relation to the general, collective purpose of society. For example building a chalet village in a busy, high rental financial region is an unusual idea and it is against the usage of the urban planning.

The roots of modern architecture lie in the work of the Franco-Swiss architect Le Corbusier and the German architect Mies van der Rohe. Both were functionalists at least to the extent that their buildings were radical simplifications of previous style. In 1923 Mies van der Rohe was working in Germany, and had begun his career of producing radically simplified, lovingly detailed structures that achieved Sullivan's goal of inherent architectural beauty. Le Corbusier 's famous quote is that a house is a machine for living in, and how to create the machine to human friendly usage is an influence factor at design path.

The Villa Savoye in Poissy was completed in 1929 is considered the seminal work of Le Corbusier. It is a one of the most recognizable architectural presentations of international style. The house was designed as a weekend country house and is situated just outside of the city of Piossy in a meadow which was originally surrounded by trees.

"Unlike the confined urban locations of most of Le Corbusier's earlier houses, the openness of the Poissy site permitted a freestanding building and the full realization of his five-point program. Essentially the house comprises two contrasting, sharply defined, yet interpenetrating external aspects. The dominant element is the square single-storied box, a pure, sleek, geometric envelope lifted buoyantly above slender pilotis, its taut skin slit for narrow ribbon windows that run unbroken from corner to corner (but not over them, thus preserving the integrity of the sides of the square)." [530]

Architects design not only the structure but also buildings that areas functions and purposes. Le Corbusier's statement that "A work can only affect us emotionally and touch our sensibility if its form has been dicated by a genuine purpose" In the five points he addressed, the ideas consist to make the space become flexible and simple to provide other functions in different situations. However, in his designs of Villa Savoye there are also some weak points involved as the space in second floor is lacking of connection with outside environment and surrounding.

The Villa Tugendhat is considered a masterpiece of the architect Mies van der Rohe. It is a paradigmatic example of functionalism. Mies used the revolutionary iron framework which enabled him to dispense with supporting walls and to arrange the interior in such way to achieve a feeling of space and light. The cost of building the villa was very high due to the unusual construction method, the luxurious materials, very modern technology of heating, ventilation, etc. It is also quite large for a family house, a fact which may escape casual visitors since the elegant simplicity of the rooms used by the family is compensated by a very large space occupied by various utility rooms. The plan is the generator, without plan, the project has lack of order, willfulness. The plan of the rooms included many ideas as different functions but how to make the space fully utilized without wasting space and the usages of multifunction - the topic is a proper challenge now.

The function of a building, a place even a space is important. To prevent of wastage of any place, design with functionalism is a major concept. Designers think about the creative ideas to improve human daily life as well as the quality without increasing the costs. The function is designed in order to make the design or the building meaningful. A building is attractive and outstanding in a zone, however, if the building is lack of functions it becomes as an obstacle on the street. When the parts of a building are arranged according to a sense of their use, when aesthetic space becomes living space- and this is the kind of order called dynamic. The implication is that if the functional aspects are satisfied, architectural beauty would naturally and necessarily follow. In viewing architectural works each section in concrete works should clearly indicate its function; the role played by each part within the structure. As Singapore is an outstanding country with limited land area in the world, the urban plan is always planed to map out the vision for Singapore in the next 40 to 50 years - to achieve sustainable urban development. Urban Redevelopment Authority is Singapore's national land usage planning authority. URA prepares long term strategic plans to make Singapore a great city to live, to work and play in. there are tow ways to create new land: one is by reclamation off the seashore; the other way is to make the most of the land that already have - intensify land use by locating various facilities together instead of separately.

The future development balances economic growth with environmental stewardship and social progress. Based on the functionalism principle in architecture area is focused on the benefits from the design of structure, material and systemic usage. Multifunction enhances the negative space allowing it become alive and fully utilization. Redesign the space with multifunction, focusing on the context to maize the function in limited space which helps the city growth as well as the improvement of life quality. In the other hand, if government plans the current land without of further usage, money, time and materials are all wasted.

Multifunction is good, multifunction helps in a different way such as technology, design and opens another page of quality of live. Functionalism principle in architecture area is focused on the benefits from the design of structure, material and systemic usage.

III. CASES STUDIES

A. Hot Desking

Hot desk is a work space sharing model in which employees outnumber desks. The hot desking model was deployed in some workplaces in the early 1990s. In some such environments, every work station has its own computer and the worker logs into a virtual desktop; some workers have own notebook computers that they bring to work with them or store in a locker on the premises. However, technology to make the model viable was not fully developed; the system was not widely adopted. Factors behind renewed interest in hot desking included improved communications, collaboration and virtualization technologies in conjunction with an increasingly mobile workforce and financially stressed enterprise.

From a managerial perspective, hot desking is attractive because it can cut overhead costs significantly. Therefore, the concert will not work in environments where employees are expected to be in the office most of the time. Furthermore, for some employers, the cost benefits are outweighed by the lack of ability to monitor employee activities. For employees, the system also has both drawbacks and benefits, many workers are reluctant to give up personal space but others are happy to more flexibility. The work surface is an actual desk or just a terminal link; in any event the concept of the hot desk is that the employer furnishes a permanent work surface which is available to any worker when they needed. There is no personal domain pertaining to a particular worker and physical faculties. A collection of such workstations is sometimes called a mobility centre.

Hot desking is regular used in places where not all the employees are in the office at the same time, or the office will be vacant most of time, consuming valuable space and resources. With growth of mobility services, hot desking also include the routing of voice and other message services to any location where the users are able to log to their secure corporate network such as their telephone number and emails etc. It is convenience and saving cost idea for current time.

The hot desking idea is a good example of multifunction as the concept helps the employers saving for their offices rental fees. In the view of economic and company improvement, the hot desking idea is a bonus benefit.

Figure 1.Hot desks at office Figure 2.Hot desks at office

As the limited space of offices and workstations currently, people may choose to work at home or spending less time at offices, for this type of situation, hot desking is the powerful idea to save the cost and as well as the space. In some cases, companies designated a certain area as hot desking location for their agents, sales or who works outside most of the time to have a place to update own reports and replies emails.

B. Gardiner Museum Renewal / KPMB Architects

Figure 3.Gardiner Museum

Gardinear Museum is one of the world's pre-eminent institutions devoted to the only ceramic kind art in Canada. It is also the major project in Toronto's cultural renaissance, the renewal with the Royal Ontario Museum across the street. Framed between the neoclassical Lillian Massey building to the north and the Queen Anne-style Margaret Addison Hall to the south, the renewal creates a bolder, more welcoming urban presence for the Gardiner. Inside, the interior is completely transformed to prioritize the display of the museum's collections and to create a memorable, inviting visitor experience. The existing plan of the museum is completely re-configured as well as encourages the journey through the galleries to unfold in an ascending order, from the ground to the new third floor. Visitors ideally complete their gallery tour in the new third floor exhibition space. This column-free area with a clerestory ceiling creates a monumental space for large-scale contemporary and traveling exhibits. The third floor is also where the Jamie Kennedy restaurant, the new multi-purpose event hall, and outdoor terrace are located.

The renewal enhances the Gardiner's place in the city. Windows are positioned to provide visual breaks in the public spaces of the museum, and to draw attention to the surrounding context at different scales, from close up views of the historic facades and pediments of the adjacent Lillian Massey and Margaret Addison buildings to framed sequences of the ROM's heritage building and new Crystal expansion across the street. On the third floor, the multi-purpose space and terrace create elegant new 'look out points' that open on expansive vistas of Queen's Park, the University of Toronto, and the downtown skyline. Inside of the museum, the interior is completely transformed to prioritize the display of the museum's collections and to create a memorable, inviting visitor experience. The complete transformation of the Gardiner provides the museum with a series of new platforms upon which the museum's collections and activities will flourish and which will ensure the long-term relevance of the Gardiner to the cultural life of the city.

Redesign the urban landscape with multifunction, to enhance more activities during day and night. The Gardiner Museum is transferred by the original structure and extending its space planning to every directions" from the inside out". Redesign the layout with functions to existing museum with long term relevance of the cultural life of city.

Figure 4.Gardiner Museum sketch and floor plan

Form this case, the design concept is multifunction. Without demolishing the existing building, add in new design elements and new layouts to cooperate with government policy - cultural city. The project is not only focus on the function of the museum where display the art works, but also adds in different functions that the event areas, rooms for lectures and talks, the souvenir shops etc. Based on multifunction, Gardiner Museum is not just a museum to enhance the cultural life of the city as well as a place for family gathering and friends studying together.

C. Stadtlounge - Red Carpet

Figure 5.Stadtlounge - Red Carpet

The "City Lounge" was built in the centre of St.Gallen by the artists Pipilotti Rist and Carlos Martinez within the framework of the building activities of the Swiss Association of the Raiffeisenbanken (SVRB). A red carpet spreads out between the buildings and envelopes the surface in and around the financial district of St. Gallen, above which hanging lamps give off a warm light. A result of a competition, the "Stadtlounge" (citylounge) was designed by artist Pipilotti Rist along with the Carlos Martinez architectural firm. The redness meanders through the functional office buildings, creating an inspiring and fun people-friendly space. It invites people to linger and pass the time and offers space for meetings in the Relaxation Lounge, Business Lounge and others.

"Swept under the carpet". These words could describe the collaboration of an artist (P.R.) with an architect (C.M.). The red polymer carpet marks a big area in the centre of St Gallen, creating "public space". This is the whole idea of the intervention: to animate and recreate urban life. The result is a continuous space, a surface that contains everything, from benches to a car. A daring way to create a public space, the design idea makes the negative, unused space transforms the area become another place for people.

Today, the Bleicheli is the financial district of St. Gallen, with modern banks and insurance buildings that are more functional than people-friendly. Red carpet - the idea was to create a "public living room" amid the mini-skyscrapers of the financial district.

Using multifunction as foundation makes the target area becoming another famous shopping zone, there is benefit for the shops among the place and attracts more visitors as well.

The win-win situation is based of multifunction.

D. Korea Center / SAMOO

Figure 6.Korea Center

New York studio of SAMOO Architects and Engineers based in Seoul, Korea, has won an international competition for the design of The New York Korea Center, a new home for the Korean Cultural Service in New York. The construction is expected to begin at the end of 2010.

The eight-storey facility will offer spaces for exhibitions, performances, lectures and administration in the 3,065m² area. Korea House will be located on East 32nd Street, extending the vibrancy of Manhattan's Korea Town to the Murray Hill neighborhood.

Housed within the central space, the scheme features a multilayered glass façade, which creates a screen wall that illuminates three sculptural figures made of polished ceramic, rough terracotta and milled wood symbolically representing heaven, earth and humanity.

An open frame directly behind the glass will provide a canvas for display panels that convey a changing visual message to the passers-by. The transparency of the façade opens the buildings activities to street life and energizes the surrounding area.

The facility is expected to serve as an international gateway to Korean culture, travel and events. The street level of the Korea Centre will offer exhibits related to current popular trends in Korean culture - a phenomenon known as the 'Korean wave'.

Figure 7.Inside of Korea Center

New York is a busy city and one of the important financial gates of the world. Using the existing and limited space between two buildings conducts a project for enhancing New York.Korean Architects and engineers choose New York as their proposed location based on multifunction. Korea Center becomes a connection between Korea and the world, the center is also playing an role to introduce "Korea" to western people. Making a dead, limited space transforms alive and make it functions at the same time. The negative space in New York has been used and the multifunction application enables user to reconfigure of reinterpret spaces.

Conclusion

Multifunction is good, for a current example - iPhone, people could just buy an iPhone with functions: camera, telephone, MP3, and even Internet explore system, instead of purchasing extra equipments to have the functions. This design concept helps a different era of technology and opens another page of quality of live as well. Functionalism principle in architecture area is focused on the benefits from the design of structure, material and systemic usage. Space is a site for human interaction, dealings, rituals, games and spectacles. These actions determine the spatial design to a great extent and the spatial features influences the user and the functions. Designing space with multifunction makes the existing space with maximized utilization.

When the parts of a building are arranged according to a sense of their use, when aesthetic space becomes living space and this is the kind of order called dynamic. The building throws off the fetters of the old, static order, etc., and achieves a new starting point. Through a suitability of material, stable equilibrium, free from constraints and stabilization to function, a building achieves much broader and better inner unity. It becomes more organic by abandoning the old conventions and formalisms of representation. Therefore, no wonder that architects tried to exploit the possibilities of functionalism to the full. Architecture is no more than a fixed and visible structure of the final organization of every movement, every purpose and use of the building. It is no small architectural achievement, absolutely free and open to every possible combination, and not just in a mechanical sense- "two doors in a long corridor" - but with the aim of achieving the finest and most ambitious organization and best possible construction.

To plan for many land uses within Singapore - the small island is to achieving sustainable urban development. In addition to uses like housing, commerce and industry, the plans have to cater for defence, waste disposal and water needs, as well facilities to support the purposes of the plans as a major air hub and as one of the largest container ports in the world.

Singapore Government - Urban Redevelopment Authority uses a Concept Plan, which is a strategic land use and transportation plan to map out the vision for Singapore in the next 40 to 50 years. This concept ensures that future development balances economic growth with environmental stewardship and social progress. As Singapore becomes more built-up, parks and open spaces become increasingly important to provide relief as well as to promote community interaction. Today, Singapore is known as a Garden City. However, it would like to move towards becoming a City in a Garden. `Expand our space' - Park connectors are introduced to link town centres ; sports complexes and homes to all major parks and the coast around the island - Bishan Park and Bedok Reservoir Park. These serve as green corridors for cycling, jogging and the general enjoyment of nature for people to improving their life of quality by adding the design element - multifunction. The plan uses multifunction to support as a foundation of the Concept Plan. With a small land size and practically no natural resources, Singapore faces a challenging of transformation occurring.

Making Singapore becomes an economically vibrant city that is also one of the most livable cities in Asia. It is important to focus on designing with multifunction for improving the living quality. Facing the problems in Singapore: no natural resources, limited land space, increasing population, design and make the land plans is really a tough job.

Multifunction can sharpen the limited space become alive and fully utilization also enhances the facility of unused space. Singapore is a small island city-state with a cosmopolitan population. With a small land size and practically no natural resources, Singapore faces a challenging of transformation occurring. It is important to focus on designing with multifunction for improving the living quality. Hence, an increasing pressure on interior designers to provide functional facilities that maximize the use of interior space and permit it to serve more than one limited programmatic requirement.

Works Cited 

1 - Page 5, Porter, Tom. (1997) The Architect's Eye : Visualization And Depiction Of Space In Architecture. London ; New York : E & FN Spon

2 - Page 129, Porter, Tom. (1997) The Architect's Eye : Visualization And Depiction Of Space In Architecture. London ; New York : E & FN Spon

120 - Page 137 Behne, Adolf (1996) The modern functional building Santa Monica, CA : Getty Research Institute for the History of Art and the Humanities

137 - Page 137 Behne, Adolf (1996) The modern functional building Santa Monica, CA : Getty Research Institute for the History of Art and the Humanities

530 - Page 530 Marvin Trachtenberg and Isabelle Hyman. Architecture: from Prehistory to Post-Modernism.

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