History And Culture Of Singapore Cultural Studies Essay

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In the early century Singapore was known by many different name. It is also called as trade port. This Island was ruled by many kingdoms . The name of Singapore keeps on changing as the Kingdom change But in 13 century the price Sirivijaya landed on this island and he saw a very Strange creatures that was Lion . Then he thought to name this island 'SINGAPORA' which means land of lions in Sanskrit language . Then in year 1613 the price was killed by Portuguese. I 1819 the British rule this island. Slowly -Slowly it became a major trade city between India and china.

Then it trade in Southeast Asia. Then in 14 century Singapora had a struggle between Siam and Majapahti empire . The majapahti empire ruled for several years on Singapore. Then majapathi founded sultanate of Johor and started trading port to sultanate and then in 15 century Johor lama was the new capital of Singaora .In 1587 Portuguese killed the Johor.

During World War 2 it was ruled by Japanese empire from year 1942 to 1945 . But after world war over again it was ruled by British . Lots of fights and disputes was there for Singapore but 9 august 1965 it became the independent republic. In the year 1959 Singapore Adopted coats of arms of Singapore. This symbol was also presented by national assembly to minister of culture and the national assembly approved it in November 1959 . On the 3rd December 1959 it is presented first time in people. Singapore used the same coat of arms that was used by the united kingdom .

The monetary authority of Singapore made an issue of second series of coins . The name of Singapore was placed on the coin in four official language ( Chinese , Malay , English and Tamil ). The dollar was presented in same pattern in 1987 .

Earlier Singapore government was facing lots of problems regarding social and economic. But then they made a strategy to encourage local investors and foreign trade .The government started Chinese language in the school and they started giving more importance to Chinese people and language by this lots of Chinese business man started their business in Singapore Between 1965 to 1979 Singapore was attacked by Indonesian military .So to save themselves they joined United Nations and became the 117 member of Commonwealth . Then the government of Singapore started building lots of houses, investing lots of new business, industries etc. Then this island nation was building a good image throughout the world and then it is known as island to the country. Singapore also attracts the big oil companies like Shell and Esso and became 3rd largest country in the world. Then the government started improvement in the education system for the people and started more practically work. By this people were getting more knowledge of everything.

Then in year 1980 to 1990 Singapore continues his economic growth . Earlier the growth of GDP (Gross Domestic Product) was about 3% but in the year 1980's it was about 8%. Then they started investing lots of higher technology like Wafer Fabrications , lots of new public housing were made with towns , new large apartments and buildings were made with good and better service. They started cheaper labors to compete with their neighbors . In the year 1981 they built up an airport that was Singapore Changi airport and Singapore airline was became an international airlines. And after that it became a tourist spot lots of tourist started coming to Singapore. The government started giving lots of service and amenities to tourist so buy this it became the major destination of tourists. About 80% to 90% lives in HDB apartments. Then in1984 Singapore became Non-Constituency member of parliaments and in year 1988 Group Representation Constituency made

In the year 2000 Singapore faced lots of problems like SARA breaks and there was an attacked by the terrorist by this attack the infrastructure of Singapore became unbalanced Then the government made major counter - terrorism force this was the force which made to finish the terrorism. Then in year 2004 lots of new hotel and resorts , casinos etc built up and lots of National service were there . In year 2007 Singapore is selected the host of Youth Olympic Games of year 2010 and Singapore will contesting all 26 sports.


Singapore is very attractive place .It has lots of things to visits .Singapore is now known as tourists main attractions. In every year about millions of visitors visit Singapore and in year 2008 the numbers of visitors were about 10 million and by year 2015 the government of Singapore is expecting the numbers of visitors about 30 million per year . The tourists are more attracted by the beauty of Singapore , colonial history , major industries. Tourists can see various kinds of cultural and heritage programs. Multi-story shopping Centre and hotels .In Singapore they have lots of zoo and open night safaris for the tourists, Singapore flyer, under water Singapore world, national orchid garden, Singapore science garden, Singapore art museum, sky tower, civilian war memories, china town, Victoria theater, musical fountains, read bridge, jazz south bridge, national museum of Singapore etc.

Night safaris is the world first wild life park and it has been eight -time winner for best visitors attraction .It's about 40 hectare park and in this about 1,000 animals of above 115 species . The main focus of the Singapore government is to safe the Threatened species . They also have a dance presentation every day when u go for the safari .The animals which are here is Malayans tigers , Asian lions , fishing cats , Asian Elephants , red dholes etc . Their main focus is to entertain tourists and tell them about the new species of the animals .

Singapore flyer it is the world largest observation wheel and it is about 165 m high from the ground and its about 32 minute ride and when you in the top of the flyer you can see about 45 km far and you can catch a sight of Malaysia and Indonesia . It is also known as breath taking ride and it is located at Raffles avenue.

Underwater Singapore world it is situated on sentosa island . It has 2500 marine and 250 different spices all over the world . It was open in year 1919 and 30 million have been visited till now . It's in the bottom of the sea and its starts from the edge of sea . It's a tunnel shape and its about 83 meter long moving . They also have Dive program me in which tourists can swim with dolphins . They have sea dragon, different types of sharks , jelly fish etc and also have tunnel housing majestic rays. The current theme of underwater is living fossils . They also have the facilities of message and spa , therapy . They also gave the facilities of warm pool .

National orchid garden . In garden we can find about 700 species of plants and flowers and its on height of the hill in Singapore garden . It was open in 20 October 1995 . The area in which its consists of is about 3 hectares of land . It consists of hybrid plants which are very rare in the world and hybrids have 1,000 species . The national orchid garden have very unique tree which make him more attractive and Charming . The main thing of orchid its design which is made in 4 session and each Session consist of 4 seasons . The spring zone consists of bright colors and lovely Shades like yellow and gold , cream . The summer zone consist of dark colors like red and pink . The winter zone consists of white and blue colors . The autumn has maturated colors.

National museum of Singapore has the history of since 18th century. It is the oldest and Youngest thing in the Singapore. It was designed for the people and to the people. It has 11 national treasures . It also tell us the history and culture of Singapore . It is Also known as the icon of Singapore . Museum also host various kind of festival and cultural activities per year and also have the amazing performance and film screening and night festivals . These performances are supported by worldwide range of facilities and services . National museum of Singapore was under - redevelopment for 3 years and it has been re-opened in year of 2006 .

Geography and Climate


Singapore consists of the main island of Singapore and 58 smaller island, more than 20 of them in habited. Singapore is small island in southeast Asia located at the tip of the Malaysia Peninsula between Malaysia and Indonesia. This island shaped like diamond and it is quite small . Its geographical location is 96km north of the equator. This country is only 42km long and 23km wide with a coastline measuring 138km. Singapore has total landmass of 646sq km. It is separated from Indonesia by the Singapore Strait and from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor.

Singapore is also called as a concrete jungle because more than 90% of population lives in flats.


Singapore's demographic population was around 4.48 million as estimated by the last census in 2005. This is the 2nd most populated independent country after Monaco. Singapore is a multicultural country with the high population of Chinese immigrants. In year 2000 the annual growth rate of population was 2.8%.


The climate is equatorial, with uniformly high temperatures, high humidity or mean annual rain fall of 2,463mm. The highest ever recorded rainfall is 512mm. The hottest month is May and June. This is due to light winds and strong sunshine during those months. The highest recorded temperature is 36 degree Celsius in 1998 and the lowest recorded temperature is 19.4 degree Celsius in 1934. The driest month is July. With an average rain fall is 70 mm.

Climate of Singapore is usually humid and sometimes rainy. Temperature lies between 20 degrees Celsius to 26 degree Celsius. In Evening temperature goes bit low than that.

Humid level reaches up to 90% to down 60-70% and average is 80-85%.

There are four seasons in Singapore:

North east monsoon season

This season comes between December to march and during this season rain becomes moderate to hard from 1 to 3 days extension. Wind speeds are from 20km/hr to 40km/hr.

Pre South-West Monsoon

This season comes from April to May. This season is a combination of heavy rains and thunders.

South-West Monsoon Season

This season comes from June to September.

Pre North-East Monsoon

This season comes from October to November.


Singapore is a heavily built up society and it is no unexpected that its physical environment has changed very much. As a result, very few people know that many types of rocks are found on their island. Singapore is mainly made of sandstone and mudstones. It also includes the southwestern area. Metamorphic rocks are found in the northeastern part of Singapore and also on Pulau Tekong off the east coast of Singapore. The rocks are mainly made up of quartzite and also make up the Sajahat Formation.

In late 2004, many parts of Asia and Africa were attacked by the Indian Ocean earthquake and the resulting tsunami. Singapore was by chance protected by the Sumatra landmass, which turns the attack of the tsunami.

Current affairs


The politics of Singapore take place in a frame work of a parliamentary republic.whereby the Prime Minister of Singapore is the head of government, and of a dominant-party system. Executive poweris exercised by the government. Like many countries in the world today, there are three separate branches of government, namely the Legislature, Executive and Judiciary.

Legislative power is vested in both the government and the Parliament of Singapore. The legislature is the parliament, which consists of the president as its head and a single chamber whose members are elected by popular vote. The role of the president as the head of state has been, historically, largely ceremonial although the constitution was amended in 1991 to give the president some veto powers in a few key decisions such as the use of the national reserves and the appointment of key judiciary positions.

Political background:

Singaporean politics have been dominated by the People's Action Party (PAP) since the 1959 general election when Lee Kuna Yew became Singapore's first prime minister (Singapore was then a self-governing state within the British Empire). The PAP has been in government ever since. Singapore left the Commonwealth in 1963 to join the Federation of Malaysia, but was expelled from the Federation in 1965 after Lee Kuan Yew disagreed with the federal government in Kuala Lumpur. The Economist Intelligence Unit classes Singapore as a "hybrid" country, with authoritarian and democratic elements.

"Singapore Rebel" and was threatened with a lawsuit for making a "politically partisan" film, which is illegal in Singapore.

Sport events:

The Singapore Sports Council (Abbreviation: SSC; Simplify Chinese: æ-°åŠ å¡ä½“育理事会; Malay: Majlis Sukan Singapore) is Singapore's lead agency tasked with developing a holistic sports culture for the nation. Formed in 1973, the SSC creates opportunities for people to excel in sports; opportunities for people to be engaged in sports as, coaches, officials, volunteers or fans; and opportunities for people to do business in sports as sponsors and investors. The SSC has changed the way Singaporeans view and participate in sports. Through sports, we now have an enhanced national identity thanks to our sports participation programmes; greater national pride as a result of high performance results at international and regional games; and more diversified economic stability through our vibrant sports industry initiatives.


Chairman: Mr. Richard Seow

Deputy Chairman: Mr Cheah Kim Teck

Members: Ms Sum Chee Wah, Dr Benedict Tan, Mr Low Teo Ping, Mr Lee Hong Chuang, Dr Janice Khoo, Dr Saiful Nizam, Mr Bernard Tan, Mr Yam Ah Mee, Colonel Chia Choon Hong, Ms Ong Toon Hui, Dr Teo-Koh Sock Miang, Mr Andreas Sohmen-Pao

Senior Management

Chief Executive Officer: Mr Oon Jin Teik

Chief Financial Officer & Chief, Strategic and Financial Management Group: Ms Goh Fang Min

Chief, Sports Development Group and Singapore Sports Institute: Mr Robert Gambardella

Chief, Sports Facilities Group: Mr Kenneth Hui

Chief, Organisation Strategy and Development Group: Ms Lynette Lim

Partner in Sports

Singapore Pools has a long tradition of sports sponsorship and recognizes the important role that sports play in the lives of Singaporeans. From building sports facilities, funding programmes of National Sports Associations and sporting activities for the masses to sending athlete contingents to compete in international sporting events, Singapore Pools is involved in one way or another.

With its contribution to the Sporting Singapore Fund towards realising our national vision of Sporting Singapore, Singapore Pools is proud to be synonymous with sports in Singapore. Be it nurturing aspiring young talents or spurring experienced sportsmen towards greater excellence.

Sports and Recreation Centres

Below is the list of Sports and Recreation Centres that are managed by SSC

Bishan Sports and Recreation Centre

Bedok Sports and Recreation Centre

Bukit Gombak Sports and Recreation Centre

Choa Chu Kang Sports and Recreation Centre

Clementi Sports and Recreation Centre

Delta Sports and Recreation Centre

Geylang Sports and Recreation Centre

Hougang Sports and Recreation Centre

Jalan Besar Sports and Recreation Centre

Jurong East Sports and Recreation Centre

Jurong West Sports and Recreation Centre

Kallang Sports and Recreation Centre

Queenstown Sports and Recreation Centre

Sengkang Sports and Recreation Centre

Serangoon Sports and Recreation Centre


The economy of Singapore is a developed country and highly developed state capitalist market economy. The state controls and owns firms that comprise at least 60% of the GDP through government entities such as the sovereign wealth fund Temasek. It has an open business environment, relatively corruption-free and transparent, stable prices, and one of the highest per capita gross domestic products (GDP) in the world. Its innovative yet steadfast form of economics that combines economic planning with free-market has given it the nickname the Singapore Model. Exports, particularly in electronics and chemicals, and services provide the main source of revenue for the economy, which allows it to purchase natural resources and raw goods which it does not have. Singapore could thus be said to rely on an extended concept of entrepot trade, by purchasing raw goods and refining them for re-export, such as in the wafer fabrication industry and oil refining. Singapore also has a strategic port which makes it more competitive than many of its neighbours to carry out such entrepot activities. The Port of Singapore is the busiest in the world, surpassing Rotterdam and Hong Kong. In addition, Singapore's port infrastructure and skilled workforce, which is due to the success of the country's education policy in producing skilled workers, is also fundamental in this aspect as they provide easier access to markets for both importingand exporting, and also provide the skill(s) needed to refine imports into exports.

On 14 February 2007, the Singapore government announced that economic growth for the whole year of 2006 was 7.9%, higher than the originally expected 7.7%. Singapore's unemployment rate is around 2.2% as on 20th Feb, 2009 As of August 8th, 2010, Singapore is the fastest growing economy in the world, with a growth rate of 17.9% for the first half of 2010.

Etiquettes in Singapore

Business Etiquettes:

Singapore's people are very conscious on money and business meeting dates.

Singaporeans go direct to the main matter of the meetings.

Singaporeans are taken many decisions of business very quickly.

In Singapore people are very punctual about their business meetings. If they are late for meeting they inform before the time of appointment.

It is rude and disrespectful to being late on meetings without any notice.

Information and details are deliver only when it is requested.

Never answer too quickly when someone asked any question because they may be miss the correct answer.

The correct way to give answer for any question is to take at least 15seconds and think. Not to repeat the answer.

Singaporeans always give their business card on first meeting.

Dining Etiquettes:

Singaporeans do not take any appetizers, soups or anything to drink before eating or dining.

Everything is set on the table along with the dishes and food while Singaporeans have their meal.

In Singapore usually do not like to give tips after their meal because they do not want to impress other people around them as people of other Asian countries are do.

Usually at the social dinners Singaporeans neither likes to share their food with others nor touching there plate with other eating utensils.

Singaporeans specially likes to eat with thin end of the chopsticks but they use thick side of chopstick to get food from the big or main dishes.

Body Language:

To get someone's attention you should raise your hand.

Avoid touching of head by anyone because Singaporeans believe that head is sacred.

Singaporeans do not point anything with their feet because they think feet are at the bottom of our body and seen as dirty.

Singaporeans do not place their hands on the hips while talking to someone because they consider it as the symbol of anger.

Singaporeans do not blow their nose or clear their throat at public places because these are the sign of rudeness.

If you yawn it is better to cover your mouth with your hands.

It is appropriate to put your knee over the other while you crossing your legs.

Everyday Living:

To tell jokes to any person is not good until you do not know him/her very well because he/she may misunderstand the jokes.

Never start any conversation on religions or politics with any person.

Do not demonstrate affections like kissing and hugging between couples in public areas.

Be calm and do not show anger in public areas.

At social events or other occasions shake hand appropriately with everyone. Shake hands with nice and strong grip with anyone.

Singaporeans may not have eye contact with people they meet. By this they show respect to their elders and persons of higher rank.

Singaporeans usually greet people by saying "Where are you going'' or "Have you eaten'' in place of typical greeting such as "How are you" or "Good Morning".