General Overviews Amongst Philosophers Revolutions Cultural Studies Essay

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Jean Baudrillard is among the philosophers revolutionized all old traditional beliefs in twentieth and twenty-first centuries. He is a French philosopher whose works expand in various fields of studies like social, cultural, literary, and he is also famous for the replacement of the past notion of thought with his own novel one. Douglas Kellner in Baudrillard Now about the greatness and influences of Baudriilard says that he is an "extremely prolific author who published more than 50 books" and has commented on many of the current notions and phenomena of the contemporary postmodern era (17). Kellner in Baudrillard: A Critical Reader by referring to this matter claims that Baudrillard is well-known as "the prophet of the postmodernism" (1).

Jean Baudrillard was born in the cathedral town of Remis, France in 1929. He was the first person in his family who attended university and received a degree at there. He left his family to go to Paris and then attended Sorbonne University to study German. After graduation in 1956, he began working as a professor of secondary education in a French high school (Lycee) and in early 1960s did editorial work for the French publisher Suil. In 1966, he entered university of Paris, Nanterre and changed his subject of study to sociology. He defended his dissertation on System of Object, got his doctorate degree, and after that began to teach sociology. Then in 1986 he moved to IRIS (Institut de Recherche et d'Information Socio-Économique) at the Université de Paris-IX Dauphine, where he spent the latter part of his teaching career as a professor of sociology. Paris-IX Nanterre University was the political center of radical movement of that time and Baudrillard's involvement as a teacher and later professor in the political parties was inevitable. In May 1968, he associated in the uprisings of students which led to a strike that almost drove French President from power and had a great influence on him and his writing.

Another main influence on him was his translation of literature. As a Germanist he published many essays on literature and from 1962 to 1963, translated works of Peter Weiss and Bertolt Brecht into French, and wrote a book on revolutionary movements of Wilhelm Mühlmann. Richard J. Lane in Jean Baudrillard declares that these translations makes Badurillard to explore the performance of Marxism analysis in works of art and becomes familiar with French thinker Georges Bataille who has a great influence on his theory (4). During this time he met Henri Lefebvre who guide him in his dissertation and impressed him by his theory of everyday life. He also met Ronald Barthes whose semiological analysis of contemporary society has an ever lasting influence on him. He died on March 6, 2007 in Paris at the age of 77 after a long fight with cancer.

Baudrillard started his writing in 1960s by publishing The System of Object (1968) which traces of critical sociology under the influence of Lefebvre and Barthes are clear in it. Mark Poster in his introduction in Baudrillard Selected Writings states that The System of Object is a comprehensive rethinking of the "thesis of consumer society from a neo-Marxist prospective" (2). This interest of Baudrillard in the role of objects in human social life was the introduction to write his second book, Consumer Society in 1970. As the title shows Baudrillard in Consumer Society introduced a new consumer society based on codes in the field of sociology and economics. Poster declares that Baudrillard by using sociological analysis reveals that "consumer objects constitute a system of signs that differentiate the population" (3). Traces of Marxism in his first two books are unquestionable as he lived at the time of flourishing this movement among scholars and thinkers. But he created a new theory by adding a radical theory of language to his Marxist belief and wrote his third book, For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign in 1972.

Kellner in Baudrillard: A Critical Reader points that Baudrillard in For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign (1972) uses semiological analysis to "dissect the system of signs that produces a hierarchy of prestige and status through the differential use and display of consumer goods" (5). Later Baudrillard became tired of using Marxism as a background of his writing, and changed his path and turned against and attacked on it in his fourth book, The Mirror of Production in 1973. He also turned completely his prospective in Symbolic Exchange and Death in 1976. Moreover, in this book for the first time he initiated the three orders of simulacra as a "parallel to mutation in the law of value" that has started from Renaissance:

1 The counterfeit is the dominant scheme of the "classical" epoch, from Renaissance to the industrial revolution.

2 Production is the dominant scheme of industrial era.

3 Simulation is the dominant scheme of the present phase of history, governed by the code. (SW, 135)

And he concluded that each order follows a kind of value which is different from one another. The first one works on "natural law of value", the second one acts based on "commodity law of value", and the last one plays on "structural law of value" (SW, 135). He did not give any more explanation about the nature and process of making these orders up to Simulation and Simulacra in 1981. But before writing Simulation and Simulacra, in 1979 he published On Seduction.

After using the Nietzsche's critique in his book, he once more shifted his prospective in Simulation and Simulacra (1981) and introduced a new world which is based on copy, a hyperreal world. In this book, Baudrillard views the post-modern society as a market of the senses made up of a litany and never-ending exchange of reproduction he has defined as "simulacra". He reached to this simulated world by redefining of the three orders of simulacra in the very beginning of Simulation and Simulacra (1981). Richard Lane in Jean Baudrillard describes the last order of Baudrillard's simulacra as "blurring of the boundaries between true and false" (88).

Like the essays within this book which become one of the main sources in media culture researches and critiques and presents the novel ideas of Baudrillard, Fatal Strategies in 1983 is another turning point in his itinerary. Kellner in Baudrillard: A Critical Reader describes it as a bizarre text which concerning "the triumph of objects over subjects within the "obscene" proliferation of an objects world so completely out of control that it surpasses all attempts to understand, conceptualize, an control it" (21). Here he wanted us to put aside subjects and take side of objects, which is a dominant theme in most of his writings.

After this book, during the 1990s and until his death he continued to write short journal entries and published five volumes of Cool Memories: Cool Memories (1990), Cool Memories II (1996), Fragments. Cool Memories III, 1990-1995 (1995) and Cool Memories IV, 1995-2000 (2000). These texts combine reflections on his travels and experiences with development of his ideas and perceptions. His other works which are a continuance of his excursions into the metaphysics of the object and defeat of the subject and ironical engagement with contemporary history and politics include: The Transparency of Evil (1990), The Gulf War did not take place (1991), The Illusion of the End (1992), The Perfect Crime (1995), Impossible Exchange (1999), The Spirit of Terrorism: And Requiem for the Twin Towers (2002), Screen Out (2002), The Intelligence Evil or the Lucidity Pact (2005), and The Conspiracy of Art (2005).

Beside the vast amount of his writings, Baudrillard's popularity and importance is because of his great influence on authors and scholars. Don Delillo is one of the writers who subconsciously use Baudrillard's theory in his works. Delillo was born on November 20, 1936, grew up in Bronx which is an Italian neighborhood, and rose with the strong catholic creed which mingled with his art. From very beginning he started reading Dracula, Faulkner, and Joyce which made him to interest in language and words. He himself in an interview said that he did not get his source from reading books, but he was under influence of three things: "European Movies, Jazz, and Abstract Expressionism" (July, 2007, 3). In 1958 he earned his B.A. in Communication Arts from Fordham College and in 1971 his first novel, Americana, was published. His second novel End Zone in 1972 and third one Great Jones Street in 1973 was published. In 1975 he married Barbara Bennett and in the next year wrote his fourth novel, Ratner's Star. In 1980s he wrote four novels: in 1980 Amazon, in 1982 The Names, in 1988 Libra and in 1985 White Noise his breakthrough. This novel puts his name in the cannon of postmodernist novelist and he won National Book Award. In 1991 he wrote Mao II which becomes his best seller novel and in 1997 his epic cold war historic one Underworld which is his most acclaimed novel. But his way of writing completely changed in 2000s. In this decade he has a turn back to his early way of writing and his works become more concise and complicated. The Body Artist in 2001, Cosmopolis in 2003, and Falling Man in 2007 are among these fresh and complex novels. His last novel is Point Omega which was supposed to be published in February 2010.

Peter Boxall, in Cambridge Companion to Don Delillo, says Delillo's fiction offers a means of "observing and articulating an entire culture" and he uses words to make a world "to build an American edifice" (43). Boxall also claims that there are three different ways to interpret Delillo's works: as a sample of "postmodern writer"; a representative of "redeeming culture"; and an example of showing "aesthetic silence" (45-7).

Mark Binelli in an interview with Don Delillo in July 2007 notes that he creates a world in which the mode of production with modernism has given way to the postmodernism mode of information in which TV shapes perceptions and creates its own self-referential world (3). He claims that Delillo's novels probe the "limits of representation" and forge new ways of "presenting the unpresentable" (3). He also says that his characters or artistic figures find themselves searching and grouping for the new ways to express their artistic concern and formulate "sneak attack on the dominant culture" (3). Delillo in this interview says: "what I try to do is understand the currents flowing through the culture around us. That is where all the paranoia comes from my early novels" (1). In the question about the formation of his novels, he states that "I start my novel with just a visual image of something, a vague sense of people in 3D space" (1).

Yet about the creation of The Body Artist (2001) which is the major concern of this study he explains that "I imagined people at breakfast, who knows each other intimately, probably a husband and a wife, speaking in unfinished sentences, in grunts, in coughs …" (2). In an article in Times Magazine it is written that this specific work of Delillo shows the cinematic quality of his writing in the dialogue between a husband and a wife. In the novel (The Body Artist) two people are communicating but they do not really do it, since as they are talking past each other, engaging in conversations that are simultaneous soliloquies (http://www.Timesonline.co.uk).

The Body Artist is Delillo's compressed and poetic novel which narrates the life of an actor and filmmaker, Rey, who suffers from masquerade and lack of fix identity living with his writer wife, Lauren. They moved to stay in a house on the coast far from city to be alone. After a while Rey dies and Lauren becomes alone. After sometimes she seems to find a little man in her house who can produce the same sound as her husband. She names the man Mr. Tuttle after her school science teacher. Although she does not know if he is a real or unreal person, he acts as a source of inspiration for her to find her real self and to create her drama named, Body Time.

Like Delillo who was under influences of the novel trends of his time and especially Baudrillard, David Lynch experienced the same things. David Keith Lynch was born on January 20, 1946, in Missoula, Montana, and grew up the archetypal all-American boy. The son of a U.S. Department of Agriculture research scientist, he was raised throughout the Pacific Northwest, eventually becoming an Eagle Scout and even serving as an usher at John F. Kennedy's presidential inauguration. Originally intending to become a graphic artist, Lynch enrolled in the Corcoran School of Art in Washington, D.C., in 1963. He fell under the sway of expressionist painter Oskar Kokoschka and briefly studied in Europe which has a great effect on his way of directing. By the early weeks of 1966, he had relocated to Philadelphia, where he attended the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts and began his first experimentation with film.

He was also under influences of staying in Philadelphia because of its violence and decay, travelling around Europe in his young hood, and surrealistic pictures and paintings which make him well known as one of the pioneer in postmodern filmmaking. His first movie, Eraser Head, was broadcasted in 1972. His second one Blue Velvet in 1986 brings great world wide fame for him and establishes his name as a pioneer of new trend in filmmaking. In 1990 he directs Twin Peaks based on a serial with the same name produced by him. Lost Highway is his next movie directed in 1997 which tells a story of two people change their identity, face, and life accidently without any logical reason. He makes The Straight Story in 1999 based on a real story. Later he comes again to the first title of the film news by his Mulholland Dr. in 2001. He creates his last movie Inland Empire in 2007. His movies are good examples for standing audience in a hostile dream, obeying the logic of dreams, having no rational explanation for the events, presenting a singular dark and disturbing view of reality, and showing a nightmarish world punctuated by defining moments of extreme violence, bizarre comedy and strange beauty.

Thus, he is one of the new directors belonging to the new movement well known as postmodernism which makes a shift in the condition of conceptual possibility. Ritzer, in A World in Chaos: the Rise of Postmodern Cinema argues that a film culture in postmodern era is "appealing to too larger, more diversified audiences and possessing a strong variety of artistic impulses which manage to coexist with corporate priorities" (29). Another definition in Encyclopedia is that postmodern cinema emerges "as realism has been entirely disabused of its code" (129). Jean Baudrillard also, quoted in Encyclopedia, says that postmodern world is a "wash in imagination that have thrust us into the domain of simulation- a world not real but hyperreal, that is virtual, indifferent to verification" [(1983: 41), 130]. Therefore as a result of it, in postmodern movie the "real" event is given away to an imagined or "simulated" one.

Regarding to this way of thinking about recent era, Tom Pollard in A World in Chaos classifies postmodern cinema into five groups: "New Hollywood Auteurs"; "Beneath the Surface" which is associated with the new sensibility and reality of life; "Urban Chaos and Dystopic Future" related to the pessimistic view toward life and the appearance of antiheroes; "Death of the Hero"; and the last group in affinity with gender relations and sexuality in sphere of social life is "The Tormented Family" (76-105).

From these definitions and classifications, Lynch's Mulholland Dr. which is the concern of this study is placed in the second and fourth groups, since it both presents and defines a new reality for its characters and its heroin is in an everlasting struggle with and against her surrounding world that at the end causes her suicide. The movie is about an amnesiac and would be actress whose identities blur in a haunted Hollywood. Rita (an amnesiac) is survived from an accident and run into a home which belongs to Betty's aunt (would be actress). Betty helps Rita to search for her identity, while she is seeking for her career as an actress and meeting a young director named Adam Kesher. During their visit of Club Silencio, the movies' story is changed and continued to show the friendship of Diane (Betty) and Camilla (Rita) in a different time and space. It is finished by Diane's shooting herself in the moment of trauma.

2. Statement of the Problem

The researcher is exploring traces of Baudrillard's theories of haperreality and media-culture in a comparative way in D. Delillo's The Body Artist and D. Lynch's Mulholland Dr.. In The Body Artist Delillo creates a world which is based on merely "a copy without origin: a hyperreal" one regarding to Baudrillard's definition. In The Body Artist, the real world loses its meaning by changing to a simulation of itself which instead of real objects is full of simulacra. Lauren as the heroine of the novel not only lacks the ability to distinguish between the reality and illusion but she also by her actions reinforces the imploding of them. By her unconventional drama named Body Time she shows how reality can change since each performance is different from one another, and as she says to live in "overlapping of realities" (The Body Artist, 25). Thus, referring to Baudrillard's theory, she is a representative or better to say a simulacrum of media culture society.

The same destiny is invented for Betty (Diane) in Mulholland Dr. by David Lynch. Betty like Lauren is stuck in a world in which identifying the distinction between reality and illusion is too much difficult. Therefore, she is unable to react properly and her actions add more illusion to her world. She similar to Lauren is fascinated with the culture saturated by media and becomes perplexed to choose the real thing in the world which is blended the boundaries of true and false, reality and fantasy, a hyperreal one. Thus, based on this matter the mutual point of the two works is Baudrillard's theories of hyperreality and media-culture. Regarding the researcher's exploration of these two works, some questions are raised to be answered:

What are the primary elements of creating media-culture in each work according to Baudrillard's definition?

How does hypereal world come to exist in each work?

Are the main characters in each work trapped in the society saturated by media?

Why do people live in a hyperreal world referring to Baudrillrad? What is the role of media in creating a hyperreal world?

How does each work stand as an example of postmodern notions that create a hyperreal world in a media culture society?

What are the mutual points in Delillo's The Body Artist and Lynch's Mulholland Dr.?

Do the main characters of each work, regarding to Baudrillard's theory of hypereality, become a simulacrum?

3. Significance of the Study

Jean Baudrillard is a major figure in twentieth and twenty-first centuries, and he is famous for his vast fields of theories which analyze the new life of modern man in different epochs. His works range from Structuralism and Post-Structuralism to Marxism, from Marxism to neo-Marxism and some time anti-Marxism, he shifted his role from sociologist to cultural expert and from a philosopher to literary critic. While Baudrillard has worked and written in various fields of study, many M.A. theses are only concerned with the Marxism and social prospective of his theories and there is no specific thesis written based on the consideration of media culture and hypereality. Beside this matter, student usually has not studied his writings completely, since it is difficult to find them, read them in one try, and understand them properly. Works like Symbolic Exchange and Death (1976), Simulation and Simulacra (1981), and The Conspiracy of Art (2005) are among his complicated work which is written in ordinary and simple language, but it is hard to understand what really Baudrillard means by them.

The originality and freshness of the researcher's thesis is to use Baudrillard's theory as a bridge to relate literature with cinema. Two genres which seem are distinct, but have a lot of similarities forgotten by many critics and scholars. The very likeness of them is that both are written texts, yet in movie this written text becomes alive by acting, playing, and directing. Therefore, both follow the same way to reach their purposes. This connection becomes more apparent as the researcher use Baudrillard's theory to apply in them in a comparative way. Finding and proving the mutual points of Delillo's The Body Artist (2001) and Lynch's Mulholland Dr. (2001) in traces of Baudrillard's theory is a subject of study which is rare to be done in an M.A. thesis. This matter adds more importance to the novelty of the researcher's thesis and makes it one of the original and new investigations for a thesis.

4. Limitations and Delimitations

Baudrillard's works expand in various fields of studies from sociology to philosophy, and they are great in numbers. Covering all of them is not possible in an M.A. thesis. Therefore, the researcher is only examining Baudrillard's theories of hyperreality and media culture in his works. Delillo also writes fifteen novels plus five plays which makes him a very active writer. But in this study the researcher limits his investigation of Baudrillard's theory only in Delillo's The Body Artist (2001). On the contrary, Lynch has few works but among these few ones the researcher only chooses Mulholland Dr. (2001). In each work there are a lot of new postmodern elements for exploring, but the researcher just investigates those elements referring to Baudrillard's theories of hypereality and media culture.

5. Methodology

Since there is no consensus among theorists or philosophers for the exact time of postmodern emergence, once there is a discussion about the definition of postmodernism it brings immediately to mind ideas of fracturing, fragmentation, indeterminacy, and plurality which are generally distributed among people as the key features of postmodern period. Yet it is pivotal to identify that postmodernity is itself already a discourse that is fractured and fragmentary. Simon Malpas in The Postmodernism states that all the literary, cultural, and artistic movements that have come to be called postmodern can be traced back to the 1950s and 1960s (4). Malpas claims that even though its root have gone back to some earlier decades before 1950s, it actually was in the late 1970s, the 1980s, and the early 1990s that the term "postmodernism" and "post-modernity" became popular among scholars and in the world of cultural studies (5).Beside its fragmented structure which makes it impossible to define any particular definition and relates it to any concepts, there are some characteristic which are best suited for postmodernism. Charles. E. Bressler in Literary Criticism notes these characterizations as follows:

A skepticism or rejection of grand meta narrative to explain reality

The concept of the self as ever-changing

No objective reality, but many subjective interpretation

Truth as subjective and perspectival, dependent on culture, social, and personal influences

No "one correct" concept of ultimate reality

No meta-theory to explain text or reality

No "one correct" interpretation of a text. (101)

In contrary, according to Patricia Waugh in Cambridge History of Postmodernism, postmodernism is established as a range of aesthetic practices similarly disrupt the modernist concept of formal aesthetic autonomy and a variety of analyses of the present cultural mood and condition (293). She further states that postmodernism is broadly understood as a gradual replacement of discovery, depth, truth, correspondence and coherence with fictionality, self-reflexive narrative and ironic fragmentation where realism gives away to idealism (292). Baudrillard describes this situation as a condition of hyperreality where even art "is dead not only because its critical transcendence is gone, but because reality itself, entirely impregnated by an aesthetic which is inseparable from its structure, has been confused with its own image" (1985, 32).

Yet Alan How in Critical Theory defines postmodernism as the cultural changes in art in twentieth century which is accompanied with the "lack of fixity in the meaning of things on life in a consumer society" where the class deviation or traditional norms are not matter of classification anymore but it is based on "consumption of commodities" (144). He declares that Buadrillard presents a world which is "depthless and everything is as it is without having any reference" and the "punitive constraint of tradition" are broken down and liberate from modern convictions and turned toward "progress and conformity of the ideals that support it" (146). How says that it is this liberation of the media, TV channels, internet, and other tools which "produces information overload" and this overloading causes "the destabilizing of meaning in the world" (146). Furthermore, this overloading makes the people as subjects which are merged into information as objects, therefore, the image of real world existence with truth "has become problematic" (147). How points out that this interpretation of the epoch puts Baudrillard in a trace that he declares: "images are no longer tied to anything specific in the real world"; the world where "the mass media simulates reality to the point that reality, including ourselves, has to understood as a media product" (147). So How concludes that in Baudrillard's declaration there is no "real" independence of what is constructed by the media, and simulation is the overwhelming factor defining the era. How also gets to this result that in the process of simulation the image or representation of the "object" collides with the "real object" and the two implode or collapse into one another and therefore, destabilizing any fixed notion of real. And gradually a state of haperrreality has come into existence, where "what has been simulated, namely the model or representation, replaces any residual element of the real and become the real in its place" (147).

Baudrillard in Simulacra & Simulation (1981), notes that simulation is opposed to representation and works in a different way. He says that representation has its root in the standard of "equivalence of the sign and of the real" and tries to gather simulation by "interpreting it as a false representation", while simulation stems from the "utopia" of the principle of "equivalence and radical negation of the sign as value" and envelopes the whole "edifice of representation itself as a simulacrum" (1). Therefore, Baudrillard states that simulation is no longer that of "a territory, a referential being, or a substance"; it is the generation by models of a "real without origin or reality: a hyperreal" (1). In Selected Writing (2001) Baudrillard points that Hyperrealisim is only "beyond representation because it functions entirely within the realm of simulation", it is an integral part of a "coded reality which it perpetuates without modifying" (146).

Allen MendenHall, in an article named Castle on TV, defines hyperrreality as "the simulation of something that never really existed" that being practiced in a "virtual reality based on its non-reality" and it constitutes representations of the real that one perceives as the real itself (2). On the contrary, Bauaudrillard believes that hyperreal comes to existence not because of lack of its appearances, but since there is too much of it- "more real that real: the hyperreal" (1990, 11). In another word, hyperreality shows or represents a situation in an exaggerated way in which in the real condition such situation does not exist at all. MendenHall also states that media substitutes the real with signs and symbols of the real in such a way that people recognize only signs and symbols in today's culture (7). He argues that Baudrillard views these signs and symbols as made by media and accepted by people subconsciously and unintentionally and it is injected to the culture by media, too (8). Here Baudrillard expresses his theory: "the proliferation of communications through the media" and culture which is dominated by "simulation of objects and discourses that have no firm origin, no referent, no ground or foundation" (SW, 146).

Baudrillard claims that "the mass circulation of media images had transformed the world into a hall of mirrors, and led to an implosion of meaning" (S & S, 3). It can be understood from his claim that the idealism of communication through meaning is vanished by the implosion of contents, reality and representation, and representation and simulation. Thus in today's life there is no longer a fiction that life can confront, even surpass, "reality has placed over into the play of reality: hyperreality" (SW, 147). Thus, it can be concluded that Baudrillard introduces a postmodern society which is an area of simulation dominated by signs, codes, and models which are the organizing forms of a new social order where simulation rules and determines how individuals perceive themselves and relate to other people. Then it can be said that simulation operates not like a reflection of being and appearance, of the real and concept but of something nuclear and genetic which is operational not representational.

For clarifying the role of simulation in the society, Buadrillard elaborates three orders of simulacra in which each of them belongs to a specific epoch in human history. Baudrillard introduces these orders first in Symbolic Exchange and Death in 1976 and later in a complete way forms and explains them in Simulacra & Simulation in 1981. The first order of simulacra refers to signs and models which are naturally founded on the images, on imitation and counterfeit whose aim is "to restitute or ideally institute all images made in God's nature" (S & S, 81). This stage belongs to the early modern period, from the Renaissance to the Industrial Revolution. The next order is the simulacra which are productively founded on energy and its manifestation are based on the machine and production system. Duration of this epoch is from the Industrial Revolution up to the middle of 20th century (S & S, 81). The last order of the simulacra is of simulations which are founded on "information, the models, the cybernetic game" whose characteristics are totally being operational and hyperreal (S & S, 82). This period refers to the present time which is dominated by the simulations, things that have no origin or prototype. Baudrillard introduces the era of the model and code, computers, virtual reality, and the death of the real: just there is "simulation of reality: hyperreality" (S & S, 82).

So hyperreality is a result or consequence of a simulated society. To clarify his definition of the hyperreal world he urges an example of Jurge Luis Borges fable Empire whose cartographers create a map so detailed that covers the very things and the exact territory as it was designed to represent the reality. When the Empire declines, map fades into the landscape and what remains is neither "the representation nor the real: it is just a hyperreal" (S & S, 1). Baudrillard makes an analogy of this fable with today society and reaches to the death of the real and emergence of hyperreal:

Today abstraction is no longer that of the map, the double, the mirror, or the concept. Simulation is no longer that of a territory, a referential being, or a substance. It is the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal. The territory no longer precedes the map, nor does it survive it. It is nevertheless the map that precedes the territory- precession of simulacra- that engenders the territory, and if one must return to the fable, today it is the territory whose shreds slowly rot across the extent of the map. It is the real, and not the map, whose vestiges persist here and there in the deserts that are no longer those of the Empire, but ours. The desert of the real itself. (S & S, 1)

Another example which he uses to explain the hyperreal world is Disneyland which is a perfect model of all the entangled order of simulacra. Since Disneyland miniaturizes the pleasure of real America by creating a microcosm of the world in itself, it wants people to believe that what is inside is not real and what is outside of Disneyland is true and real. But actually there is no longer any thing real outside, "everything belongs to the hyperreal and the order of simulacra" (S & S, 3).

In other words, hyperreality is a condition in which the distinction between the real and the imaginary implodes. That is where Buadrillard states that real is fictional, "a fantasy generated by doubling the signs of un-locatable reality" (S & S, 82). In this prospective, it is impossible to isolate the process of the real, to prove the real. Referring to the third order of simulacra, Baudrilard argues that the world of man's living is replaced by a copy world where he seeks "simulated stimuli" and nothing more (S & S, 1). The very reason for this change is the emergence of Media-culture in which people achieve information and each other from lens and prospective of media and it is media images which made them "stay far from reality of their selves and real worlds" (S & S, 2). Finally it can be concluded that Baudrillard does not manifest something unreal but further he only defines his own age saturated by information, a Media- Culture, and full of simulation and simulacra that leads to a hyperreal world.

In contrast to all mentioned before that Baudrillard by himself has determined his theory, William Merrin in Baudrillard and the Media points that Baudrillard gets his thought from Durkheim tradition. He also notes that Baudrillard is "standing as its foremost contemporary representative, reviving their ideas and radically updating and extending their critique" (12). Rejecting the simulacrum as a new postmodern concept, Merrin states that Baudrillard's The system of objects (1987) is a presentation of a Durkheimian analysis: "what Baudrillard does is a reformation and extension of this analysis of the loss of the sacred by his original analysis of the contemporary dominance of the semiotic and its impact on human relation" (17). Therefore, Merrin does not accept the originality of Baudrillard's theory, while he confirms the novelty of it. So, it is undeniable that Budrillard introduces a new hyperreal world and argues that the world of man's living is replaced by a copy world where he seeks simulated stimuli and nothing more. And it is the emergence of the simulation and simulacra that cause the creation of this hyperreal world.

6. Review of Literature

The very first time that Delillo's name related to Baudrillard's theories of hyperreality and media culture is in his breakthrough novel, White Noise (1985). John Frow in an article in South Atlantic Quarterly was the first to elucidate the connection between White Noise and Baudrillardian simulacra, arguing that the replacement of originals by simulations has worked both to pervert and preserve American myths of origins and authenticity. One of the main forces behind this shift, Frow argues, is television, which, along with the consumer capitalism it serves, reduces all phenomena to mere information [89: 2 (Summer 1990)].

Although other critics, most notably Leonard Wilcox, have also interpreted the novel through Baudrillardian paradigms, perhaps the most extreme statement of this viewpoint is that of John Duvall in an article in Arizona Quarterly that White Noise is "an extended gloss ... on Baudrillard's notion of consumer society" [50: 3 (Autumn 1994)]. Duvall makes the radical claim that consumer society, which pretends to foster free choice, actually inhibits it and thereby promotes a "protofascist" system that recapitulates the abuses of Nazi Germany. Like Frow, Duvall concentrates on television, which inverts the relationship between mediated and immediate experiences, so that only what is broadcast by the media seems real. But after these commentaries on White Noise, no one seriously investigates and examines Delillo's other works in the light of Baudrillard's theory.

Like Delillo, Lynch's movies Tom Pollard states in A World in Chaos are analyzed based on postmodern elements of auteur director and a good example for it is his Blue Velvet in 1987. Yet there is no special critical analysis of Lynch's Mulholland Dr. (2001) based on Baudrillard's theory. Since Lynch is a rebellious director who makes a new world in each movie, exploring new trend is not an easy task to be done for many critics and this aspect of his works remains unattached till now.

6. Definition of Key Terms

Hyperreality: Hyperreality is coined with Baudrillard name, but in Oxford Dictionary it is defined as "the quality of being real or having an actual existence and the distinction between real and imaginary implode". Baudrillard defines it as "the generation by models of a real without origin or reality: a hyperreal" or "more real than real: a hyperreal" (Simulation & Simulacra, 1).

Media-Culture: Baudrillard explains Media-Culture as the society which "the media carry meaning and counter meaning. They manipulate in all directions at once, nothing can control this process, they are the vehicle for the simulation internal to the system and the simulation that destroy system …" (Selected Writings, 146). He says that "Culture now is dominated by simulation objects and discourses that have no firm origin, no referent, no ground or foundation"; it is a culture with the "proliferation of communication through the media" and the "challenges to the meaning that comes from media and its fascination" (Selected Writings, 146).

Simulation: Simulation in Oxford Dictionary is defined as the "blending of reality and representation that there is no clear indication of where the former stop or the latter begins". Yet Baudrillard describes Simulation as "opposed to representation" which "stems from the radical negation of the sign as value" and "envelopes the whole edifice of representation itself as a simulacrum" (Simulation & Simulacra, 1).

Simulacrum: Simulacrum is defined as a copy with no original in Oxford Dictionary. Baudrillard asserts that its aspect is not only to create illusion but also "to stimulate demand for it" (Simulation & Simulacra, 3).

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